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ANNALS OF OPERA 
1597-1940 



COMPILED FROM THE 

ORIGINAL SOURCES 

BY 

ALFRED LOEWENBERG 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION 
BY 

EDWARD J. DENT 

Third edition, revised and corrected 




JOHN CALDER 

LONDON 

1978 



Published in Great Britain 1978 by 
John Calder (Publishers) Ltd, 
18 Brewer Street, London WiR 4AS 

Originally published in January 1943 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED 
1955 

REPRINTED AS ONE VOLUME 
1970 

THIRD EDITION, REVISED 
1978 

) 1955, 1978 EDITH LOEWENBERG 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

ISBN o 7145 3657 i 



Any paperback edition of this book whether published simultaneously 
with, or subsequent to, the hard bound edition is sold subject to the con- 
dition that it shall not, by way of trade, be lent, resold, hired out, or other- 
wise disposed of, without the publishers' consent, in any form of binding 
or cover other than that in which it is published. 

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system 
or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, 
photocopying, recording or otherwise, except for brief extracts for the 
purposes of review, without the prior written permission of the copyright 
owner and the publisher. 



Printed and bound in Scotland by Robert MacLehose and Co. Ltd, 
Printers to the University of Glasgow 



To the Memory of 

OSCAR GEORGE THEODORE SONNECK 
1873-1928 



PREFACE 

THE bulk of the present work was finished before the war broke out. For 
various reasons publication was delayed till now. In the meanwhile 
the manuscript has undergone considerable alterations and additions, 
and while the annals nominally close with the year 1940, references to still more 
recent revivals and publications have been included when of sufficient im- 
portance. 

The book is intended to be a skeleton history of opera, in dates and other facts. 
It is therefore arranged chronologically, but by means of the copious indexes 
it can also be used as a dictionary of operas. There are no descriptions of plots, 
no musical analyses, no personal critical comments. The facts are to speak for 
themselves, and every care has been taken to verify them so that they may serve 
as a safe ground on which to build a real history of opera, yet to be written. 
The selection of some three or four thousand operas out of a total number of — 
I dare not offer a guess, was also chiefly guided by objective historical principles. 
Of older operas, preferably such have been chosen as are still extant in one form 
or another; of more recent works, those have been selected that have*obtained 
success or attracted attention outside their countries of origin. Even so, the 
number of entries could easily have been doubled; but the book had to be kept 
within reasonable limits. 

The term 'opera is used here in its widest possible sense, covering both 
'grand opera' (as it is sometimes called), that is, opera with recitatives, and opera 
with spoken dialogue. Confining it to the former would result in omitting 
works like The Magic Flute and Carmen. Moreover, there are included examples 
of offshoots like the Italian intermezzo, the English ballad opera, the French 
vaudeville, the German 'melodrama' ; the pasticcio in its various types; border 
cases like Dassoucy's Andromede, Weber's Preciosa and Stravinsky's Histoire du 
Soldat; the modern operetta in different countries. Not included are plays with 
incidental music even by famous composers (such as Egmont or Peer Gyni), nor 
oratorios, cantatas, etc., unless they were at a later date presented in operatic 
form, such as Liszt's St. Elizabeth and Debussy's VEnfant Prodigue. 

It is stated on the titlepage that the book was 'compiled from the original 
sources.' That is to say, I did not rely upon second or third hand information. 
Whenever possible the dates and other particulars were collected from the 
original scores and librettos, from play-bills, contemporary newspapers and 
periodicals; next there came memoirs, letters and diaries, and die various 
bibliographical works, catalogues, and theatrical chronologies. For the more 
recent years, and for countries newspapers of which are not easily available, 
official publications of the opera-houses, and lists provided for the purpose by 
the authorities proved a great help. Here a certain inequality was unavoidable; 



VU1 PREFACE 

while I received from some towns, as for instance, Zagreb or Helsinki, all the 
information I required, it was in other cases impossible even to get an answer, 
as for instance from Bucharest. 

A few explanations of the methods employed in the arrangement of the book 
may find their appropriate place here. The entries are given in the chrono- 
logical order of their first performances. This implies that only such operas 
are recorded as were actually produced on the (public or private) stage, a rule 
which has been broken once or twice in exceptional cases (see for instance 
col. 297). The year of performance is always repeated at the top of the page, 
in order to simplify the task of finding a particular opera. Whenever possible, 
the exact day and month of the first performance are given. Where the day 
could not be established, the month or the season is indicated. Operas of which 
only the year of production is known are placed in the middle of that year. Of 
all the operas mentioned in these annals, John Blow's Venus and Adonis appears 
to be the only one of which even the year is uncertain; it has been tentatively 
inserted under 1684 for reasons which are explained in the entry. Dates in [] 
brackets are approximate, in most cases taken from dedications or licences in 
the librettos. 

The beginning of opera almost coincides with the introduction of the 
modern calendar, Gregorian style, in all Roman Catholic countries. The non- 
Catholic parts of Germany followed suit in 1700, other countries even later. 
All dates are given here according to one and the same system, viz. the Gre- 
gorian style. In this respect a word must be said about England and Russia, 
disregarding some cases of minor importance. 

In England the change of calendar took place in 1752. Wednesday, 2 Sep- 
tember of that year was followed by Thursday, 14 September. So the dates 
given in this book of performances in England before September 1752 will be 
found to differ from those quoted, for instance, by Burney, by 1 1 days in the 18th 
century, by 10 days in the 17th. I should have liked to retain the familiar 
Burney dates, but in an international chronology they had to be sacrificed for 
the sake of conformity. Boyce's The Chaplet was first produced, according to 
the original play-bill, on Saturday, 2 December 1749, which was Saturday, 
13 December in most of the rest of Europe. Obviously it could not be placed 
in front of Rameau's Zoroastre (see col. 211), which actually was performed eight 
days before and not three days after The Chaplet 

The same applies to Russia, where the Gregorian calendar was not introduced 
until 1917. AU the dates of operatic performances in Russia are here given 
according to Western style, which is ahead of Russian style by 11 days in the 
1 8th, 12 days in the 19th and 13 days in the 20th century. In some very few 
cases, where it could not be ascertained whether a date quoted from a review 
meant Russian or Western style, the figures are given in italics. 



PREFACE IX 

In each entry the date is followed by the name of the composer and the title 
of the opera. Fuller details about the composers will be found in index n. 
The name is printed within round brackets when the performance of the opera 
took place after the composer's death; within square brackets when he was 
the compiler or arrangeur rather than the real composer (see for instance 
col. 159). 

The titles of the operas are given in the form in which they first appeared 
on the play-bills or in the librettos, even if this form is unfamiliar (see for 
instance col. 448). It is also given in the original language, that is, the language 
in which the opera was first performed. It was thought unnecessary to translate 
Italian, French and German titles. To all other non-English titles a translation 
has been added unless the title is a proper name. Russian titles appear in the 
original characters, in an English transliteration, and in translation. In trans- 
literating Russian names and titles the rules of the British Museum Catalogue 
have been followed with some slight deviations, 

Next comes the name oft he town in which the opera was first performed, 
with the name of the theatre if the town was an important operatic centre (see 
list of abbreviations, p. xv). Some towns had different names at different 
periods, and sometimes both names had to be used. Obviously performances 
in 1 8th century Russia cannot be stated to have taken place at Leningrad. 

The notes appended to the heading begin in each case with the name of the 
author or librettist, and the literary source, if any, from which the libretto was 
derived. No effort has been spared to bring some light into this unexplored 
province of literature, and the authorship of not a few librettos is established 
here for the first time. Even more obscure is the bibliography of translations 
and adaptations, and this is the first attempt to collect systematically the widely 
scattered material. In general the results were rather surprising, although I 
confined myself to what may be called independent translations, that is, such 
as were used for performances in a foreign language or were issued as distinct 
publications. Only in exceptional cases have I mentioned translations which 
were printed opposite the original text (for use by the audience in the theatre) 
when the opera was produced in the original language in a foreign country. 

Concerning later revivals, the principles I followed were roughly these: the 
older operas, of the 17th and the greater part of the 18th century, are recorded 
as fully as possible. In the 19th century this proved to be tiresome and un- 
instructive. The operas of Donizetti, Bellini and Verdi were performed in 
hundreds of Italian towns every year throughout the century and there would 
have been no point in enumerating all those productions. In some cases, such 
as FreischiitZy Tristan, Otello full records are given up to a certain date. Generally 
only the first performances in other countries are indicated. By 'countries' I 
mean cultural rather than political units; islands, for instance, are treated as 
separate countries, and bi-cultural and bilingual towns like Nice, Trieste, 



X PREFACE 

Strasbourg, Prague have received special attention. It goes without saying 
that the European boundaries referred to in remarks such as 'for the first time 
in Czechoslovakia' are those which were in force before the second world 
war. 

Thus the notes, which range from a few lines to several pages, will be found 
to contain much information about the later history of a particular opera. It 
was manifestly impracticable to give the authority for every single date of 
the many thousands assembled here. Originally it was intended to add a 
complete bibliography of the books and other sources consulted. This plan 
had to be abandoned. Many of the more important sources, however, are 
quoted in the text. 

There remains to me the pleasant duty of gratefully acknowledging the 
valuable help I received from many quarters. In the first place my thanks are 
due to Mr. Richard Capell who, in the Daily Telegraph of 15 October 1938, 
took the unusual course of reviewing the manuscript of the present book. 
I have to thank Mr. Otto Haas, London, for his constant advice and interest, 
and for putting at my disposal his rich stock of music and books on music. I am 
very much indebted to the authorities and the staff of the British Museum, 
especially to Mr. William C. Smith and to Mr. Cecil B. Oldman; to Mr. Rupert 
Erlebach, librarian of the Royal College of Music; to the librarians of the 
Bibliotheque de T Arsenal and of the Bibliotheque Musicale de TOpera, Paris, 
of the Bibliotheque du Conservatoire, Brussels, and of the Gemeente Museum 
(Scheurleer collection), The Hague. For giving me access to books and other 
sources not elsewhere available I have to thank Mr. Paul Hirsch, Cambridge, 
and Mr. Michael D. Calvocoressi, London. I am very much obliged to Pro- 
fessor Otto Erich Deutsch, Cambridge, for letting me use his manuscript 
Repertory of the Imperial Theatres of Vienna, and for many valuable suggestions. 

Furthermore, I wish to convey my thanks to many correspondents for infor- 
mation concerning operatic history in their respective countries. To the 
directors and librarians of the opera-houses at Antwerp (Koiiinklijke Vlaamsche 
Opera); Copenhagen; Geneva (M. Bretton); Kaunas; Ljubljana (Dir. Vilko 
Ukmar) ; Paris (Theatre National de TOpera-Comique, M. L. Gallieni) ; Prague 
(Narodni Divadlo) ; Riga (Dir. J. Poruks); Sofia (Dir. V. Vassileff) ; Stockholm; 
and Zagreb. To M. Ludvik Bohacek, Prague ; Dr. Peter Gradenwitz, Tel- Aviv ; 
Mr. Herbert Graf, formerly of Berlin; Dr. Hemendra Nath Das Gupta, Girish 
Ghosh Lecturer, Calcutta University; Mr. Julius Mattfeld of the Library 
Division, Columbia Broadcasting System, New York; M. R. Aloys Mooser, 
editor of Dissonances, Geneva; Mme Jolantha von Pukanszky-Kadar, Budapest; 
and Mr. Waino Sola of the Suomalainen Oopera, Helsinki. 

Finally, I want to express my gratitude to Professor Edward J. Dent, 
Cambridge, not only for honouring this book with his introduction, but also for 
his help in going through the proofs; to my publishers, Messrs. W. Heffer & 



PREFACE XI 

Sons, Ltd., Cambridge, for their enterprising spirit and splendid efficiency; 
last not least to my wife, Edith Loewenberg, for heir never-failing help and 
encouragement throughout the many years it took to prepare the book. 

Alfred Loewenberg 
London, 

October 1942 (revised August 1954) 



The late Alfred Loewenberg left an interleaved and heavily annotated copy 
of his Annals; this has served as the basis of the present revised edition. Some 
alterations and fairly numerous corrections have been made, and many new 
dates and other facts added from the author's notes. Further corrections from 
other sources have been accepted and incorporated, but essentially the Annals 
remain Loewenberg's work, presented here as far as possible in his own 
revision. No attempt has been made to carry the records beyond 1940. 

Thanks are due to Mr. Theodore Besterman, whose initiative made possible 
the publication of the second edition, to Mr. Frank Walker, who generously 
undertook the laborious task of revising and editing the manuscript of the 
second edition (1955), and to Mr. Harold Rosenthal, for revising and 
for the additional material he furnished for the present edition. 



CONTENTS 

Preface page vii 

Abbreviations xv 

Introduction, by Edward J. Dent xvii 
Annals, 1597-1940 column 1-1440 

Index of Operas 1441-1514 

Index of Composers 15 15-1620 

Index of Librettists 1621-1680 

General Index 1681-1756 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Besides the names of the theatres (see list below) very few abbreviations have been used, and most 
of them need no explanation (names of the months, etc.). 



A.M.Z.: 
Cam.: 



I.M.S. 



Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung. 

Carnival season (usually beginning De- 
cember z6 of the preceding year and 
lasting until February or March). 

International Musical Society. 



I.S.C.M. : International Society for Contemporary 

Music. 
n.d. : no date (undated publication). 

R.M.I. :. Rivista Musicale Italiana. 
S.I.M.: Societe* Internationale de Musique. 



PRINCIPAL THEATRES 

(T. and Th. are used for Theatre and its equivalents, Pal. for Palazzo. Where no theatre is 
mentioned, the principal theatre of the town is meant.) 



Liceo 

Deutsches Opernhaus. 
Friedrich-Wilhelmstadtisches 

(Theater). 
Konigsstadtisches (Theater). 
Kurftirsten-Oper. 
(Kbnigliches) Opernhaus 

Staatsoper). 
Schauspielhaus. 
Theater des Westens. 
Theater Unter den Linden. 
Volks-Oper. 
Victoria-Theater. 



(later 



Barcelona, L. 

Berlin, D.O. 
Fr.W. 

Kgst. 

KurfO. 

O. 

Sch. 

Tn.d.W. 

Th.U.d.L. 

V.O. 

Vict.Th. 

Bologna, T.C. Teatro Comunale. 

Brussels, F.P. Fantaisies-Parisiennes. 

M. (Theatre de la) Monnaie. 

Florence, P. (Teatro della )Pergola. 

T.C. Teatro Comunale. 

Genoa, C.F. (Teatro) Carlo Felice. 

S.Ag. Sant'Agostino. 

Lisbon, S.C. San Carlos. 

London, C.G. Covent Garden. 

D.L. Drury Lane. 

Hm. Haymarket. 

H.M.*s. His (or Her) Majesty's. 

L.O.H. London Opera House. 

Ly. Lyceum (English Opera House) 

O.C. Opera Comique. 

R.A.M. Royal Academy of Music. 

R.C.M. Royal College of Music. 

R.E.O. Royal English Opera (House). 

S.'s Wells. Sadler's Wells. 

St.J.'s St. James's. 

(Where no theatre is mentioned, the King's 

Theatre, Haymarket, is meant.) 



Madrid, T.L. 
T.R. 
Z. 

Milan, Can. 
Sc. 

T.d.V. 
T.L. 
T.R.D, 

Naples, Fior. 

S.B. 

S.C. 

T.N. 
New York, M. 



Teatro Lirico. 
Teatro Reale. 
(Teatro de la) Zarzuela. 

(Teatro della) Canobbiana. 

(Teatro alia) Scala. 

Teatro dal Verme. 

Teatro Lirico (Internazionale). 

Teatro Regio DucaL 

(Teatro dei) FiorentinL 
San Bartolomeo. 
San Carlo. 
Teatro Nuovo. 



Paris, B.P. 

CI. 

Ch.£. 

F.Dr. 

F.P. 

Fa. 

Fey. 

G.L. 

O. 

O.C. 
O.NX. 
Ren. 
St.G. 

St.L. 

Th.deM. 

Th.I. 

Th.L. 

Th.S.B. 

Tr.L. 

Prague, Cz. 
G. 
Rome, Ap. 
Arg. 
C. 

Capr. 
T.R. 
Tord. 
Turin, T.d.T. 
T.R. 
T.V.E. 
Venice, F. 

S.Ben. 
S.Cass. 
S.G.Gr. 
SS.G.e.P. 
S.Sal. 
' S.Sam. 

Vienna, B. 
Ca. 
Jos. 
Ka. 
Leop. 
O. 

V.O. 
W. 



Bouffes-Parisiens. 

ComeViie-Italienne. 

(Theatre des) Champs-£lysees. 

Folies-Dramatiques. 

Fantaisies-Parisiennes. 

Theatre Favart. 

Theatre Feydeau. 

Gaitd-Lyrique. 

Ope*ra (Academie Royale de 

Musique, etc.). 
Opera-Comique. 
Opera National Lyrique. 
(Theatre de la) Renaissance. 
(Theatre de la Foire) Saint-Ger- 



(Tn&tre de la Foire) Saint-Lau- 
rent. 
Theatre de Monsieur. 
Tneatre-Italien. 
Tneatre-Lyrique. 
Theatre Sarah Bernhardt. 
Trianon-Lyrique- 

Czech Theatre. 
German Theatre. 
(Teatro) Apollo. 
(Teatro) Argentina. 
(Teatro) Costanzi. 
(Teatro) Capranica. 
Teatro Reale. 
(Teatro) Tordinona. 
Teatro di Torino. 
Teatro Regio. 
Teatro Vittorio Emanuele. 
(Teatro La) Fcnice. 
San Benedetto. 
San Cassiano. 
San Giovanni Grisostomo. 
Sana' Giovanni e Paolo. 
San Salvatore. 
San Samuele. 

Burgtheater. 

Carl-Theater. 

(Theater in der) Josefstadt. 

Karntnertor-Theater. 

(Theater in der) Leopoldstadt, 

Opernhaus (Hofoper, later Staats- 
oper). 

Volks-Oper. 

(Theater auf der) Wieden (later 
Theater an der Wien). 



Metropolitan (Opera House). 
* Opera titles marked thus indicate an entry with additional information in the supplementary 
volume being prepared by Harold Rosenthal, which will cover the period 1940-1978. 



INTRODUCTION 

The first attempt at a Dictionary of Operas was made by Leone Allacci, a 
learned Greek from the island of Chios, who became Librarian of the Vatican 
Library and published his Drammaturgia, a catalogue of all operas performed up 
to that date, in 1666. Since then a number of catalogues, dictionaries and 
histories of Opera have been published in various languages, but the present 
monumental work of Dr. Alfred Loewenbcrg is the first, as far as I know, to 
arrange the material year by year in chronological, rather than alphabetical 
order. It starts with the first of all operas, La Dafne, composed by Jacopo Peri 
and produced at Florence in 1597, and ends with those produced in 1940. The 
compiler makes no pretence of naming every single opera that has ever been 
produced anywhere during these three and a half centuries; to do so would have 
doubled or trebled the size of his volume. How many operas have been put 
on the stage, especially during the 19th century, for one performance only, 
never to be repeated or remembered, it is impossible to compute. In the 
volume before us we shall find the names of many quite unfamiliar works, and 
some of those were failures from their birth. Yet even these deserved recording 
for some reason or other; and it may be said that every work named in these 
pages has been contributory, in however slight a way, to the general history of 
the musical drama. 

For every opera named we are given the names of librettist and composer, 
as well as the name of the theatre and the town in which the first production 
took place; but besides these bare facts we are often supplied with a vast quan- 
tity of subsidiary information, especially as regards the source of the plot, 
subsequent revivals in other cities and translations into various languages. 
A reader who is already interested in operatic history and acquainted at least 
with the general outline of it will derive from browsing at random on these 
pages all sorts of new lights on the subject. The most obvious thing to be 
learned from this book is the course of the main stream of opera, beginning with 
what we might call "academic" opera in Florence, produced before a small 
audience of excessively cultivated people. And because the only people of that 
period who were in a position to become excessively cultivated were princes 
and cardinals and the courtiers attendant on them, opera struck root as an 
eminently aristocratic and courtly entertainment, becoming gradually more 
and more sumptuous and spectacular as the 17th century progressed. In spite 
of simultaneous currents in different directions, what we might call "dynamic" 
opera survived indeed right up to the end of the 18th century, even alter the 
French Revolution had begun to change the face of all European society; the 
last representative of "dynastic" opera was Mozart's La Clemenza di Tito 
in 1791. 



XV111 INTRODUCTION 

Commercial opera begins with the inauguration of the "Teatro Tron di San 
Cassiano" at Venice in 1637, the first opera open to the general public on pay- 
ment having been Manelli's Andromeda, of which the music is lost. This date 
gives Dr. Loewenberg one of his characteristic opportunities and the reader one 
of the peculiarly fascinating delights of this book: the occasional summaries of 
unexpected information such as can only be tracked down with difficulty else- 
where. Here, under date 1637, we find a complete list of the numerous Venetian 
theatres, called by the names of their parishes, like the St. James's and St. 
Martin's in London of to-day, but known also by the names of the noble families 
which erected and supported them. Later on we find the same sort of excursus 
on the operas of Lully, with a list of the latest dates at which they remained in 
the Paris repertory, and yet further on there is an interesting synopsis of the 
recent Handel opera revival in Germany. 

Dynastic opera was almost always in Italian, wherever it was performed, and 
for that reason it is Vienna which preserved dynastic opera the longest, Vienna 
being from a musical point of view much more an Italian city than a German 
one. In Vienna the spectacular Italian opera was deliberately maintained for 
the glorification of the reigning house, and no doubt it was Metastasio's choice 
of subjects such as La Clemenza di Tito which caused his librettos to be set to 
music over and over again for the entertainment of such courts as Stuttgart, 
Munich, Dresden and Berlin. Paris enjoyed its dynastic opera in French, and 
there is one solitary example of an English dynastic opera — Albion and Albanius, 
composed by a Frenchman. Dryden may have originally intended King Arthur 
to be something of the same sort, but as it eventually came to be, with the 
collaboration of Purcell, it was to the glorification of the country as a whole 
rather than of the monarch. 

We can' learn from these pages when opera first crossed the Alps, and when 
the idea first occurred of translating an opera into another language. The Dafne 
of Rinuccini was translated into German by Martin Opitz (a poet of considerable 
distinction) in 1627, but new music seems to have been composed for it by 
Schiitz; that suggests that in those days the words of an opera were still con- 
sidered more important than the music. Another early translation is that of 
Cambert's Ariane, made for the performance in London in 1674; but our 
author is careful to point out that the opera was sung in London in French, and 
that the translation was made merely for the convenience of readers. Lully's 
Roland was translated into Dutch, but not performed in that language. His 
Armide (1686) seems to have been the first opera ever performed in a second 
language; it was the first French opera performed in Italy (1690) and must have 
been sung in Italian, as it was given not only at Rome, but at Mantua and in 
other places as well, even as late as 1740. Lully's Acis et Galatee (his last opera, 
1686) had the honour of being the first non-German opera performed at 
Hamburg (in French, 1689), and although no mention is made of any other 



INTRODUCTION XIX 

opera by Lully having been given in Germany, it is an undoubted fact that Lully's 
music was immensely popular in that country in the form of instrumental suites. 

Most of the German composers of this period set their operas to Italian 
words; it was only at Hamburg that opera in German had any great attraction, 
and that only for a short period. Thus the newly-built Italian opera-house at 
Hanover was inaugurated with Steffani's Enrico Leone (1689) ; later it was given 
in German at Hamburg, Brunswick, Augsburg and Stuttgart. 

That same year 1689 brings us to Dido and Aeneas of Purcell, and it is 
interesting to see from this book how it remained almost unknown and un- 
performed (except in mutilated concert versions) until Stanford had it revived 
for the Purcell bi-centenary in 1895, after which it became a favourite opera 
for amateur and school performances in this country, and then, after 1924, was 
staged in New York, Munster, Stuttgart, Vienna, Paris, Basle, The Hague, 
Florence, and Budapest, the last performance being in Hungarian. The Fairy 
Queen, after the Cambridge revival of 1920, has been performed in German 
at Essen (193 1) and in French at Brussels (1935). 

It was not until 1701 that opera reached Berlin, which for centuries had 
remained far behind the other German courts in all cultural matters. This 
new undertaking was due to the instigation of Queen Sophia Charlotte, who 
herself played the harpsichord at the performance of Bononcini's Polifemo in 
1702. Frederick the Great supported opera in Berlin at his own expense for 
many years, and insisted that the composers should all be German, but he was 
not so patriotic in the matter of language; it was taken for granted that the 
librettos could not be in anything but Italian. 

The 1 8th century shows the complete domination of the lyric stage by opera 
in Italian, whether serious or comic, apart from Paris, and even in Paris the 
conservative French party had to admit defeat in the famous Guerre desBouffcns. 
In the following century Paris had its regular Theatre des Italiens, which was 
much more expensive and consequently more fashionable than the native 
opera. The world triumph of Italian opera during the first half of the 18th 
century was due entirely to the attraction of the Italian voices, especially those 
of the castrati. This adoration of the artificial soprano singers is one of the most 
difficult things for the modern music-lover to understand, especially since the 
worship of Adelina Patti in the last quarter of the 19th century led every 
critic to think of florid singing as something essentially feminine, and indeed 
associated principally with females of light character such as La Traviata. 
The florid singing of the castrati was undoubtedly heroic in expression, and it 
was obviously associated closely in the minds of contemporary hearers with the 
florid style of trumpet-playing to which modern audiences are well accustomed 
in the oratorios of Handel and the concertos of J. S. Bach. 

With the reign of Queen Anne begins the sad story of native English opera 
and the gradual domination of almost all English musical life by foreign 



XX INTRODUCTION 

musicians who were only too happy to quit the poverty and the servility of 
continental life for the streets of London, traditionally supposed to be paved 
with gold. Here, the economic basis of Italian opera was not the royal privy 
purse as in Berlin or Stuttgart, but the extravagance of a wealthy aristocracy, 
and for two hundred years the Italian opera continued to be the acknowledged 
rendezvous of exclusive society. But a new rival was undermining the dignity 
of the old-fashioned opera serin; both in Italy and in France a new type of 
comic opera had been developed which was eventually to dethrone the castrati 
and itself suffer a certain degradation into the opera semi-seria of the early 
romantic period. Napoleon put an end to the castrati by making the operation 
a criminal offence; but the public had already tired of them, and they survived 
in Italy only as church singers. 

Dr. Loewenberg shows us very clearly how the comic types of opera spread 
rapidly over the whole continent. They fall into four main groups: (i) the early 
French vaudevilles, plays with songs set to popular airs, often intended as skits 
on the serious operas of the day; (2) the English ballad operas, which also had 
only a short vogue, but exercised a formative influence on the comic opera of 
Germany; (3) the Italian opera buffa, starting at Naples, imitated at Bologna 
and Venice and thence exported to the musical world in general ; (4) the French 
opera-comique, which could not come into being until after the vaudeville type 
had come to an end in 1762. The French opcra-comique always retained an 
essentially French character, although it had been initiated by Italian com- 
posers; it was much more of a play than an opera, and the music, despite the 
charm of such composers as Monsigny, Grctry and Dalayrac, was always rather 
a secondary consideration, whereas the Italian opera buffa, conventional and 
foolish to the last degree from the dramatic point of view, depended mainly on 
the attraction of the singing. 

It can be understood at once that comic operas were easily translatable into 
other languages, whereas the old opera seria was hardly conceivable without the 
Italian language and the voices of the Italian castrati. We can see from Burney's 
History of Music how the Italian comic opera soon came to demand equal 
rights with the serious opera at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket, and the 
book before us shows how 7 both French and Italian comic operas were trans- 
lated not only into English and German, but into Danish, Swedish, Polish 
and other languages. The first opera that had what one might call a world- 
wide success was one which is now completely forgotten except by biblio- 
graphers, Orlandini's II Marito Giocatore e la Moglie Bacchettona, originally an 
intermezzo between the acts of a serious opera, like the more famous La Serva 
Padrona. Orlandini's intermezzo came out at Venice in 1718, ten years before 
The Beggar's Opera and fifteen years before La Serva Padrona. Its cumbrous 
title was too much- for foreign lips and ears, but under various other names it 
went to Munich, Breslau, Brussels, Paris, Trieste, Vienna, Lisbon and London, 



INTRODUCTION XXI 

in which last city it was called The Gamester, but was sung in Italian — "the 
first intermezzo or comic interlude which was ever introduced between the acts 
of an Italian opera in England" (Burney); this was in 1737. It was given later 
at Prague, Hamburg, Dresden, Potsdam and Paris, always in Italian; in 1755 it 
reached Copenhagen, where it was sung first in Italian and then translated into 
Danish. St. Petersburg saw it in 1757, Edinburgh in 1763, and as late as 1777 
it was performed in German at Berlin, where the music was attributed to one 
"Herr Bergulesi" ! We may note that at this period it was the general practice 
in Germany to sing only the recitatives in German; the songs and duets, etc., 
were all sung in Italian, which must have saved the unhappy translators a great 
deal of labour. 

With The Beggar's Opera begins the interesting history of English comic opera 
in the American colonies. Jamaica saw it in 1733 and New York in 1750. 
We need not pursue the subject here; early American opera has already been 
exhaustively treated by American musicologists. 

The history of Pergolesi's famous little opera — the only one by which he is 
now remembered — is complicated and curious. It came out first at Naples in 
1733, but did not make very rapid progress in Italy. Its first performance 
outside Italy was at Graz in 1739, in Italian, and in Italian it was further given 
at the usual operatic centres, Dresden, Hamburg, Prague, Paris (1746), Vienna, 
Potsdam, Leipzig, Copenhagen, London (1750, as intermezzi for Ciampi's 
Adriano in Siria), Barcelona, Dijon, Dublin, and various other places. The first 
translation of it was into French in 1754, when it had 150 performances in Paris, 
and was given in Germany, Sweden and America too ; it was in fact the first 
opera sung in America in French (Baltimore, 1790). From 1758 onwards 
various English versions appeared. As regards German versions there is some 
obscurity, but Dr. Loewenberg is inclined to accept 1770 as the date of the first 
(Vienna). Dutch, Polish, Swedish and Russian translations were also made 
before the 18th century came to an end. During the first half of the 19th century 
the little opera seems to have dropped out of all repertories, but revivals began 
in 1862, first in French, later in Italian (Florence, 1870), in German after 1880 
and finally in English, first at New York in 191 8, then in London, at the Lyric 
Theatre, Hammersmith, in 1919. Recent years have seen many revivals in 
unfamiliar languages; it is interesting to note in Dr. Loewenberg's pages the 
operas which have had the largest number of performances in countries not 
usually associated much with opera. La Serva Padrona has been sung in Spanish, 
Hungarian, Portuguese, Croatian, Dutch and Hebrew. The next opera to 
enjoy these polyglot revivals in modern times was Gluck's Orfeo, which has 
even achieved a concert performance in Japanese. 

Of greater historical importance are the innumerable translations of French 
comic opera into most of the northern languages at the moment when the 
works of Monsigny, Dalayrac and Gretry were the fashionable novelties. Dr. 



XXU INTRODUCTION 

Loewenberg does not record much in the way of English translations, because 
in those days the English procedure was to get a libretto written by some 
native dramatist and supply it with songs taken from any source that came 
handy. A few songs by French composers might chance to find a place along 
with Italian songs and possibly a few traditional folk-songs; the ballad operas 
had set the tradition* and it was not until well on into the 19th century that the 
English theatres began to regard an opera in English as an organic musical 
whole, the work of one composer, be he native or foreign. 

The widespread popularity of the French comic operas did not long survive 
their owri time, but Monsigny and his contemporaries were succeeded in turn 
by Boieldieu, Auber and Adolphe Adam, and the influence of their music has 
been profound and lasting, not only on the theatre, but on the concert-music of 
those countries which most historians regard as belonging to the German sphere. 
In Germany itself the old French repertory was still current, even in such 
pre-eminent theatres as those of Dresden and Munich, during the early years of 
the present century. Beethoven, playing in the orchestra of the theatre at Bonn, 
became acquainted with all this French music, and it left a permanent trace on 
his own inspiration. Weber, Schubert and even Wagner, were saturated with 
the French comic opera style, a style to which the only possible rival in those 
days was that of Paer and Rossini. 

After 1800, operas come thick and fast in all countries, and our author's main 
difficulty must have been to decide what works deserved inclusion in this book. 
For many generations Paris was still to lead the way in opera, even for the 
Italians, for the political condition of Italy made it no very attractive territory 
for a young composer in pursuit of a career. Rossini's reputation was made 
mainly in Paris, London and Vienna, Bellini's in Paris and London, Donizetti's 
in Vienna and Paris. Vienna itself was quite unproductive; musically it was a 
poor imitation of Paris. True, Weber and Schubert were both writing operas, 
but as far as Vienna went, they were complete failures. German opera was in 
much the same condition as English opera is at this moment; its habitual 
repertory was entirely foreign, or else utterly trivial. An idealist like Weber 
might try to force Don Giovanni and Fidelio down the throats of his German 
audiences, but nobody wanted to listen to them, any more than English 
audiences want to hear the very distinguished works which some of our own 
composers have contributed to the stage. 

During the first half of the century the political aspect of opera becomes 
singularly interesting, and this book brings together a number of cases, perhaps 
already well known in isolation, but hardly considered by historians as part of 
a connected whole. The previous century had already seen the most dangerous 
play of the age, Le Mariage Ac Figaro, slip through the censorship under the 
disguise of an Italian opera. Later generations began to realize that opera, 
when it became a democratic diversion, might be a danger to lawful authority. 



INTRODUCTION XX111 

Cimarosa, whose Matrimonio Segreto had won the honour of being "encored" 
in its entirety at the command of the Austrian Emperor in 1792, was imprisoned 
and condemned to death at Naples in 1799 for openly showing his enthusiasm 
for the French Republicans. Even Fidelio barely escaped the censorship at 
Vienna, and was saved only by a personal appeal to the Empress. A French 
full score of Fidelio exists, published in 1826, with the names of the singers who 
were to perform it. The performance never took place, according to Dr. 
Loewenberg; and the odd thing about the score is that the names of the 
characters are altered and the scene is transferred from Spain to Germany. 
What political mystery lay behind all this? Another French opera, Les 
Visitandines, by Devienne (1792), which made fun of nuns and friars, had a 
great vogue in Germany ; in Hamburg and Berlin it could be performed without 
alteration, but in Vienna the translator had to turn the convent into a Protestant 
girls' school. Rossini's Mose in Egitto (Naples, 1818) had to be given in London 
as Pietro I'Eremita at the King's Theatre, although it was accepted in the 
original form as an oratorio at Exeter Hall in 1878. Bellini's Bianca e Fernando 
(Naples, 1826) had to be called Bianca e Gernando, because Fernando was the 
name of the King of Naples ! In 1828 we come to Auber's La Muette de Portici 
(called Masaniello in England), a performance of which in Brussels on 25 August 
1830, started the revolution which led to the independence of Belgium. Rossini's 
Guillaume Tell (1829) had to appear in London as Andreas Hofer, or The Tell 
of the Tyrol "On account of its political subject," says Dr. Loewenberg, "the 
opera had to be given in many countries in different disguises and with more 
or less essential alterations in the original libretto. ... As late as in 1866 the 
censor at Palermo demanded changes in the text." At Milan, Tell became 
William Wallace; at Rome, "Rodolfo di Sterlinga"; at St. Petersburg and 
Moscow, Charles the Bold. 

Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia (Milan, 1833) was another opera which suffered 
curious changes, but these were probably due not to the censorship but to 
Victor Hugo's objections to his play being turned into an opera. He made 
similar difficulties over Verdi's use of Le Roi s amuse (Rigoletto). Rigoletto, as 
is well known, had to have its characters changed before the Austrian censorship 
would pass it for Venice. Naples and Rome were always nervous of political 
trouble, and Madame Pasta, when she came to London with Bellini, told Lady 
Morgan that she had narrowly escaped being thrown into prison for pro- 
nouncing the word liberta on the stage. Les Huguenots (1836) was too much 
for Munich and Vienna; at Munich it was called Die Anglikaner und Puritaner, 
at Vienna, Die Gibellinen in Pisa. Florence preferred the "Anglican" 
version. 

Paris on the whole took a liberal view of opera; but it may be remarked that 
three distinguished men of letters were arraigned before a tribunal for offences 
against public morals — Victor Hugo for Marion de Lorme in 1829 and Le Roi 



XXIV INTRODUCTION 

$ amuse in 1832, Alexandre Dumas flls for La Dame aux Camelias (1849), and 
Flaubert for Madame Bovary (1857), all within a period of thirty years. 

Another subject which this book might provoke us to study in detail is the 
history of certain opera plots and the way in which the same story has been 
treated by a number of different composers. A typical example is that episode 
in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso which suggested the deception of Claudio in Much 
Ado About Nothing; Handel presented it in Ariodante, Mehul in Ariodant, 
J. S. Mayr in Ginevra di Scozia, besides settings by lesser composers. Even 
after Rossini's triumph, and during his own lifetime, other composers attempted 
(with no success) to re-set II Barbiere di Siviglia. Dr. Loewenberg has shown 
extraordinary learning and research in discovering the literary origins of 
numerous operas. 

The last few pages of the book bring us almost to the present day and may 
well make us wonder what is to be the prospect of opera in the future. The 
period 1920-3 3 was wonderfully productive of what one might call experimental 
operas, mainly in Germany and Italy. And there were successful operas too. 
Puccini's posthumous Turandot (Milan, 1926) is described by Dr. Loewenberg 
as "so far the last world success in the history of opera." In Germany, Richard 
Strauss continued his prosperous career, although probably Schreker, D' Albert 
and E. W. Korngold secured more performances for their various operas; we 
may doubt whether any of these, except perhaps D'Albert's unpleasant Tiefland, 
will ever be revived, even in their country of origin. Of the "experimental" 
type, Krenek's Jonny spelt aw/* made the most sensation ; Alban Berg's Wozzeck 
very nearly became a world success, in spite of its indescribable horror. One 
of the best of all the modern German operas was Die Biirgschaft, by Kurt Weill. 
The most prolific composers of opera during that period were Malipiero and 
Stravinsky; Malipiero, too, enjoyed the honour of having one of his operas 
suppressed by the authorities in Rome because it made fun of prime ministers 
in a modern-dress fairy-tale. Milhaud and Honegger also contributed works of 
high artistic value. How many of these will return to the stage when the world 
is at peace? The trouble with most of these operas (and with many by other 
composers) is that they are not such as will form the basis of a standard reper- 
tory. Every opera-house requires indispensably a certain number of works 
which may be counted on to fill the theatre whenever they are performed; that 
is why Cavalleria Rusticana, Bohhne and Butterfly, with some dozen older works, 
are to be seen all over the world. On the other hand, such an opera as Milhaud's 
magnificent Christophe Colomb, like Les Troyens of Berlioz or Busoni's Doktor 
Faust, can only be put on occasionally, with the probability of a considerable 
deficit, in a theatre generously State-supported, and running regularly as a 
huge and complete organization, about the functioning of which there can 
never be the slightest moment of anxiety. And the numerous smaller works, 
involving perhaps far less expense, but appealing only to an extremely cultivated 



INTRODUCTION XXV 

public, can only be produced when the management is quite certain that there 
exists such a highly specialized public to patronize them. 

Of our own operatic problem in England I will say nothing here, and I am 
not competent to speak of conditions in America. This book is printed in 
English, and we may indeed feel proud that an English firm has undertaken its 
publication in these difficult days; but it is a work of international importance 
and will eventually be indispensable to libraries, booksellers, operatic managers, 
musical critics and genuine lovers of opera in all countries. 

Edward J. Dent 
Cambridge, 
October 1942. 



"There is some danger at the present time that we may be led to 
an under-estimation of the efforts of the Florentine Camerata. They 
sought Greek drama and found opera. And whether or not they 
consciously or unconsciously utilized the traditional or progressive 
elements of their time, no historical subtleties will ever succeed in 
proving that opera really existed before the Florentine Camerata 
stumbled on it. All the undercurrents of their time might have been 
converging towards opera, yet of themselves they would not have 
led to opera without the new and distinguishing element of dramatic 
musical speech." 

(O. G. T. Sonneck, in The Musical Antiquary, Vol. Ill, p. 40.) 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1597 

j. peri: La Dafne 

Carnival Florence, Pal. Corsi 
Text by O. Rinuccini. Not divided into acts (con- 
sists of prologue and 6 scenes). 

Libretto published in 1600; a new issue ap- 
peared in 1604. 

Peri's music is lost. So is a contemporary setting 
by Caccini (which might have been used at a per- 
formance in August 1600). Of an earlier, seem- 
ingly incomplete setting by Jacopo Corsi, two 
fragments were discovered at the Brussels Con- 
servatoire (MS.8750) by H. Panum in 1888 and 
first published in Musikalischcs Wochenblatt, 19 
July 1888. 

When was Dafne, the first opera, first per- 
formed? Looking through books of reference and 
histories of music one will find the year 1594 in- 
dicated as often as the year 1597. The former date 
is founded on a rather ambiguous passage in the 
preface to Peri's Euridice score (1601); the latter 
date on a statement in Gagliano's Dafne score 
(1608). 

The whole complicated matter has been made 
perfectly clear by O. G. T. Sonneck; see his essay 
"Dafne the first opera" in Sammelba'nde der Inter- 
nationaien Musikgeselhchaft, Vol. xv (1913-14), or 
the note on the Dafne libretto in the Library of 
Congress Catalogue of Opera Librettos printed before 
1800 (1914), pp.340-345. Sonneck's arguments in 
favour of Gagliano's statement that the first pro- 
duction was in the Carnival of 1597 seem to be 
quite convincing, and in the course of the past 25 
years no new documents have been discovered 
which could upset his theory. 

It is to be hoped, however, that at least the mis- 
leading date of 1594 will disappear from the 
books of reference altogether, because Peri's "fin 
1'anno 1594" — even if it really refers to a produc- 
tion and not merely to the date of commission 



or composition — means the beginning of our 
year 1595, as Sonneck pointed out. 

There remains one question which Sonneck 
apparently did not consider. What did Gagliano 
mean when in 1608 writing down the words "il 
carnovale dell' anno 1597"? Carnival began at the 
end of December and lasted until February or the 
beginning of March. But in 16th century Florence 
the Julian Calendar was still in force by which the 
new year began on 1 March. Thus the greater 
part of Carnival was not in the beginning of the 
year, but at the end, and Gagliano's words could 
refer to the last months of the Julian year 1597, 
i.e. to January or February of our, the Gregorian, 
year 1598. In this case Peri's "per tre anni continui 
che nel carnovale si rappresento" could mean per- 
formances of Dafne in the beginning of (Grego- 
rian) 1598, 1599 and 1600. This assumption would 
carry us down to the year in which the libretto 
was printed and would be perfectly consistent 
with all other dates established fey contemporary 
accounts. 

Dafne was first produced, whenever it was, at 
Jacopo Corsi's house, in the presence of "Don 
Giovanni Medici e d'alcuni de' principali gentil- 
uomini de la citta". According to Rinuccini's ac- 
count (in the preface to the Euridice libretto, 1600) 
it was given in an improved version ("miglior 
forma") again at Corsi's in the presence of the 
Grand Duchess and of the cardinals Dal Monte 
and Montalto (presumably before 18 January 
1599) and repeated at the Palazzo Pitti 21 January 
1599. Another performance at Corsi's took place 
in August 1600 (this time, perhaps, with Caccini's 
music), and a last revival at the Palazzo Pitti (prob- 
ably with Peri's music) 26 October 1604, in hon- 
our of a visit of the Duke of Parma (libretto re- 
printed with new first sheet). These are the per- 
formances which are known to have taken place ; 
but there may have been more of which we have 
no knowledge yet. 



i597-i6oo 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1600-02 



(For Gagliano's new setting of the libretto, see 
1608; for a German version of the libretto, see 
1627.) 

1600 

j. peri: L'Euridice* 

6 October. Florence, Pal. Pitti 
Text by O. Rinuccini. Not divided into acts (con- 
sists of prologue and 6 scenes). 

The first opera the music of which is extant. Pro- 
duced as part of the wedding festivities celebrated 
at Florence in honour of Henry iv, King of France, 
and Maria de' Medici, and Peri himself as Orpheus. 

Libretto published in 1600 (dedication to Maria 
de* Medici dated October 1600; in some copies 
4 October 1600). 

Score published in 1601 (dedication dated 6 
February 1600 — 1601 n.s.) as Le Musiche . . . 
Sopra V Euridice \ from Peri's preface we learn that 
parts of the music as sung in October 1600 were 
by Caccini (who set the same libretto to music 
at the same time; for the production of his setting 
as a whole, see below, 1602). 

Peri's music was again published at Venice in 
1608; new editions 1863; c.1900 (in L. Torchi's 
V Arte musicale in Italia, Vol. vi); 1919 (vocal 
score, edited by C. Perinello); and 1934 (facsim- 
ile of the first edition). 

New York, Berkeley Lyceum, 15 March 1894 
(Scenes from Act I only). 

Peri's Euridice was revived at Bologna, Casa 
Marescotti, 27 April 1616. 

The first modern revival was at a Milan con- 
cert, 13 May 1916, in a two-act version by G. Te- 
baldini. Other revivals took place at Naples, Poli- 
teama, 28 January 1920 (by the "Associazione 
Scarlatti"); Florence, Pal. Pitti 29 December 
1923; Munich, University 23 January 1934 (Ger- 
men version by B. Beyerle). 

G. caccini: II Rapimento di Cefalo 

g October. Florence, Pal. Vecchio 
Text by G. Chiabrera. Prologue, 5 acts, and 
licenza. 

Libretto published in 1600 (reprinted in Vol. 111 
of A. Solerti's Gli Albori del Melodramma, 1905). 



Il Rapimento di Cefalo was, three days after 
Euridice, produced in the course of the wedding 
festivities for Henri iv and Maria de' Medici. We 
know from the younger Michelangelo's descrip- 
tion that, besides Caccini, three other composers 
had a share in the score : Stefano Venturi del Nib- 
bio, Luca Bati and Pietro Strozzi. They were not 
mentioned by Caccini when he published parts 
of his music, consisting of two choruses and three 
airs, in his Le Nuove Musiche in 1601 (facsimile 
edition by F. Mantica issued in 1930). 

The first instance of a translation of an opera 
libretto occurs already at this early date: Le Ra- 
vissement de Cefale, a French version by N. Chre- 
tien des Croix, was published at Rouen in 1608 
and was dedicated by the translator to the new- 
born Dauphin, Jean-Baptiste-Gaston (later Duke 
of Orleans), 'Theureux fruit" of the marriage 
which had been celebrated by the production 
of the Italian original eight years before. 



1602 

g. caccini: L'Euridice 

5 December. Florence, Pal. Pitti 
Rinuccini's text, as composed by Peri in 1600. 

Parts of Caccini's music had already been used 
at the performances of 1600, as we know from 
the preface in Peri's score. Caccini's score was 
published earlier (dedication dated 20 December 
1600) than Peri's (dedication dated 6 February 
1600-01). The production, however, of Caccini's 
setting as a whole did not take place before 5 De- 
cember 1602, when his Euridice was performed in 
honour of the Cardinals Montalto and Dal Monte 
and the Marchese Peretti. 

Caccini's score was published in 1600 (or rather, 
actually about January 1601) as L'Euridice com- 
posta in Musica In stile rappresentativo; it was re- 
printed at Venice in 1615; new editions 1863, 
1880 and 1881 (in Vol. x of Eitner's Publikationen 
der Gesellschaft fur Musikforschung). 

No separate issue of the libretto was printed for 
Euridice in 1602. Nor was Caccini's setting ever 
revived. 



1606-07 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1607 



I6O6 

A g A z z A r I : Eumelio 

Carnival. Rome, Seminario Romano 
Librettist unknown. Dramma pastorale retitato . . . 
Con le Musiche dell* Armonico Intronato (which was 
the composer's surname as a member of the "Ac- 
cademia degli Intronati" of Siena). Prologue and 
3 acts. 

The score was published at Venice in 1606 (one 
single copy at the Biblioteca di S. Cecilia, Rome, 
extant). The preface informs us that the opera was 
written within a fortnight and performed by 
pupils of the Seminario Romano with great suc- 
cess. No libretto seems to have been printed. 

The prologue published in La Diana (Siena) 
1933- 

1607 

monteverdi: La Favola d'Orfeo* 
24 February. Mantua 
Text by A. Striggio (Rappresentata in Mnsica). 
Prologue and 5 acts. 

Libretto published in 1607. Score (Favola in 
Musica) published at Venice in 1609 (dedication 
dated 22 August) and in 1615. Of these two edi- 
tions only eight copies are known to be extant 
(three of them being preserved in Italy, two in 
England, two in Germany, and one in Belgium). 
There are new editions by Eitner (1881), d'Indy 
(1904), Orefice (1909), Erdmann-Guckel (1913), 
Malipiero (1923 and 1930). Orff (1930), Benve- 
nuti (1934), and Respighi (1935). 

A facsimile of the 1609 score was edited by 
A. Sandberger in 1928. 

The opera was dedicated to the Hereditary 
Prince of Mantua, Francesco Gonzaga. After the 
private production at the "Accademia degl' In- 
vaghiti" (the exact date of which is unknown) 
Orfeo was repeated at the Court Theatre, Mantua 
on 24 February and 1 March 1607. At Cremona, 
Monteverdi's native town, Orfeo was given by the 
/*Accademia degl' Animosi" on 10 August 1607 
(parts only); stage productions probably took 
place at Turin in 1610 and about the same time 
at Florence and Milan (see Solerti, Gli Albori del 
Melodramma, Vol. 1, pp.70 and 139). 



After an interval of nearly 300 years it was only 

in the 20th century that Orfeo was restored to 

living music. The following revivals are to be 

recorded : 

paris, schola cantorum 25 February 1904 (in 
concert form, inFrench, translated and arranged 
by Vincent d'Indy; repeated there 2 March 
1904, 27 January 1905, 26 February 1905). 

milan, conservatorio 30 November 1909 (in 
concert form, under Giacomo Orefice; this 
version was repeated at Mantua, T. Sociale 5 
April 1910 and the following days at Venice, 
Bologna, Florence, Turin and in other Italian 
towns; also at Monte Carlo 16 April 1910. 

Brussels 23 January 1910 (in concert form, under 
Sylvain Dupuis). 

paris, th. rejane 2 May 1911 (this was the first 
modern stage performance, under the direction 
of Marcel Labey ; repeated 1 1 April and 13 April 
1913). 

new york, m. 14 April 1912 (concert perform- 
ance, Orefice's version); Chicago 4 January 
I9I3- 

breslau 8 June 1913 (stage performance, German 
version by H. Erdmann-Guckel). 

buenos aires io May 1920 (Orefice's version) and 
23 July 1937 (Benvenuti's version). 

London 8 March 1924 (in concert form at the 
Institut Francais, Cromwell Gardens, d'Indy *s 
version, under Louis Bourgeois). 

mannheim 17 April 1925 (stage performance, new 
German version by C. Orff) ; revised by OrfF 
1940 and staged Dresden, 4 October 1940. 

oxford 7 December 1925 (in English, translated 
by R. L. Stuart, orchestrated by J. A. Westrup 
and W. H. Harris). 

Cairo 1928 (in Italian). 

cologne Summer 1928 (d'Indy *s version, trans- 
lated into German by H. Jalowetz). 
Leningrad Summer 1929 (Malipiero's version). 
Northampton, mass. 12 May 1929 (in Mali- 
piero's version). 
London, scala 30 December 1929 (the Oxford 

1925 version). 
Vienna 14 January 193 1 (in concert form, OrfTs 
version, translated by D. Giinther). 



1607-08 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1608-10 



Lisbon Spring 1932 (d'Indy's version, in Portu- 
guese, under I. Cruz). 
mantua, loggia ducale April 1933 (under A. 

Zanella). 
perugia 19 September 1934 (Oreficc's version). 
rome, t.r. 26 December 1934 (new version by G. 

Bcnvcnuti, text adapted by A. Rossato). 
Milan, sc. 16 March 1935 (new version by 

O. Respighi, text adapted by C. Guastalla). 
modena May 1935 (Respighi's version, text 

adapted by C. Guastalla). 
zurich 10 February 1936 (concert performance, 

in Italian; music arranged by H. F. Rcdlich). 
Budapest 25 April 1936 (in Hungarian, translated 

by V. Lanyi, Respighi's version). 



1608 * 

GAGLIANO: La Dafne* 

January. Mantua, T. dclla Corte 
Rinuccini's text (see 1597), slightly altered and 
enlarged. Gagliano's first opera. 

The score was published in 1608 (dedication 
dated 20 October; reprinted in an abridged ver- 
sion by Eitner in Vol. x of the Publihationen der 
Gesellschaftfor Musikforschung, 1881). The libretto 
does not seem to have been printed. The opera 
was performed twice in the course of the Car- 
nival, and repeated at Florence, presumably in 
Carnival 1610. 

A recent revival of Gagliano's opera took place 
at Moscow Spring of 191 1 (rescored by one Pro- 
fessor von Glchn); see Die Musik, July 191 1, p. 5 5. 

Monteverdi: U Ariannd* 

28 May. Mantua, T. della Corte 
Text by O. Rinuccini (Tragedia . . . Rapprcsentata 
in musica). Not divided into acts (consists of pro- 
logue and 8 scenes). 

Performed at the wedding of Francesco Gon- 
zaga, Hereditary Prince of Mantua, withMarghe- 
rita, Princess of Savoy. 

The libretto was first published in 1608 and has 
been frequently reprinted since. Of the music, un- 



fortunately only a fragment has been preserved, 
the celebrated Lamento d'Ariatma (begins "Las- 
ciatcmi morire"), first published in the sixth book 
of Monteverdi's Madrigals, Venice, 1614. 

The opera probably was repeated at Florence 
in Carnival 1614 and revived at Venice, Autumn 
1639 (at the inauguration of the Tcatro di San 
Moisc, the third Venetian opera-house). 

Modern revivals of the one extant scene took 
place at Carlsruhc January 1926 and Paris, Petite 
Scene 31 May 193 1 ; Gera, 30 November 1940 in 
a realization by Carl Orff. 

Ariatma is known to have been famous in Italy 
for many years. The tunes were sung and played 
everywhere. When revived at Venice in 1639, 
more than 30 years after its first appearance, the 
old opera had hardly to be altered at all (as a com- 
parison of the librettos shows) and still proved 
much more successful than many of the "modcm*\ 
works. The Lamento served as a model of its kind 
for centuries to come, ". . . quclqucs pages, les 
plus doulourcuses ct les plus vraics qu'il ait ccritcs, 
et que Gluck n'a pas surpassecs . . ." (Romain 
Rolland). 

I6IO 

giacobbi: Andromeda 

Carnival. Bologna, Salone del Podesta 
Text by R. Campcggi (Tragedia . . . Da recitarsi in 
Musica). Prologue and 5 acts. 

First opera produced at Bologna of which the 
composer is known. Libretto printed in 1610 
(copies in the Licco Musicale, Bologna, and in the 
British Museum). "Fatta recitare in Musica di stile 
rapprescntativo nella Citta di Bologna, per dis- 
porto delle sue bellissime Dame. Ne i giorni di 
Carnescftle, con apparato magnifico, TAnno 
mdcx . . . Fece la Musica Girolamo Giacobbi 
Mastro di Capella di S. Petronio di Bologna." 

The music is lost; one air, "Io ti sfido, o mostro 
infame," is known to have been famous all over 
Italy. 

A work entitled Andromeda, which might have 
been Giacobbi's opera, was performed at Salzburg 
on 15 February 1618. This would be, if the iden- 



i6io-i6 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1616-19 



tification is correct, the first known instance of an 
opera produced outside Italy. 



l6l6 

belli: 77 Pianto d'Orfeo 

Carnival. Florence, Pal. Gherardesca 
Text by G. Chiabrcra. Five intermezzi. 

The text was published in 161 5 in Chiabrera's 
Favolette . . . da rappresentarsi cantando, and, ac- 
cording to A llacci and other bibliographers, sepa- 
rately at Genoa in 1622 (no copy of the sepa- 
rate edition has been traced yet). 

The music was published under the title of 
Orfeo doJente in 1616 (one single copy of this score 
has been preserved at Breslau). The title-page in- 
forms us that it was sung between the acts of a 
performance of Tasso's Aminta. 

Tasso's Aminta was revived, with Belli's inter- 
mezzi, at Brussels on 3 March 1926 (French ver- 
sion by A. de Rudder, music arranged by A. 
Tirabassi); this version was also published atBrus- 
sels 1927. 

For an analysis of the work see H. Riemann, 
Handbuch der Musikgeschichte, Vol. it, Pt. 2, p.288. 
The text was reprinted by A. Solerti in Vol. in of 
his Gli Albori del Melodramma (1905). See also So- 
lerti's Musica . . . alia CorteMedicea (1905), pp.375- 
391, where the version of the text as contained in 
the score is reproduced. 

A recent attempt of A. Tirabassi (The Musical 
Quarterly, January 1939) to claim for Belli's opera a 
priority over even Peri's and Caccini's works is 
based on arguments which are certainly not suf- 
ficient to upset the whole history of early Italian 
opera (see ibid., July 1940). 

boschetti: Strali d'Amore 
14 February. Viterbo 
Librettist unknown. No copy of the libretto 
traced yet. Five intermezzi. 

Score published in 161 8 (Favola recitata in 
Musica Per Intermedin . . .). Produced at Count 
Andrea Maidalchini's, Viterbo, between the acts 



of a comedy. Dedication in the score dated 15 
March 1618. 

The first description of the work (which is on 
the Mars- Venus-Vulcan story) was given by A. 
W. Ambros in 1878 (Geschichte der Musik,Vo\. iv, 
p.301). Only two copies of the score are known 
to be extant. 



I6I9 

l a N D i : La Mortc d'Orfeo 

[ijune], Rome 
Text by the composer (and not, as often stated, 
by Alcssandro Matthei to whom the work is dedi- 
cated). Tragicomedia Pastorale, 5 acts. Landi was 
the first composer who wrote his own libretto. 

Score printed in 1619 (the only known copy 
of this edition is in the British Museum) and again 
in 1639. Parts of the music were reprinted by H. 
Goldschmidt in 1901. 

Text reprinted by A. Solerti in Vol. in of his 
Gli Albori del Melodramma, 1905, from the score 
ofi6i9. 

The opera is stated to have been produced be- 
fore the Papal Court. 

gagliano: II Medoro 

25 September. Florence, Pal. Pitti 
Text by A. Salvador! (. . . rappresentato in musica), 
founded on an episode in Ariosto's Orlando fu- 
rioso. Three acts. 

Libretto printed in 1619 and 1623 (only copies 
of this second edition seem to be extant). Music 
lost. 

The opera was produced to celebrate the elec- 
tion of the Emperor Ferdinand 11 (Cosimo de* 
Medici's brother-in-law). An intended revival at 
Mantua in 1622 (often mentioned on the author- 
ity of E. Vogel's monograph, 1889) did not take 
place as we learn from the dedication in the 1623 
libretto. 

From a contemporary diary, Solerti revealed 
the fact that Peri had a (presumably small) share 
in the music. 



10 



162025 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1626-27 



1620 

vitali: UAretusa 

8 February. Rome, Pal. Corsini 

Text by O. Corsini (Favola in Musica). Prologue- 
and 3 acts. 

Score published in 1620 (text reprinted by A. 
Solerti from the score). 

The preface informs us that the opera was writ- 
ten and composed within 44 days; it also gives 
the cast; the name part was sung by the castrato 
Gregorio Lazerini. 



I625 

f. c a c c i n i : La Liberazidne 

di Ruggiero dalVhola 

d'Alcina 

2 February. Florence, Villa Poggio Imperiale 

Text by F. Saracinelli (Balletto rappresentato in 
musica), founded on an episode in Ariosto's Or- 
lando furioso. Not divided into acts (consists of 
prologue and 3 scenes). 

Performed at a visit of Wladislaw Sigismund, 
Prince of Poland, to the Grand Duchess of Tus- 
cany. Both score and libretto were published in 
1625. 

The first extant example of an "opera ballo"; 
at the same time the first instance of an operatic 
work written by a woman composer (Francesca 
was the daughter of Giulio Gaccini, see 1600 and 
1602). Parts of. the music were reprinted by 
H. Goldschmidt in 1901. 

It has been stated that La Liberazione di Ruggiero 
was also produced in Poland at an early date. 
While there is no evidence that a production 
actually took place, it is true that there exists a 
printed Polish translation by S. S. Jagodyiiski, 
called Wybawienie Ruggiera z Wyspy Alcyny, pub- 
lished at Cracow in 1628. See K. Estreicher, Bib- 
liograjia Polska y Vol xxvn (1929), p. 124. 



1626 

d. mazzocchi: La Catena d'Adone 

Before 13 February. Rome, Casa Evandro Conti 
Text by O. Tronsarelli {Favola boschereccia), 
founded on an episode in G. B. Marini's poem 
Adone. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Both score and libretto were published in 1626. 

The opera was revived at Bologna, T. Mal- 
vezzi, in Autumn 1648 (with prologue and inter- 
mezzi by N. Zoppio Turchi). Parts of the music 
were reprinted by H. Goldschmidt in 1901. 

The dedications in the libretto (which was 
printed only after the performance) are dated 
30 March and 12 May 1626. The dedication in the 
score is dated 24 October 1626. 

The first (or at least, an early) performance is 
referred to in a letter, dated 13 February 1626, 
which was discovered by A. Saviotti (see Gior^ 
nale Storico della Letteratura Italiana, Vol. xli, p.70). 
The writer, one Antonio Donato, gives this piece 
of early opera criticism: "Fu cosa meno che me- 
diocre, ma onorata da Nepoti Pontefici e molti 
cardinali." Modern critics would not agree with 
him on the quality of the work which is one of 
the most important operas of that period. 

The opera seems to have been repeated at Vi- 
terbo later in 1626 (libretto reprinted). There is 
also an edition of the libretto dated Venice 1627. 



1627 

schutz: Dafne 

23 April. Torgau 
Text by M. Opitz (partly translated' from Ri- 
nuccini's Italian libretto, see 1597). ". . . Musica- 
lisch in den Schawplatz zu bringen. . . ." Prologue 
and 5 acts. 

Written to celebrate the wedding of George, 
Landgrave of Hesse, with Sophia Eleonora, Prin- 
cess of Saxony, and performed at Hartenfels Cas- 
tle, Torgau, Saxony. 

The libretto was printed in 1627. The music of 
this earliest German opera is lost. The date of the 



11 



12 



1627-29 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1632-33 



first (or at least, an early) performance is indicated 
in a contemporary account of the wedding fes- 
tival. It has been suggested that the actual first per- 
formance took place on 31 March/10 April 1627, 
the night before the wedding, as in the prologue 
bride and bridegroom are apostrophized. 



1628 

gagliano and j. peri: La Flora, 
o vero II Natal de' Fiori 

11 October. Florence, Pal. Pitti 

Text by A. Salvadori (Favola . . . Rappresentata 
in musica recitativa). Prologue and 5 acts. 

Performed at the wedding of Odoardo Farnese, 
Duke of Parma, with Margherita of Tuscany. 

Both score and libretto were published in 1628. 
Gagliano is the only composer mentioned on the 
title-page of the score, but a note in it informs us 
that "Le musiche furono tutte del Sig. Marco da 
Gagliano, eccetto la parte di Clori, la quale fu 
opera del Sig. Jacopo Peri. . . ." 

Parts of the music were reprinted by H. Gold- 
schmidtin 1901. 



1629 

CORNACCHiOLi: Diana schernita 

Carnival Rome 

Text by G. F. Parisano [Favola Boscareccia). Five 
acts. 

Score published in 1629. Libretto not traced 
yet. The work was performed at the private house 
of the German Baron Johann Rudolf von Hohen- 
rechberg. 

The only known work of Cornacchioli, who 
was a native of Ascoli. Dedication in the score 
dated 6june 1629. At the end the remark : "Questa 
Fauola c tolta dalle Metamorfesi di Ouidio, & 
posta in questi versi dal Sig. Giac: Francesco Pari- 
sani d'AscoIi." 



1632 



landi: IlS.Alessio* 

23 February. Rome, Pal. Barberini 
Text by G. RospigHosi (the future Pope Clement 
ix). Dramma Musicale, prologue and 3 acts. 

First opera produced at the theatre in the Pa- 
lazzo Barberini. Repeated there February 1634 in 
honour of a visit of Alexander Charles, brother 
of King Wladislaw iv of Poland. Revived Bo- 
logna 1647 (probably Landfs work). 

Score published in 1634 (the only opera score 
of that period which is not exceedingly rare). 

For an account of 5. Alessio see G. Pavan in 
Musica d'oggi, October 1921; also U. Rolandi in 
La Rassegna Dorica, 20 February 1932. Parts of the 
music were reprinted by H. Goldschmidt in 1901. 

In most dictionaries 1634 is given as the year of 
the first production. The date of 23 February 
1632, however, is established by the account of a 
French traveller, Jean-Jacques Bouchard, who 
witnessed the first performance. See Lucien Mar- 
cheix, Un Parisien a Rome et a Naples en i6j2 t 
D'apres un manuscrit inidit ... (at the Bibliotheque 
de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris), 1897, p.9-10. 



1633 

m. A. rossi: Erminia sul Giordano 

January. Rome, Pal. Barberini 
Text probably by G. RospigHosi (who became 
Pope Clement ix in 1667), founded on an episode 
in Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata. Dramma musicale, 
prologue and 3 acts. 

Score published in 1637. Libretto not printed. 
The opera seems to have been repeated several 
times during the following years. It was the com- 
poser's only work for the stage. Parts of the music 
were reprinted by H. Goldschmidt in 1901. 

The year of the first performance is given as 
1625 by Fetis, Clement, Riemann, and others 
(which is obviously a mistake); SchmidFs Dic- 
tionary has 1635, Rolland, Goldschmidt, and 
Prunieres 1637. Again (as in the case of La 



13 



14 



1633-37 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1637-39 



Catena d'Adone, sec 1626) a contemporary letter, 
discovered by A. Saviotti at the Biblioteca 
Olivcriana, Pcsaro (sec Giornak Storico dclla 
Letteratura Italiana, Vol. xn, p.70) gives to the 
earlier date of Carnival, 1633, a high degree of 
probability. The letter is dated 2 February 1633, 
and the writer, one Fabio Almerici, refers to the 
opera as La Fuga d'Ernrinia. 

1637 

manelli: U Andromeda 

February or March. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by B. Ferrari (. . . rappresentata in musica)* 
Three acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the T. Tron di 
San Cassiano which was the first public opera- 
house in any town. 

The libretto was printed only about two 
months after the production, the approximate 
date of which we can guess from the date of the 
publisher's dedication (6 May 1637) and the 
remark "Andromeda che su le scene rinacque gia 
son due mesi. . . ." The music is lost, like the rest 
of Manellfs operas. For a bibliography of his 
works sec G. Radiciotti, L'Arte musicale in Tivolt 
(1921), p.49. 



Venice remained for many years the only town 
with regular opera seasons every Carnival. It ap- 
pears from the chronologies that in the course of 
the 17th century more than 350 operas were pro- 
duced at the different Venetian theatres, a number 
which increased to more than 1,600 at the close 
of the 1 8th century (including revivals and operas 
previously given elsewhere). The following is a 
list of the principal Venetian opera-houses founded 
before 1800. 
Name. First opera given there and subsequent data. 
s. cassiano, 1637: Andromeda, by Manelli. Operas 

until about 1 800. 
ss. Giovanni E paolo, 1639: Delia, by Sacrati. 

Operas until 1748. 

15 



s. moise, 1640: Arianna, by Monteverdi. Operas 
until 181 8. 

novissimo, 1641 : Lafinta Pazza, by Sacrati. Seven 
operas until 1647. 

ss. apostoli, 1649: Orontea, by Cesti. Five operas 
until 1687. 

s. apollinare, 165 1 : Oristeo, by Cavalli. Ten 
operas until 1660. 

s. salvatore, 1661 : Pasifc, by Castrovillari. Be- 
came T. S. Luca 1799, T. Apollo 1833, T. Gol- 
doni 1875. 

s. angelo, 1676: Elena, by Freschi. Operas until 
about 1800. 

s. Giovanni grisostomo, 1678: Vespasiano, by 
Pallavicino. Became T. Malibran 1835. 

s. fantino, 1699; Paolo Emilio, by Pignatta. 
Operas until 1720. 

s. samuele, 1 710: Vlngannator ingannato, by Rug- 
ged. Existed until 1870. 

s. Benedetto, 1755 : Z° e > by Cocchi. Became T. 
Rossini 1868. 

la fenice, 1792 : 1 Giuochi d'Agrigento, by Paisiello. 
Still in existence under that name. 

1638 

manelli: La Magafulminata 

[6 February]. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by B. Ferrari. Three acts. 

Also given at Bologna [20 April] 1641. Ma- 
nelli's second opera, and the second opera which 
was produced at Venice. Music lost. 

The Venice libretto is dedicated to Basil Feil- 
ding (2nd Earl of Denbigh) who from 1634-39 
was British Ambasador Extraordinary to the 
Republic of Venice. 

1639 

viTTORitLd Galatea 

Carnival Rome, Pal. Barberini 
Text by the composer (dramma . . . posto in 
musica). Prologue and 3 acts. 

Score published Rome 1639, libretto Spoleto 
1655. Vittori's only opera. Date of production 

16 



1639 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1639 



unknown (the Carnival ended 8 March 1639). 
Parts of the music were reprinted by H. Gold- 
schmidt in 1901. 

A recent opinion on La Galatea may be quoted 
here: "La Galatea c uno dei migliori esemplari 
dell' opera romana del Seicento per magnificenza 
di scenario, per agilita dell' azione scenica, per 
opportuna collocazione di arie a solo e d'insieme, 
per impiego efficace di parti corali. L'ultimo atto 
e un vcro capolavoro per nobilta d'espressione e 
per grandiosita di disegno" (F. Vatielli in R.M.I., 
Vol. xnn, 1939). 

sacrati: La Delia o sizLa Sera 
Sposa del Sole 

Before 20 January. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by G. Strozzi (Poema dramatico, first set to 
music by F. Manelli, Bologna 1630). Three acts. 

Written for the opening of the second Venetian 
opera-house, the Teatro Grimani dei Santi Gio- 
vanni e Paolo. From a note in the libretto it 
appears that the production must have preceded 
the date of the dedication (20 January). For use 
at the actual performance, a scenario was printed 
in which, by the way, Manelli, and not Sacrati, 
was indicated as the composer. The libretto was 
reprinted in 1644 (which points to a possible re- 
vival in that year). The music is lost, like the rest 
of Sacrati's operas. 

Also given at Milan 1647 by the Accademici 
Febiarmonici. 

cavalli: Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo 

[24 January]. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by O. Persiani (Opera scenica). Prologue and 
3 acts. 

Cavalli's first opera. The first Venetian opera 
the music of which has been preserved (in the 
Contarini collection, Biblioteca di S. Marco, 
Venice; see note on Pallavicino, 1679). 

b. ferrari: UArmida 

February. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by the composer (after Tasso). Prologue and 
3 acts. 



The first opera of which Ferrari, composer, 
poet, operatic manager, and theorbo virtuoso, 
wrote the music as v/ell as the words. The music 
is lost, like the rest of Ferrari's operas. Revived 
Piacenza 1650. 

v. mazzocchi and marazzou: 

Chi soffre, speri* 

2 j February. Rome, Pal. Barberini 
Text by G. Rospigliosi (the future Pope Cle- 
ment ix). Comedia musicale, prologue and 3 acts. 

The first comic opera. MS score extant (only 
one copy known, in the Biblioteca Vaticana, 
Rome). Libretto not printed (but preserved in 
ms). Only an Argomento et allegoria of the opera 
was published in 1639 (copy in the Library of 
Congress, Washington). 

According to A. Salza (l?.AfJ.,Vol.xiv, p.477) 
Chi soffre, speri possibly is an enlarged version of 
an earlier opera called 7/ Falcone, and produced at 
the same theatre towards the end of 1637. 

Mazarin and Milton were amongst the illus- 
trious guests who witnessed the birth of comic 
opera. Milton alludes to the performance in a 
letter to Lucas Holstenius, dated Florence, 30 
March 1639. 

See further, U. Rolandi in Nuova Antologia, 
October 1927. Parts of the music were published 
by H. Goldschmidt in 1901. 

monteverdi: L'Adone 

[21 December]. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by P. Vendramin (Tragedia musicale) f 
founded on the poem by G. B. Marini. Prologue 
and 5 acts. 

The first opera Monteverdi — then aged 72 — 
wrote for a public theatre. Very successful, given 
during the whole Carnival of 1640 and repeated 
in the autumn of that year. The music is lost. 

The music has been attributed to Monteverdi 
by all older and most modern historians, from 
Bonlini (1730) to Prunieres (1926) and Malipiero 
(1929). Yet it should be mentioned that the opera 
is most definitely ascribed to Manelli by some 



17 



18 



1639-41 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1641 



authorities, notably by G. Radicictti (in the bib- 
liography of Manelli's works, contained in his 
L*Arte musicale in Tivoli, 1921) and by P. Came- 
rini in Piazzola (1925), p.339. 

As a matter of fact, Monteverdi's name is not 
mentioned in the original libretto which contains, 
on the other hand, a dedication by Manelli to 
Antonio Grimani (the proprietor of the theatre) 
and a letter by the librettist Vendramin to Manelli. 
The question would be of major importance if 
the music were extant. 



I64O 

cavalli: Gli Amori di Apollo 
e di Dafne 

Carnival. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by G. F. Busenello (rappresentati in musica). 
Prologue and 3 acts. 

Cavalli's second opera. Revived Venice, SS. G. 
et P., Carnival 1647. Score preserved. The libretto 
was printed (reprinted?) in 1656. 

b. ferrari: II Pastor regio 

[23 January], Venice, S. Moise 
Text by the composer (dramma . . . rappresentato 
in musica). Prologue and 3 acts. 

Ferrari's second opera. Music lost. Also given 
at Bologna [18 May] 1641; Genoa (indicated by 
Allacci without date); Piacenza 15 April 1646; 
Milan 1646. 

I64I 

cavalli : La Didone* 
Carnival Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by G. F. Busenello (opera rappresentata in 
musica). Prologue and 3 acts. 

Text printed as late as 1656 (separately, and in 
Busenello's Ore ociose); in 1641 only an Argo- 
mento e scenario was published. One of Cavalli's 
more important works. Score preserved. 



sacrati: Lafinta Pazza 



[14 January], Venice, T. Novissimo 
Text by G. StrozzL Prologue and 3 acts. 

No connection with La finta Pazza Licori> 
another libretto by Strozzi, set to music by Mon- 
teverdi in 1627. Sacrati's opera was written for 
the opening of the fourth Venetian opera-house 
("Teatro Novissimo"); it was very successful 
there (performed 12 times in 17 days) and was 
perhaps revived at the same theatre in 1644 (as 
the libretto was reprinted in that year). It was also 
given at Piacenza 1644; Bologna 1647; Genoa 
1647; Milan 1662. 

Lafinta Pazza was also one of the first Italian 
operas ever performed in Paris (at the Salle du 
Petit Bourbon 14 December 1645). Strictly 
speaking, it was the second, having been preceded 
by an unknown Italian opera, performed at the 
Palais Royal in February or March of the same 
year 1645, as we know from a letter written by 
the singer Atto Melani (the brother of the com- 
poser Jacopo Melani) to his protector Prince 
Mattias de'Medici. 

Ademollo who first published that letter (in his 
I primi Fasti delta Musica italiana a Parigi, 1884) 
suggested that the unknown opera, mentioned by 
Melani, might have been Lafinta Pazza; conse- 
quently the date of 25 February 1645 for the 
Paris production of Sacrati's opera is given in 
many books of reference. 

In 191 3 H. Prunieres published his L* Opera Ita- 
lien en France avant Lulli in which he demon- 
strated that it must have been a different work 
which was produced in Paris in Carnival 1645. 
But, on his part, Prunieres conjectured that the 
unknown opera was Nicandro e Fileno (by Loren- 
zani, see 1681), the music of which, discovered by 
Prunieres himself some years later, he attributed 
to Marazzoli. And, although Prunieres corrected 
himself (Revue Musicale, August 1922), his con- 
jecture left its traces in many books published not 
only between 191 3 and 1922 but also later (as in 
E. J. Dent's Foundations of English Opera, 1928, 
p.45). We still do not know which Italian opera 
actually was performed in Paris in February 1645. 



19 



20 



1641-42 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1642 



We may assume that, when H. Kretzschmar in 
Jahrbuch der Musik-Bibliothek Peters, 1903, p.82, 
expressly rectifies a "mistake" of Grimm's (which 
is no mistake but perfectly correct), he was a 
victim of the same confusion. 

Monteverdi: II Ritorno d'Ulisse 
inPatria* 

February. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by G. Badoaro. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Of this opera only a scenario was printed in 
1641 ; a MS of the libretto is in the Biblioteca di 
S. Marco, Venice, a ms of the score in the Na- 
tional-Bibliothek, Vienna. (The authenticity of 
the latter has been doubted by some authorities.) 
The score was published in 1923 (in Denkmaler 
der Tonkmist in Osterreich, edited by R. Haas). 
From some differences between the Venice lib- 
retto and the Vienna score (which is in 3 acts) it 
would appear that the opera was altered for a 
Vienna production; but there is no evidence to 
show that a performance at Vienna actually took 
place. 

The opera was revived in concert form at the 
Institut des Hautes Etudes, Brussels 9 January 
1925 (fragments only; French version by C. van 
den Borren); on the stage: Paris, Petite Scene 16 
May 1925 (French version by X. de Courville, 
reduced to 3 acts, music adapted and re-scored by 
Vincent d'Indy) ; and, once more, in concert form, 
by the Schola Cantorum Paris 2$ February 1927. 
In London the work was broadcast 16 January 
1928 (English version by D. M. Craig). 



I642 

luigi rossi: Palazzo d'Atlante 
incantato 

22 February. Rome, Pal. Barberini 
Text by G. Rospigliosi (the future Pope Clement 
ix). Three acts. 

Apparently no libretto was printed. The above 
title is taken from a ms copy of the text (Biblio- 
teca Nazionale, Florence). Different titles are to be 



found in ms copies of the score, viz. // Palagio 
d'Atlante: overo La Guerriera amante (Bologna 
score) and // Palazzo incantato (Rome score). 

The opera seems to have been revived at Pesaro 
about 1670. Extracts from the music were pub- 
lished by H. Goldschmidt in 1901, 

Monteverdi: V IncoTOtiatione * 

di Poppea 

Autumn. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by G. F. Busenello (opera musicale). Prologue 
and 3 acts. 

Monteverdi's last opera. Revived at Venice, 
SS. G. e P. Carnival 1646; given at Naples 1651 
(as // Nerone overo V incoronatione di Popped), by 
the company of "I Febi Armonici" as one of the 
earliest operas there, if not the first. 

Libretto printed in 165 1 (at Naples) and 1656 
(in Busenello's Ore ociose). For the Venice pro- 
ductions in 1642 and 1646 only scenarios were 
printed. 

From the MS score at the Biblioteca di San 
Marco, Venice, the music was published by H. 
Goldschmidt in 1904 (in Vol. 11 of Studien zur 
Geschichte der italienischen Oper im 1 j.Jahrhundert). 
The Naples score has also been preserved. A fac- 
simile edition of the Venice score was published 
in 1938 (edited by G. Benvenuti). 

V Incoronatione di Poppea is the first opera on a 
historical (instead of mythological, biblical, or 
poetical) subject. It has been revived frequently in 
recent times, first in concert form, by the Schola 
Cantorum, Paris 24 February 1905 (music ar- 
ranged by V. d'Indy); at the Institut des Hautes 
Etudes, Brussels February 1922 (in Italian). 

Stage productions took place at: 
paris, th. des arts 5 February 1913 (in French). 

NORTHAMPTON, MASS., SMITH COLLEGE 27 April 
1926. 

buenos aires 9 August 1927 (d'Indy 's version) 
and 7 August 1938 (Benvenuti's version). 

oxford, university opera club 6 December 
1927 (in English, translated by R. L. Stuart). 

new york, juilliard school of music 23 Feb- 
ruary 1933 (in Italian). 



1642-44 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1644-45 



Florence, giardino BOBGU 3 June 1937 (music 
arranged by G. Benvenuti). 

Vienna, v.o. 25 September 1937 (in German, 
translated and orchestrated by E. Kfenek). 

Paris, o.c. 23 December 1937 (in French, trans- 
lated by C. van den Borren) ; this version had 
previously been heard at Brussels April 1923 
(fragments only, in concert form, orchestrated 
by R. Moulaert). 

I643 

c A v A l l i : UEgisto* 
Autumn. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by G. Faustini (Favola dramatica musicale)* 
Prologue and 3 acts. 

Also given at Rome 1643 (at the French Am- 
bassador's); Genoa 1645; Paris February 1040; 
Florence [27 May] 1646; Bologna, T.Formagliari 
1647 (revived 1659); perhaps also Naples 1651 
(unrecorded reprint of the libretto, published 
Venice and Naples 1651, in the British Museum). 
Libretto also reprinted Florence 1667; Modena 
1667. 

It has been stated by various authors that Ca- 
valli wrote this opera for the Vienna court and 
that it was produced there in 1642. Apart from 
the fact that the autograph score of UEgisto is in 
the Vienna National-Bibliothek, there is no evi- 
dence to show that the opera was produced there 
at all, let alone earlier than at Venice. Cavalli's 
7th opera and the first he wrote for soloists only. 
He used the chorus again in his Ercole amante, 
1662. 

1644 

staden: Seelewig 
??. Nuremberg 
Text by G. P. HarsdorfFer. Prologue and 3 acts. 
The full title reads: Das Geistliche Waldgedicht, 
oder Freudenspiely genant Seelewig, Gesangsweis auf 
Italienische Artgesetzet. Published in HarsdorfFer s 
Frauenzimmer Gesprechspiele (8 vols., 1641-1649), 
Vol. rv (1644), first the text, and on pp.489-622 



the music, for voices and thorough bass. It was 
reprinted, in vocal score, by R. Eitner in 1881 
(in Vol. xm of Monatshefte fur Musik-Geschichte). 

In a note, HarsdorfFer alludes to a performance 
(which presumably took place at some private 
house at Nuremberg). There are records of pro- 
ductions at Wolfenbuttel in 1654 and at Augsburg 
as late as 1698 (see Die Musik, in, p.345). Revivals 
took place at Cologne in 1912 (arranged by R. 
Schulz-Dornburg) and at Gera in 1924. 

As the music of Schiitz's Daphne (see 1627) is 
lost, Seelewig is regarded as the first extant 
example of German opera. The first German 
opera preserved in full score dates only from 1671 

I645 

r o v e t t A : Ercole in Lidia 

Carnival. Venice, T. Novissimo 
Text by M. Bisaccioni. Prologue and 3 acts. 

The first and probably the only produced opera 
of Rovetta, who in 1643 had succeeded Monte- 
verdi as maestro di cappella of S. Marco, Venice. 
(He himself was succeeded by Cavalli in 1668.) 
John Evelyn attended a performance of this opera 
(see his Diary, Bray's edition, 1, p.204). Music 
lost. 

cOLONNA:La Proserpina rapita 

5 January. Rome, Pal. Gallicano 
Text by O. Castelli. Prologue and five acts. 

A MS score of this opera was discovered in the 
Royal Music Library, British Museum, and iden- 
tified by W. Barclay Squire (see his paper An 
Opera under Innocent x, in Gedenkboek . . . Dr. D. 
F. Scheurleer, 1925). 

John Evelyn was present at a revival on 8 April 
1645, and mentions the performance in his Diary 
(Bray's edition, 1, p. 177). Of the libretto no copy 
seems to have been traced yet. 

"The whole work is not a masterpiece, but so 
few operas of the Roman School of the period 
have survived that its recovery is of considerable 
musical interest" (W. B. Squire). 



23 



24 



1647-49 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1649 



I647 

luigi rossi: UOrfeo* 

2 March. Paris, Palais Royal 
Text by F. Buti (tragicomcdia per musica). Prologue 
and 3 acts. 

The libretto was not printed ; a manuscript of 
it is in the Biblioteca Barbcrini, Rome. Only an 
"abrege," in French, was published in 1647. The 
score was discovered by Romain Rolland in the 
Biblioteca Chigi, Rome, in 1888, and parts of the 
music were printed in H. Goldschmidt*s Studien 
zur Geschichte der italivnischen Oper im ij.Jahr- 
hundert (1901). 

Not the first Italian opera produced at Paris, 
but the first which was commissioned and ex- 
pressly written for the French capital. The dates 
of 26 February or 3 March (given in some books 
of reference) are to be rectified. See further, H. 
Prunicrcs, L'Opera en France avant Ltilli (1913), 
pp.86-150. 

I649 

cavalli: Giasone* 

[5 January]. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by G. A. Cicognini (dramwa tmtsicale). 
Prologue and 3 acts. 

Cavalli's most successful work; the libretto 
had to be reprinted at Venice three times in the 
course of two years, and there were further edi- 
tions in 1654, 1664, and 1666. Giasone was sub- 
sequently given at Milan 1650; Florence 1650; 
Bologna December 1651; Naples 1653; Rome 
1654; Piacenza 1655; Palermo 1655; Vicenza 
1658; Ferrara 1659; Viterbo 1659; Genoa 1661; 
Ancona December 1664; Siena 1666 (altered); 
Brescia 1667. 

There were revivals at Florence 1651, 1656, 
1658, 1662 and 1680; Naples i<5<5i, 1667 and 1672; 
Milan 1662; Venice, S. Cass. 23 February 1666; 
Rome, Tord. 24 January 1671 (as II novello Gia- 
sone, with a new prologue and other additions by 
A. Stradella); and Bologna 1673. A last revival at 
Rome in 1676 according to Ademollo did not 



take place owing to Pope Innocent xi's dislike of 
theatrical entertainments. The libretto, however, 
was printed beforehand (copies in the Conserva- 
toire, Brussels, and in the British Museum). 
Sonncck, in his note on the Rome 1671 edition of 
Giasone (Washington Catalogue, p.557), misin- 
terprets Wotquenne's remark (Brussels Cata- 
logue, p.78); it was the 1676, not the 1671, revival 
which was prohibited (Innocent xi was not 
elected until 1676). 

The music of Giasone has been preserved; parts 
of it were published by Eitner in Vol. xn of 
Publihationen der Gesellschaft fur Musikforschung 
(1883). 

cesti: Orontea* 

[20 January]. Venice, SS. Apostoli 
Text by G. A. Cicognini (drama musicale). Pro- 
logue and 3 acts. 

Ccsti's first opera. Written for the inauguration 
of the short-lived Teatro dei Santi Apostoli 
(which was the fifth Venetian opera-house). Very 
successful in Italy and one of the earliest Italian 
operas to be given in Germany. Revived at Ven- 
ice, SS.G. e P. [10 January] 1666 and Carnival 
1683. Outside Venice produced at Genoa 1660; 
Turin 1662; Milan 1662 and 1664; Ferrara 1663; 
Macerata [22 June] 1665 ; Bologna 1665 and 1669; 
Palermo 1667; Lucca Carnival 1668; Naples pri- 
vately 1674 ("musica rinnovata" perhaps at the 
Princess of Avpllino's, by the "Filomolpi"); 
Reggio 1674; Hanover February 1678 (probably 
first opera there, text revised); Wolfenbuttel 
August 1686. 

There must have been other productions be- 
tween 1649 and 1662, as in the Turin libretto is 
an allusion to the successful vogue of Orontea in 
all parts of Italy. 

(For a French adaptation of the libretto, see 
1688.) 

leardini: La Psiche 

September. Mantua 
Text by D. Gabrielli (tragicomedia rappresentata in 
musica). Prologue and 5 acts. 



25 



26 



1649-50 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1650-51 



Written for the wedding of Charles n, Duke 
of Mantua, with Isabella Clara, Archduchess of 
Austria. Score preserved. 



I65O 

dassoucy: Andromede 

February. Paris, Petit Bourbon 
Text by P. Corneille. Prologue and 5 acts. 

This Tragedie Representee avec les Machines . . . 
may be and has been regarded as a forerunner 
of French opera. The music, it is true, plays but a 
subordinate part in the play; there are some airs 
and duets and several choruses. In a letter written 
in 1672, Dassoucy claims: "II scait que c'est moi 
qui ay donn6 Tame aux vers de F Andromede de 
Mr. de Corneille." Only fragments of the music 
are extant. Andromede was revived at the Come- 
die-Francaise 19 July 1682, with new music by 
Charpentier. A Dutch translation by F. Ryk was 
published in 1699. 

See J. Carlez, Pierre et Thomas Corneille, Libret- 
tistes (1881), pp.8-16; H. Prunieres in his VOpha 
italien en France avant Lulli (1913) and in Revue 
Musicale, 1937-39 ("Les Aventures de M. Das- 
soucy"). Prunieres mentions another early op- 
eratic attempt by the same composer, a pastoral 
play Les Amours d*Apollon et de Daphne, of which 
Dassoucy also wrote the words. The text was 
printed in 1650, but there is no record of a per- 
formance. 

zamponi: Ulisse alVlsola di Circe 

24 February. Brussels 

Text probably by A. Amalteo (who signed the 

dedicatory poem in the libretto). Prologue, 3 acts 

and licenza. 

First opera ever produced at Brussels, cele- 
brating the wedding of Philip iv, King of Spain, 
with the Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria. 
Repeated at Brussels 4 February 1655 in honour 
of a visit of Queen Christina of Sweden. Libretto 
printed in 1650 (copy at Dresden). Score pre- 
served (at Vienna). 



See R. Haas in Zeitschriftfur Musikwissenschaft, 
Vol. m (1920-21), p.385, and Vol. v (1922-23), 
p.63 ; and H. Liebrecht in he Flambeau, December 
1 921. 

I65I 

cavalli: UOristeo 

Carnival Venice, S. Apollinare 
Text by G. Faustini (drama per musica). Prologue 
and 3 acts. 

, Written for the inauguration of the short-lived 
Teatro Sant' Apollinare which was the sixth Ve- 
netian opera-house. 

Revived Bologna [2 January] 1656 as VOristeo 
travestito, altered {per cosl dire, mascherato); ac- 
cording to Allacci with intermezzi by Niccolo 
Zoppio Turchi, but they do not appear in the 
Bologna libretto as described by Sonneck; Per- 
haps he was responsible for the numerous alter- 
ations. 

c a v a L l I : Alessandro Vincitor 
di se Stesso 

[20 January]. Venice, SS.G. e P. 

Text by F. Sbarra (dramma musicale). Prologue 

and 3 acts. 
One of Cavalli's more successful works. Given 

at: 

Florence [15 January] 1653 (libretto British Mu- 
seum; 15 January 1653 is the date of dedica- 
tion; imprint 1654) 

bologna 1655 

Munich 28 February 1658 

MILAN 1659 

Naples [8 October] 1662 

As hardly any of the above-mentioned librettos 
have the name of the composer, it should be 
mentioned that there exists a second setting by 
Cesti and Bigongiari (see Sonneck's Catalogue, 
p.56), produced at Lucca 3 February 1654. This 
Lucca edition is remarkable as a very early 
instance of a libretto with a printed cast. A new 
edition (quarta impressione), Rome 1664 (see Wot- 
quenne's Catalogue p.n) was printed for reading 



(probably Cavalli's 
setting) 



27 



28 



1651-53 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1653-54 



purposes rather than for an actual revival, as it 
retains the Lucca cast; so was the Bologna edition 
of 1683, mentioned by Allaci. 

I652 

bertali: Theti 
March. Mantua 
Text by D. Gabrielli (Fauola dramatica). Prologue 
and 5 acts. 

Produced to celebrate the arrival of the Arch- 
duke Ferdinand Carl and his consort Anna de'Me- 
dici on their visit to Italy. Revived Vienna 13 
July 1656. 

One of the few operas of Bertali, the music of 
which is extant. Bertali had been appointed court 
conductor at Vienna in 1649 (succeeding Gio- 
vanni Valentini), and as opera performances 
began at Vienna about that year, he is the first 
holder of that important post with whom we 
have to deal. Felice Sances became his successor 
in 1669 (q.v.). 

I653 

bertali: Ulnganno d'Amore 

[20 February], Regensburg 
Text by B. Ferrari. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Besides the Italian libretto, a German argument 
Innhalt und Verfassung der Comoedi Von Liebs Betrug 
was published in 1653. 

One of the earliest Italian operas performed in 
Germany. It was dedicated to the Emperor Fer- 
dinand in and produced at the Imperial Diet. 
Music lost. 

cavalli: UOrione 

[15 June}. Milan, T.R.D. 
Text by F. Melosio. Prologue and 3 acts. 

The first opera Cavalli was commissioned to 
write for a town other than Venice (to celebrate 
the election of Ferdinand iv as King of the 
Romans). 

The opera does not seem to have been revived 
at Venice, although the text was reprinted there 



(in 1683 according to Allacci; but also earlier, in 
1673, as a copy in the British Museum proves). 
Libretto also published Genoa 1653. 

MARAZZOLI and ABBATINi: 

Dal Male il Bene* 
About July. Rome, Pal. Barbcrini 
Text by G. Rospigliosi (the future Pope Clement 
ix). Dramma musicale. Prologue and 3 acts. First 
and third act composed by Abbatini, second act 
by Marazzoli. 

Libretto not printed. Music extant (partly pub- 
lished by H. Goldschmidt in 1901). Produced at 
the wedding of MafFeo Barbcrini, Prince of Pa- 
lestrina, with Olimpia Giustiniani. 



I654 

cavalli: Xerse 

[12 January}. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by N. Minato. Prologue and 3 acts. 

One of Cavalli's most celebrated works. Given 
at Genoa 1656; Naples 1657; revived at Venice 
1657 (with new prologue, intermezzi and other 
additions); Bologna 1657 (with alterations); Pa- 
lermo 1658 (first opera ever produced there; with 
alterations and comic intermezzi); Verona 1665 
and Milan 1665 (altered by C. Righenzi). 

In Italian also given at Paris 22 November 1660 
(at the Grande Galerie du Louvre, celebrating the 
wedding of Louis xiv and Maria Theresa of 
Austria; Lully provided the airs de ballet for this 
production). 

cavalli: IlCiro 

[30 January}. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by G. C. Sorentino (according to the pre- 
face earlier given at Naples with music by some 
other, unknown, composer). Prologue and 3 acts. 
According to the preface, Cavalli composed 
only those parts of the music made necessary by 
the textual alterations per accomodarsi al costume of 
Venice. 



29 



30 



1654 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1654-55 



Also given at Genoa 1654; revived Venice, SS. 
G. e P. [4 February] 1665 (with additional music 
by A. Mattioli) ; Bologna Carnival 1666 (with in- 
termezzi by G. P. Cremata) and 1671 ; Modena 
1675; Perugia 1678; Pistoia 1697. 

The prologue was published by E. Wellesz in 
191 3 (Vol. I of Studien zur Musikwissenschaft). 

caproli: Le Nozze di Peleo 
e di Theti 

14 April Paris, Petit Bourbon 
Text by F. ButL Prologue and 3 acts. 

After Rossi's Orfeo (see 1647), this was the 
second Italian opera commissioned and written 
expressly for Paris. Libretto printed in 1654. Of 
the music only the airs de ballet are extant 
(whether they were composed by Caproli, or 
rather by some French composer, is an open 
question). 

"L'Orfeo avait etc" un veritable opera; les bal- 
lets qui s'y trouvaient n'avaient qu'un role en 
quelque sorte decoratif et £taient dans& par des 
professionels. Au contraire dans Le Nozze la fu- 
sion de l'oplra italien et du ballet de Cour fran^ais 
est aussi complete que possible. Le ballet, au lieu 
de se suffire a lui-meme, tire sa raison d'etre de la 
comddie et celle-ci fait participer le ballet a Tac- 
tion dramatique" (Prunieres). 

Buti's text seems to be the earliest Italian 
libretto which was translated into English, as 
"The Nuptials ofPeleus and Thetis. A new Italian 
Comedy, whence the preceding Mask was ex- 
tracted; Made English by a nearer adherence to 
the Original, than to the French Translation," 
1654. The translator was James Howell, Historio- 
grapher Royal to Charles n. (In the British 
Museum catalogued, with a question-mark, as a 
translation of D. Gabrielli's 5-act The ti text, see 
1652.) 

cirillo: UOtontea Regina di Egitto 

??. Naples 
Cicognini's text (first composed by Cesti, see 
1649). Three acts. 



The first extant example of an opera by a 
Neapolitan composer, though possibly some of 
Cesti's music was retained. The libretto published 
in 1654 says the work was "arricchita di nuova 
musica da Francesco Cirillo". For an analysis of 
the score see N. d'Arienzo's Dell* opera eomica 
dalle origini a G. B. Pergolesi (1887). It is not 
known whether the opera was produced at the 
Teatro S. Bartolomeo, at the Royal Palace, or 
elsewhere. 



1655 

cavalli: L'Erismena* 
January. Venice, Sant'Apollinare 
Text by A. Aureli. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Revised Venice, S. Salv. [13 February] 1670 
(with alterations and without the prologue). Also 
given at Bologna, T. Formagliari 1661 and re- 
vived there 1668; Florence 1661; Milan [11 Feb- 
ruary] 1661; Genoa 1666; Lucca Carnival 1668; 
Forli 1673 (with added intermezzi); and Brescia 
(undated libretto printed). 

The scores of both the 1655 and the 1670 ver- 
sions are extant. 

la guerre: Le Triomphe de V Amour 
sur des Bergers et Bergeres 
22 January. Paris, Louvre 
Text by C. de Beys. One art. 

Libretto printed 1654 (copy Bibl. Mazarine, 
Paris) and again c.1661-62 (copy Bibl. Nat., 
Paris). Called in the second edition Pastorale . . . 
mise en musique. 

Publicly rehearsed 15 December 1654, first per- 
formed at the Louvre 22 January 1655, probably 
in concert form. 

Repeated, as indicated in the second edition, 
26 March 1657 "Devant Leurs Majestez" with 
some alterations and, this time, probably with 
scenery. 

In a dedicatory letter to Louis xrv (in his 
Oeuvres en vers de divers Autheurs . . ., c.1662) La. 
Guerre says: "11 y a quelques annees qu'ayant eu 



31 



32 



1655-56 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1656 



Thonneur de faire reprcsenter devant Votre Ma- 
jeste une Comedie francaise en Musique, intitulce 
Le Triomphe de l'Amour, Elle temoigna ne pas 
desagreer tout a fait la nouveaute de cette Piece, 
dont j'avois invente la maniere et qui est en effet 
le premier ouvrage de cette sorte qui ait jamais 
paru en ce Royaume. . . ." Four years later, 
exactly the same claim was made by Perrin and 
Cambert (see 1659). 

The discovery of this earliest example of French 
opera is due to H. Quittard (La premiere comedie 
francaise en musique, in Bulletin Francais de la S.I.M., 
April and May, 1908). 

The music, like that of Cambert's Pastorale (see 
1659) seems to be lost. 



the same year, 1656. Last opera produced at the 
the Barberini Theatre, in honour of Queen 
Christina of Sweden, to whom the score (Dramma 
musicale) is dedicated. It was printed in 1658, apart 
from Bontempfs Paride (see 1662), the last Italian 
opera of the 17th century which was published. 
It is only about 100 years later that we find 
printed scores of Italian operas again. (See the 
astonishingly small list compiled by O. G. T. 
Sonneck in his Miscellaneous Studies in the History 
of Music, 1921, pp.305-7.) While printed scores 
of Italian operas are an exception, they are the 
rule with French operas; nearly all of them were 
published, until 1775 almost exclusively by the 
firm of Ballard. 



cesti: VArgia 

4 November. Innsbruck 
Text by A. Apolloni {dramma musicale). Prologue 
and 3 acts. 

Produced at Innsbruck m the presence of Queen 
Christina of Sweden, in honour of her conversion 
to Catholicism. Also given at Rome 1657 and 1661 
(libretto published; produced?); Naples 1667; 
Venice, S. Salv. [13 January] 1669 (altered and 
without the prologue); Milan [20 February] 
1669; Siena 1670 (first opera there); Genoa and 
Reggio 1671; Udine 1673. For an account of the 
Innsbruck production see A. SandbergerinSmwfc 
Tidskrift for Musikforskning, 1924. 



I656 

marazzoli: La Vita umana ovvero 

II Trionfo Mia Pieta 

31 January. Rome, Pal. Barberini 

Text probably by J. Rospigliosi. Prologue and 

3 acts. 

The libretto (published in 1656 as // Trionfo 
della Pieta) has been attributed to Giulio Rospi- 
gliosi, the future Pope Clement ix. That it was 
written by his nephew Jacopo, appears from the 
Historia . . . di Christina . . . di Svetia, by Gualdo 
Priorato Conte Goleazzo, published at Rome in 



locke and others: The Siege 
of Rhodes 

September. London, Rutland House 

Text by W. D'Avenant. ("Made a Representa- 
tion by the Art of Prospective in Scenes, And the 
Story sung in Recitative Musick. At the back 
part of Rutland-House in the upper end of Alders- 
gate-Street.") Five entries. 

Libretto printed in 1656 (dedication dated 
17/27 August). From D'Avenant's preface we 
learn that "The Musick was compos'd and both 
the Vocal and Instrumental is excrcis'd by the 
most transcendent of England in that Art, and 
perhaps not unequal to the best Masters abroad; 
but being Recitative, and therefore unpractis'd 
here; though of great reputation amongst other 
Nations, the very attempt of it is an obligation 
to our own." 

At the end of the libretto, the composers are 
enumerated as follows : 

The Composition of Vocal Musick was perform'd 



The 



First Entry 
Second Entry 
Third Entry 
Fourth Entry 
Fifth Entry 



by 



Mr. Henry Lawes 
Capt. Henry Cook 
Capt. Henry Cook 
Mr. Matthew Lock 
Mr. Henry Lawes 



The Instrumental Musick was compos'd by 
£>r. Charles Coleman, and Mr. George Hudson. 



33 



34 



1656 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1657-5& 



The text was reprinted in 1659, and again in 
1663 and 1670, followed by a second part, "as 
they were lately (probably 28 June/8 July 1661, 
first part, and 29 June/9 July, second part; cf. 
Pepys, 2 July 1661) represented at His Highness 
the Duke of York's Theatre in Lincolns-Inn 
Fields". In the 1663 edition no composers are 
mentioned. 

The Siege of Rhodes is rightly to be claimed as 
the first English opera. It was regarded as such as 
early as 1695, in the preface to The Fairy-Queen 
(see 1695): "That Sir William Davenant's Siege 
of Rhodes was the first Opera we ever had in Eng- 
land, no Man can deny; and is indeed a perfect 
Opera. . . ." 

The music of The Siege of Rhodes unfortunately 
seems to be lost. 

melani: II Potesta di Colognole* 

c. 26 December. Florence, P. 
Text by G. A. Moniglia (Dramma Civile Rustic 
cole). Three acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the "Teatro 
degli Immobili in Via della Pergola," Florence. 

Original libretto in the Rolandi collection, 
Rome. The score in the Biblioteca Chigi, Rome 
(discovered by Rolland), has the title La Tancia 
overo U Podesta di Colognole. 

The text was reprinted in 1689 in Moniglia's 
Poesie Dramatiche. In the preface to this edition 
Moniglia states that the opera was repeated at 
Florence (Teatro de' SS. Accademici Infuocati) 
in honour of the Archduke Ferdinand Carl of 
Austria, "and that it was performed also at Bo- 
logna, Pisa and in other towns of Tuscany. 

The revival at Florence was in Autumn 1661 
(dedication dated 6 October 1661), the produc- 
tion at Bologna in 1673 (according to Allacci). 
No Pisa nor any other edition recorded by Allacci, 

Contains a parody of the incantation scene in 
Cavalli's Giasone (published in Atti delV Ace. del 
R. 1st. Musicale di Firenze, xxxm (1895), Suppl. 
no.3). See for an analysis of the opera, H. Gold- 
schrnidt's Studien zur Geschichte der italienischen 
Oper im 17. Jahrhundert (1901), where also parts 
of the music are reprinted. 

35 



1657 

p. A. ziani: Le Fortune di Rodope, 
e di Damira 

Carnival. Venice, S. Apollinare 
Text by A. Aureli. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Ziani's first extant opera and one of his best 
works. Also given at Bologna Carnival 1658 (re- 
vived 1670); Milan 1660; Leghorn [15 May] 
1661; Turin 1662 (as one .of the first operas ever 
given there) ;Ferrara 1662; Palermo 1669; Reggio 
1674. 

This was the only opera produced at Venice in 
1657 and the last which was given at the T. S. 
Apollinare. 

kerll: UOronte 

February. Munich 
Text by G. G. Alcaini. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the first Mu- 
nich opera-house. Music lost, like the rest of 
Kerll* s Italian operas. 

The building of the first Munich opera-house 
was pulled down in 1802. Later opera-houses were 
the Resideiiz-Theater (opened with Ferradini's 
Catone in Utica t see 1753) and the Hof- und Natio- 
naltheater (opened 12 October 1818, burnt down 
14 January 1823, re-opened 2 January 1825). 

j. J. loewe?: Amelinde 

20 April. Brunswick 
Text by Anton Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick 
(Singe-Spiel). Prologue, 5 acts, and epilogue. 

The full title reads: Amelinde, Oder: Dy trium- 
phirende Seele f Wy sy nach vielerley versuchenden 
Anfechtungen uberwindet, und Gottlicher Gnade 
fahigwird. Of this early German opera only the 
libretto is extant. The music probably was by 
Loewe. 

I658 

luc cio: IlMedoro 

[11 January]. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by A. Aureli (founded on an episode in 
Ariosto's Orlando furioso). Prologue and 3 acts. 

3<$ 



1658-59 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1659-60 



The last of Luccio's four operas and the only 
one which is extant (ms score at Venice; airs 
printed). 

Krctzschmar calls attention to the overture and 
to the ghost-raising scene of this opera. 

(The name of the composer appears in different 
publications as Luzzo, Lucio, or Luccio. The 
works listed by Eitncr, vi, pp.237 and 258, belong 
to one and the same composer.) 

c A v A l l I ; UHipcrmestra 
18 June. Florence, P. 
Text by G. A. Moniglia. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Written to celebrate the birth of the Infante of 
Spain, son of King Philip iv. This was the third 
opera performed at the Teatro della Pergola. 

In the preface to the libretto Cavalli is called 
"egli che viene oggi reputato il primo composi- 
tore d'ltalia, particolarmente sopra lo stile dram- 
matico". The libretto was reprinted at Bologna 
in the same year. 

1659 

cambert: Pastorale 

April Issy 
Text by P. Perrin. Five acts. 

The full title reads : "Premiere Comedie Fran- 
chise en Musique, Representee en France. Pasto- 
rale. Mise en Musique par Monsieur Camber. . . ." 
First produced privately at M. de la Haye's at Issy, 
near Paris (the house is now the Seminaire de 
Saint-Sulpice), and after eight or ten perform- 
ances there also given at Vincennes before Louis 
xiv (still in April 1659), on Mazarin's suggestion. 

Perrin gives a detailed account of the Pastorale 
and its production in a letter to the Archbishop 
of Turin, dated 30 April 1659, which he printed 
as a preface to a new edition of the libretto in his 
Les Oeuurcs de Pocsie (Paris 1661). The letter has 
been reprinted in Pougin's Les vrais Criateurs de 
VOpira francais (1881). It is a very interesting 
document and of high importance for the early 
history of French opera. 

The music of this, Cambert's first opera, is lost. 



The text was first printed in 1659 (permission 
d'imprimer dated 16 March) and again in 1661 (see 
above). 

The Pastorale d*Issy> as it is commonly called, 
was for a long time regarded as the first French 
opera until Henry Quittard pointed out the 
priority of La Guerrc's Lc Triomphe de V Amour 
(sec 1655). 

mariani: Amore vuol Gioventu 

??. Vitcrbo 
Text by L. Cortcsi (Scherzo drammatico). Three 
acts. 

Also given at Bologna 1664. Of this early 
comic opera (three characters only) no libretto 
seems to be known. The score has been preserved 
in the Biblioteca di S. Marco, Venice. 

J. j. loewe: Orpheus aus Thracien 

30 August. Wolfenbuttel 
Text by Anton Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick (Tra- 
gisches Gedicht). Prologue and 3 acts. 

The music of this second opera of Loewe (cf. 
1657) is also lost. 

Only the libretto is extant, the full title of 
which reads: Orpheus aus Thracien, Der Calliope 
und des Apollinis Sohn> wie er seine Eurydice nach 
ihrem Tode unter der Erden gesuchet, gefunden, und 
wieder verlohren, auch selbst elendiglich umbhommen. 

1660 

p. A. ziani: UAntigona delusa 
da Alceste 

[13 January]. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by A. Aureli (drama per musica). Prologue 
and 3 acts. 

One of the older Ziani's most successful operas. 
Given at Bologna 1661; Milan [15 April] 1662; 
Naples 1669; Venice, S. Salv. Carnival 1670 (re- 
vived) ; Hanover February 1679 (as L*Alccste f text 
revised by O. Mauro, with additional music by 
M. Trento) and June 1681 (with a new prologue 
by Valente, music by P. A. Fiocco). 



37 



38 



i66o-6i 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1661-62 



hidalgo: Celos aun del Ayre matan 

5 December. Madrid, Buen Retiro 
Text by P. Calderon de la Barca (Festa . . . Can- 
tada). Three acts. 

The libretto appears to have been first printed 
in 1662. The earliest Spanish opera (on the sub- 
ject of Cephalus and Procris; the title means 
"Jealousy, even of air, is deadly") which has been 
partly preserved. The music of the first act ("Pri- 
mera Jornada"), for voices and bass, was dis- 
covered by J. Subira in the musical library at the 
Duke of Alba's palace (Biblioteca del Palacio de 
Liria), Madrid (see his La Mdsica en la Casa de 
Alba, 1927, pp.57-82). Subira edited a vocal score 

in 1933. 

The date of production was established by E. 
Cotarelo y Mori (see Boletin de la Academxa Es- 
panola t December 1932, p.756). For an analysis of 
the work see O. Ursprung in Festschrift Arnold 
Schering, 1937. 

I66I 

kerix: L'Erinto 

Carnival? Munich 
Text by P. P. Bissari. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Written to celebrate the birth of the Bavarian 
Princess Maria Anna Christina. Revived at 
Munich in August 1671 in honour of a visit of. 
the Archbishop of Salzburg, Maximilian Gan- 
dolph. Music lost. 

(As the Princess was born on 7 November 
1660, the first production probably was in the 
following Carnival.) 

cesti: LaDori owero 
La Schiavafedele 
Carnival. Florence, T. dei Sorgenti 
Text by A. Apolloni. Prologue and 3 acts. 

One of the chief works and one of the most 
successful Italian operas of the 17th century. It 
was revived at Florence [24 or 25 October] at 
the same theatre in the same year and subse- 
quently given at Venice, S. Salv. [1 January] 



1663 (revived SS.G. e P. [16 January] 1667, with 
the sub-title Lo Schiavo reggio, and again in 
Carnival 1671); Ferrara 1663; Vienna 1664 (cele- 
brating the peace with the Turks); Macerata 
27 January 1665 (first opera there) ; Lucca Car- 
nival 1665; Parma 1665; Bologna 1667 and 
Carnival 1672; Reggio 1668; Florence 1670; 
Rome, Tord. 31 December 1671 (with a new 
prologue and other additions by A. Stradella); 
Mantua 1672 (as II regio Schiavo); Naples, Pal. 
Reale 6 November 1675 (revived S.B. 23 De- 
cember 1688, with a prologue and other addi- 
tions, partly by A. Scarlatti); Munich March 
1680 (with a new prologue by G. A. Bernabei; 
text altered by V. Terzago). 

Parts of the opera were published by Eitner in 
1883 (Vol. xn of Publikationen der Gesellschaftfiir 
Musikforschung). 

melani: Ercole in Tebe 
8 July. Florence, P. 
Text by G. A. Mbniglia. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Written for the wedding of Cosimo in de' 
Medici with the Princess Marguerite Louise 
d'Orleans. 

A detailed description of this magnificent 
"Festa teatrale" (the production of which cost 
nearly 100,000 Tuscan pounds) is to be found in 
Ademollo's J primi Fasti del Teatro di Via della 
Pergola in Firenze (1884). 

The libretto was later adapted "all* uso di Ve- 
netia" by A. Aureli and set to music by Boretti 
in 1670. 

1662 

cavalli: Ercole atnante* 
7 February. Paris, Tuileries 
Text by F. Buti. Prologue and 5 acts. 

According to the libretto, originally written 
for the wedding of Louis xrv with Maria Theresa 
of Austria, which had taken place already on 9 
July 1660. The belated production served for the 
inauguration of the "Theatre des Machines" 
at the Tuileries palace. The only opera Cavalli 



39 



40 



1 662 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1663-64 



wrote expressly for Paris. Lully provided the 
music for the accompanying ballets. 

A French translation, probably by C. Lilij, was 
printed with the Italian libretto, Paris 1662, and 
also published separately at Antwerp in the same 
year (copies in the British Museum). 

Not counting the Fontainebleau production of 
Lorenzani's Nicandro e Fileno in 168 1, this was the 
last Italian opera performed in Paris for 67 years 
(Orlandini's II Marito Giocatorc in 1729 being the 
next), and the last Italian opera seria even for 149 
years (up to the production of Paisiello's Pirro in 
1811). 



The first period of Italian opera at Paris, ter- 
minated by Ercole amante, can be summarized as 
follows: 

(1) An unknown Italian opera February 1645 

(2) LafintaPazza, by Sacrati (see 1641) 

14 December 1645 

(3) Egisto, by Cavalli (see 1643) February 1646 

(4) Orfeo, by Rossi 2 March 1647 

(5) Le Nozze di Peleo, by Caproli 14 April 1654 

(6) Xerse, by Cavalli (see 1654) 22 November 1660 

(7) Ercole amante, by Cavalli 7 February 1662 

bontempi: IlParide 

3 November. Dresden 
Text by the composer (opera mttsicale). Five acts. 

Written for the wedding of Erdmute Sophia, 
Princess of Saxony, with Christian Ernst, Mar- 
grave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. Score printed 
in 1662. 

First Italian opera produced at Dresden, on a 
provisional stage at the palace. Some years later, 
27 January 1667, a regular opera-house was 
inaugurated with the same composer's // Teseo. 
It was replaced by a new theatre in 1719 (see 
Lotti's Giove in Argo, 1717) and eventually by the 
Hoftheater, built by Semper (opened 12 April 
1 841 ; burnt down 21 September 1869; re-opened 
2 February 187S). 



1663 

rovettino: Gl'Atnori d' Apollo 
e di Leucotoe 

[8 January]. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by A. Aureli. Three acts. 

Of the three operas of Rovettino (who in 1690 
succeeded Legrenzi as maestro di cappella of S. 
Marco, Venice), the only one which is extant. It 
contains the earliest known example of an ac- 
companied recitative (recitativo stromentato). 

draghi: Achille in Sciro 

18 November. Vienna 
Text by O. Ximenes. Prologue, 3 acts and licenza. 
Draghi's first extant opera, out of a total of 
172, most of them written for the Vienna court, 
between 1661-99. 



I664 

cavalli: Scipione Africano* 

[p February}. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by N. Minato. Three acts. 

Revived at the same theatre Carnival 1678 
(with alterations by G. B. Viviani, text revised 
by T. Fattorini). Also given at Naples 6 Novem- 
ber 1667; Florence 1669; Ferrara 1669; Bologna 
1670; and Rome 8 January 1671 (with a prologue 
and intermezzi, Lesbo e Ceffea, by A. Stradella), 
at the inauguration of the Teatro "Tordinona" 
( = Torre di Nona), which was the first public 
opera-house at Rome. It was founded by Gia- 
como d'Alibert, pulled down in 1697, rebuilt in 
1733 and, after a fire on 29 January 1787, again 
in 1795, then renamed "Teatro Apollo". 

(See on the early history of the theatre, A. Ca- 
metti in Nttoua Antologia, 1 February 193 1.) 

Scipione Africano also given at Perugia 1677 as 
11 Trionfo della Contmenza; and Milan, T.R.D. [1 
February] 1692. 



41 



42 



1665-67 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1667 



I665 

cavalli: Mutio Scevola 
[26 January], Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by N. Minato. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Also given at Bologna 1665 and 1667. Cavalli's 
thirty-ninth opera. Minato's libretto occurs again 
towards the end of the century, in anonymous 
settings at Milan, T.R.D. [20 January] 1690, Rome 
(1695), Naples (1698) and Turin (1700). 

1666 

sartorio: Seleuco 

[16 January], Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by N. Minato. Three acts. 

Revived at the same theatre [16 January] 1668; 
at Milan 1671. The first extant opera of Sartorio, 
who from 1666-75 was court conductor at 
Hanover. 

CESTi: II Tito 
[13 February], Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by N. Beregani [melodrama). Three acts. 

Revived Rome, Tord. [12 February] 1672 
(with a prologue by A. Stradella) ; Lucca Sep- 
tember 1676. 

The libretto was dedicated to Maria Mancini, 
who mentions the opera in her memoirs: "J'y 
fus particulierement favorisee par Topera de Tite 
qui me fut d£die\ qui est assurement une des jolies 
pieces qu'on aie encore represente au theatre Gri- 
mani, ou je voulus bien assister cinq fois de suite 
y prenant beaucoup de plaisir, et ayant meme 
voulu cinq ans apres qu'on la representat de nou- 
veau a Rome a la Tour di None." 

I667 

sartorio: La Prosperita diElio Seiano 
and La Caduta di Elio Seiano 

Carnival, Venice, S. Salv. 
Text of both operas by N. Minato. Three acts 
each. 



The first example of an operatic "cycle"; the 
two parts were performed in turns on successive 
nights later in the season, beginning probably on 
3 February, when the dedication in the libretto 
of the second part was dated. 

It should be noted that the dedication in the 
libretto of the first part is dated 15 January 1666, 
which is either a misprint or old style ("more 
Veneto"), as the libretto itself has the imprint 
1667 and is listed as having been produced in 
Carnival 1667 by all chronologists of the Vene- 
tian stage. 

The first part was revived at Pisa 1670 ; Rome, 
Tord. 24 January 1672 (with intermezzi and a 
prologue added), and probably also at Lucca 14 
January 1675 and Bologna 1679. 

cesti: 1/ Porno d'Oro 

Carnival Vienna 

Text by F. Sbarra (Festa teatrale). Prologue and 
5 acts. 

Written to celebrate the wedding of the Em- 
peror Leopold 1 with the Infanta Margherita of 
Spain. Revived at Vienna 12 July 1668 (for the 
Empress's birthday). Libretto printed in 1667 and 
1668 ; in the latter year also a detailed argument, 
in German, was published; in 1672 there followed 
a German translation by J. G.Meyer. Of the music, 
only the prologue and the first, second and fourth 
acts are extant. They were published in Vols, m 
and iv of Denkmdler der Tonkunst in Osterreich in 
1896 and 1897 (edited by G. Adler). 

The exact date of the first production cannot 
be established (see Adler's introduction) ; the wed- 
ding was on 12 December 1666, and the Carnival 
ended 2 February 1667. 

It has been stated that II Porno d'Oro was revived 
at Madrid as late as 1703. But, according to Cota- 
relo y Mori, the play then produced was a mytho- 
logical comedy of the same tide and not Cesti's 
opera (which with its huge apparatus was not 
likely to be revived anywhere after the occasion 
for which it was written). 



43 



44 



1667-69 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1669-70 



cesti : Le Disorazie d'Amore 

Carnival. Vienna 

Text by F. Sbarra (dramma giocosomoralc). Pro- 
logue and 3 acts. 

After II Porno d'Oro this was Cesti's second 
opera produced at Vienna in that Carnival. The 
prologue was composed by the Emperor Leo- 
pold 1 himself. 

The libretto was reprinted at Rome later in the 
same year (dedication dated 14 December 1667), 
but (in spite of Ademollo's contrary statement) 
obviously rather for the book-shelf than for 
purposes of production. Score preserved. 



1668 



BORETTI 



Eliogabalo 



[1 January]. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by A. Aureli. Three acts. 

Also given at Genoa 1670; Bologna, T. For- 
magliari 1671 (with intermezzi by G. L. Pocchet- 
tini) ; Rome, Tord. 4 January 1673 (one of the 
operas performed there in honour of Queen 
Christina of Sweden; with a prologue added for 
the occasion); Milan 1674. 



1669 

sances: Apollo deluso 

gjune. Vienna 

Text by A. Draghi (the composer, who also 
wrote librettos occasionally). Three acts and 
I icenza. 

Parts of the music were composed by the Em- 
peror Leopold 1 (some airs published by G. Adler 
in Musikalische Werke der Kaiser, 1893). One of 
the few operas of Sances, who about the time of 
the. production of Apollo deluso became court con- 
ductor at Vienna, succeeding Bertali (who had 
died 1 April 1669). 



cavalli: IlCoriolano 
??. Piacenza 
Text by C. Ivanovich. Three acts* 
Cavalli's forty-first and last opera. Music lost. 
According to Allacci the opera was performed 
to celebrate the birth of Odoardo, son of the 
Duke Ranuccio 11 Farnese. T..e production is, 
however, not recorded in L. Balestricri's Festc c 
spettacoli alia corte dei Farncsi (1909). 



I67O 

MBL AN I '.Gircllo 
20 January. Florence, T. Cocomcro 
Text by F. Acciaiuoli [Dramma Musicalc Bur- 
lescho). Prologue and 3 acts. 

The story of this celebrated comic opera is 
rather complicated. The text was first published 
at Ronciglionc (near Rome) in 1668 (a copy of 
this earliest edition is in the British Museum). The 
preface mentions a production at Rome "nello 
scorso Carnevale" (viz. at Palazzo Colonna in the 
beginning of February 1668) and in a notice to 
the reader, the anonymous author protests against 
the reproach of obscenity. The composer of that 
earliest production is unknown. Perhaps the music 
was written by Acciaiuoli himself, who was a 
poet and a musician as well as a producer and 
manager and inventor of theatrical machines. 
Next, there were productions at Macerata and 
Bologna in 1669, but it is only in 1670 that we 
know for certain that Melani's music was used as 
the Florence libretto mentions him ("Con la 
musica del Sig. Jacopo Melani, raro ingegno del 
nostro sccolo"). Further productions, all of them 
anonymous, are recorded at Siena 1672; Naples, 
S.B. 1673; Milan, T.R.D. Carnival 1674; Fer- 
rara [22 October] 1674; Modena 1675; Reggio 
1676; Lucca September 1676 (not 1696); Venice, 
S. Moisc Carnival 1682; revived Bologna, T. 
Malvezzi Carnival 1696 and Florence, T. dei 
Sorgenti (?) 1697. 

The music of Girello has been preserved in two 
anonymous scores at Naples and Modena respect- 



45 



46 



1670 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1671 



ively. But is it Melani's music? According to 
Ademollo the scores correspond to the original 
1668 libretto rather than to those of the produc- 
tions at Florence 1670, Naples 1673, and Modena 
1675. For the Modena production Alessandro 
Stradella is known to have composed the pro- 
logue and it might have been used at Rome in 
1668 already. 

At Venice, 1682, the opera was sung by singers 
off-stage and performed by wax puppets. It has 
been stated that the music in 1682 was newly 
composed by one "Francesco Antonio Pistoc- 
chino," who has been identified with the well- 
known composer F. A. Pistocchi. But, as a matter 
of fact, the 1682 libretto is anonymous, as are all 
the others, and the music was attributed to Pis- 
tocchi only 50 years later by Bonlini. There is no 
sufficient evidence to show that Pistocchi ever 
composed II Girello. 

This was made clear by Ademollo as early as 
1890 (see his paper "La Storia del Girello," in 
Gazzetta Musicale di Milano) ; but the music is still 
ascribed to Pistocchi in many books and cata- 
logues, and his name is sometimes mentioned 
even in connection with earlier productions, such 
as 1672 (when Pistocchi was a boy of 13) and 
1675. 

draghi: Leonida in Tegea 

9 June. Vienna 

Text by N. Minato. Three acts and licenza. 

Written for the birthday of the Emperor Leo- 
pold 1, who himself contributed two airs. 

Revived Venice, S. Moise [9 February] 1676 
(with additional music by M. A. Ziani) and once 
more Vienna Carnival 1694. 

sances: Aristotnene Messenio 

22 December. Vienna 

Text by N. Minato. Three acts and licenza. 

Written for the birthday of Queen Marianna 
of Spain. Sances 's last opera. 



I67I 

cambert: Pomone 

3 March. Paris, O. 

Text by P. Perrin (opera ou representation en mu- 
sique); in later editions pastorale. Prologue and 
5 acts. 

With Pomone the Paris Opera (then called 
"Academie Royale des Opera" and situated at the 
Salle du Jeu de Paume de la Bouteille, Rue des 
Fossez-de-Nesle, near Rue Guenegaud) was inau- 
gurated. On 28 June 1669, Perrin had obtained 
the royal privilege of "faire chanter de pareilles 
Opera ou representations en musique en vers 
francois, dans toute Testendue de nostre royaume, 
pendant douze annees". The date of the inau- 
guration has been given as 18 or 19 March 1671, 
by elder historians. The date of 3 March has been 
fairly well established, from contemporary docu- 
ments, by Nuitter and Thoinan (1886), and is 
generally accepted now. 

Rehearsals or private performances of Pomone 
had taken place in June 1670 at the Sevres palace 
of Marquis Alexandre de Rieuxde Sourdeac who, 
besides Cambert and Perrin, must be mentioned 
as one of the first promoters of French opera and 
as its first producer. 

The earliest literary allusion to Pomone occurs 
in 1677, in Saint-Evremond's comedy Les Opera 
(n, 4) : "Pomone est le premier Opera francois qui 
ait paru sur le Theatre. La Poesie en etoit fort me- 
chante, la Musique belle." That scene in Saint- 
Evremond's comedy (which was never per- 
formed) contains similar comments on all the 
early French operas and is an important source of 
information (see Cambert's Ariane^ 1674). The 
play was translated into German by J. C. Gott- 
sched (as Die Opern f 1740) and in his version the 
remarks on French operas are turned into similar 
ones on the early German operas produced at 
Hamburg. 

Altered by Grabu, Pomone was also performed 
at the Whitehall Theatre, London, in July 1674 
(in French). 



47 



48 



1671-72 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1672 



Of the music, only the prologue, the first act 
and a fragment of the second act have been 
preserved (in an unfinished printed edition; re- 
issued, in vocal score, by J. B. Weckerlin in 1881). 

peranda and bontempi: Daftie 

3 September. Dresden 
(German) text attributed to one of the com- 
posers, Bontempi, partly founded on M. Opitz's 
libretto of the same title (see 1627). Five acts. 

The earliest German opera which is extant in 
fulls core (Dresden, Landesbibliothek). Original 
libretto apparently not printed, but preserved in MS. 

The opera was revived at Dresden on 9 Feb- 
ruary 1672; 8 January 1673; 10. February 1678; 
and 23 February 1679. 

For a full account see R. Englander's paper in 
Acta Musicologica, vol. xiii (1941). 



1672 

provenzale:!/ Schiavo di sua Moglie 

??. Naples? 
Text by A. Perrucio e Fardella. Prologue and 
3 acts. 

The first of the two operas of Provenzale which 
are extant (see 1678). The MS score in the Biblio- 
teca di Santa Cecilia, Rome, is dated 1671. But 
the libretto, hitherto unknown, was printed in 
1672. See Catalogo della Libreria Floticel, Paris, 
1774, no.2851. For an account of the opera see 
H. Goldschmidt in Sammelbdnde of the I.M.S., 
Vol. vii (1905-06). 

U. Prota-Giurleo (Francesco Cirillo e Vintrodu- 
zione del melodramma a Napoli, Grumo Nevano, 
1952, Appendix, p.31) gives Naples, S.B., as 
place of performance, and December 1671 (mis- 
printed 1 771] as the date. But these details are 
based only on assumptions. 

pagliardi: Caligula Mir ante 

Carnival. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by D. Gisberti (originally called La Pazzia 



in Trono, composed by Cavalli in 1660). Three 
acts. 

Successful in Italy: given at Naples, Pal. Reale 
29 January 1673 and subsequently at S.B.; Rome, 
Tord. 24 January 1674 (as II Caligola, with alter- 
ations) ; Bologna, T. Formagliari 1674 (with in- 
termezzi Le Gare di Sdegno, d'Amore e di Gelosia, 
text by F. M. Bordocchi, music by P. Fran- 
ceschini); Milan T.R.D. [30 May] 1675 (libretto 
altered A. Lonati); Vicenza Carnival 1675 as La 
Pazzia in Trono overo Caligula delirante; Pesaro 
1675. Revived Venice, SS.G. e P. Autumn 1680 
(with additions); Rome, Capr. Carnival 1692; 
Lucca 5 February 1696. 

According to Bonlini's and Groppo's cata- 
logues it was the first opera produced at Venice 
in the Carnival of 1672. The dedication in the 
libretto, however, is dated 18 December 1672, 
which is either a misprint or would point to the 
Carnival of the following year. 

cam bert : Les Peines et les Plaisirs 
de V Amour 
January or February. Paris, O. 
Text by G. Gilbert. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The full title reads: Opera, pastorale hiroique des 
Peines et des Plaisirs de V Amour, en vers lyriques . . . 
Representee en musique. . . . Of the music only the 
prologue and the first act have been preserved 
(re-issued in vocal score by J. B. Weckerlin in 
1881). 

The last opera of Cambert produced in Paris 
before he went to London in September 1673. 

The date of the first production has not been 
fixed yet The original libretto gives only the 
year, 1672. The performance must have taken 
place before 1 April 1672, as on that date the 
"Theatre du Jeu de Paume de la Bouteille" was 
closed by Royal decree. (This disposes of the date 
of 8 April 1672, given by Leris and many others.) 
According to Nuittcr and Thoinan, the produc- 
tion was in February or in the beginning of 
March, according to Melese in January. The first 
act was revived privately at Malmaison 24 June 
1928 (under F. Raugel). 



49 



50 



1672 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1673 



s A R T o r i o : U Adelaide 
[19 February], Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by P. Dolfino. Three acts. 

Sartorio's chief work, "von der wundervollen 
Ouverture ab eine Kabinettsleistung an Erfin- 
dung" (Kretzschmar). Revived at Brussels 27 Au- 
gust 1681 (in Italian). 

lully: Les Festes de I' Amour 
et de Bacchus 

15 November. Paris, O. 

Text by P. Quinault (in collaboration with 
Moliere and I. de Benserade). Prologue and 3 acts. 

This pastorale was Lully 's first opera, being 
more or less a pasticcio made up from music of his 
earlier ballets (such as he Bourgeois Gentilhomme, 
Georges Dandin, and others). 

The performance took place at the Salle du Jeu 
de Paume de Bel-Air, in Rue de Vaugirard, after 
Cambert's first theatre had been closed down 
earlier in the year and the opera privilege, after 
an inextricable chain of intrigues, had passed 
(March 1672) from Perrin and Cambert to Lully, 
to remain with him until his death. 

The opera was also given at Amsterdam 5 July 
1688 and revived in Paris 1689; 1696; August 
1706; 1716; and 13 February 1738 (parts only). 
Revived in French at Diisseldorf 1710; Lille 1720. 

Score published 1717. In the same year ap- 
peared a Dutch translation by D. Buijsero. 

sartorio: UOrfeo 

[14 December], Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by A. Aureli. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Also given at Naples, Pal. Reale Autumn 
1682; Brunswick August 1690 (in Italian; a Ger- 
man translation by J. C. Lorber was printed for 
that occasion). Revived as Orfeo sia Amore spesso 
inganna (with many alterations) at Bologna, T. 
Formagliari 23 January 1695; Turin [20 April] 
1697; Genoa Carnival 1706. 

A production at Vienna in 1672 (as Orfeo ed 
Euridice, earlier than at Venice?) is recorded by 
Kochel rather vaguely. 



1673 



lully: Cadmus et Hermione* 

27 April Paris, O. 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The first French tragddie-lyrique, performed at 
the Th. du Jeu de Paume de Bel-Air and trans- 
ferred to the new home of the Opera, at the Pa- 
lais-Royal, in 1674. Louis xrv was present at the 
first night, and according to the Gazette de France 
the Royal party "sortit extraordinairement satis- 
faite de ce superbe spectacle". Revived at St. Ger- 
main en Laye 5 June 1678; Paris October 1679; 
4 December 1690; 21 September 1703 ; 28 August 
1711; and 22 August 1737. Given at Amsterdam 
1687 (in French; a Dutch translation by T. Arendsz 
was published in that year) ; atBrussels November 
1734 (in Flemish). The last Paris revival was 
followed by a parody, Pierrot Cadmus t by D. Ca- 
rolet, produced O.C. 31 August 1737. 

The score was printed in 1719. 

See W. J. Lawrence, The French Opera in Lon- 
don. A Riddle of 1686 in The Times Literary Sup- 
plement, 28 March 1936, on a possible production 
of Cadmus et Hermione in London, 1 1-21 February 
1686, probably at Dorset Garden, in French. 
Lawrence's assumption is based on a letter by 
Peregrine Bertie to the Countess of Rudand, and 
on an allusion in the prologue of Jevon*s The 
Devil of a Wife (first acted at Dorset Garden, 
4-14 March 1686). 

pagliardi: Lisimaco 
[10 December]. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by C. Ivanovich. Three acts. 

Revived Turin, Carnival 1681; Florence, T. 
Cocomero Carnival 1689. 

The librettist, a native of Dalmatia, was the 
first to write a book which deals with the history 
of opera at Venice, viz. Minerva al Tavolino. 
Lettere diverse . . . con Memorie teatrali di Venezia, 
1681 (second edition 1688), It was followed by 
G. C. BonHius Le Glorie della Poesia, e della 
Musica only about 50 years later, in 1730. 



51 



52 



1674 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1674 



I674 

lully: Alceste ouLe Triomphe* 
d'Alcide 

lg January. Paris, O. 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The first opera performed at the Palais Royal, 
the new home of the Acad^mie Royale de Mu- 
sique which Lully succeeded in securing for his 
enterprise after Moliere's death in 1673. 

Mme de SeVigne*, who was present at the 
rehearsals, announces the opera in a letter, dated 
8 January 1674: "On joue jeudi l'Opera qui est 
un prodige de beaute: il y a des endroits de la 
musique qui ont mentis mes larmes. . . ." Louis 
xiv first heard Alceste at the Palais Royal on 14 
April 1674; it was given at Versailles 4 July 1674; 
Fontainebleau August 1677; St. Germain 1678, 
and revived at Paris September 1682; 25 Novem- 
ber 1706; 16 January 171 6; 30 November 1728; 
22 January 1739; and, without prologue, 15 No- 
vember 1757. 

Given at Lyons 1696 and 1699; Brussels 12 Oc- 
tober 1705 (revived January 1725); Lille 1720. 

Parodies: Alceste, by P. F. Dominique and J. A. 
Romagnesi, CI. 21 December 1728 and revived 
there, with alterations, 9 February 1739; La Noce 
interrompue, by C S. Favart, CI. 26 January 1758. 

Score first published in 1708. 

d r A G h i : La Lanterna di Diogene 

5 February. Vienna 
Text by N. Minato. Three acts. One air was com- 
posed by the Emperor Leopold 1. 

The copy of the libretto at the Brussels Con- 
servatoire contains a MS note (published by Wot- 
quenne) from which we learn that La Lanterna di 
Diogene was a satirical opera "a clef/* each of the 
26 characters representing members of the Euro- 
pean high society, from Leopold 1, Louis xiv, 
Charles xi of Sweden down to various Dukes, 
Counts and Ambassadors. The twenty-seventh 
character of the opera Tirreo Eunuco was politely 
described by the unknown commentator as an 
"incerta persona." 



CAM bert?: Ariane, oxxLe Manage 

de Bacchus 

g April. London, D.L. 

Text by P. Perrin. Prologue and 5 acts. Music lost. 

Libretto extant, in a French and in an English 

edition, copies of both of which are in the British 

Museum. The title-page of the French libretto 

reads : "Ariane, ou Le Mariage de Bacchus Opera : 

Compose par le Sieur P.P. et mis en Musique par 

le Sieur Grabut, Maitre de la Musique du Roi. 

Represente par rAcademie Roiale de Musique, 

ou Theatre-Roial". 

The title of the English edition reads, slightly 
divergently: "An Opera, or, a vocal representa- 
tion; First compos'd by Monsieur P.P. Now put 
into Musick by Monsieur Grabut . . and acted by 
the Royall Academy of Musick at the Theatre- 
Royal in Covent-Garden". 

We know that Perrin had written this libretto 
as early as 1659; he refers to it in the prefatory 
letter to the 166 1 edition of his Pastorale (see 1659). 
We also know that Cambert had set the text 
to music and that his setting was rehearsed at the 
Hotel de Nevers, Paris, in 1669, but that it was 
not printed or produced owing to the death of 
Mazarin. 

In Saint-Evremond's comedy Les Opera (c£. 
note on Pomone, 1671) the following dialogue 
concerns Ariane: — 

"Cclui-ci est ecrit a la main. Lisez, monsieur 
Guillaut." 

"Cest F Ariane de Cambert, qui n'a pas 6t6 
representee: mais on en vit les repetitions. La 
poesie fut pareille a celle de Pomone, pour etre 
du meme auteur, et la musique fut le chef- 
d'oeuvre de Cambert. J'ose dire que les plaintes 
d'Ariane, et quelques autres endroits de la piece 
ne cedent presque en rien a ce que Baptiste [viz. 
Lully] a fait de plus beau". 
Five years after the Paris rehearsals Ariane was 
produced in London, as the opening opera of the 
short-lived "Royall Academy of Musick," at the 
Theatral Royal, Bridges Street, Covent Garden 
(the second building of Drury Lane Theatre; the 
first building, opened in 1663, was destroyed by 



53 



54 



1674-75 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1675 



fire 15/25 January 1672). From the notice to die 
reader in the English edition of the text, it be- 
comes absolutely clear that Ariane was sung in 
French, and that the English version was "a meer 
Translation, and nothing else" and that it was 
"thought absolutely necessary for the satisfaction 
of those, who being unacquainted with the French 
tongue, and who being Spectators, would find 
themselves necessitated to see the most pressing 
of their Senses go away from the Theatre ungrati- 
fied, by their not understanding the Subject that 
brought thefti thither". 

The exact date of the first production of Ariane 
in London has been established by A. Nicoll (see 
The Times Literary Supplement, 21 September 
1922). Ariane seems to have been that mysterious 
and much discussed "Italian opera" which Evelyn 
mentions in his Diary, 5 January 1674. He prob- 
ably attended a rehearsal of Ariane (see also W. 
J. Lawrence, ib. t 26 September 1929). 

Cambert's and Grabu' s activities in Londpn 
have been dealt with in recent papers by A. Tes- 
sier and W. H. G. Flood (see La Revue Musicale, 
December 1927 and August 1928). The question 
of the composer of Ariane as produced in London, 
1674, is still unsolved. It is hardly credible that 
Cambert should have chosen for the opening of 
the London Academy, founded by himself, 
another setting of Ariane than his own. On the 
other hand, there is the evidence of the tide-pages, 
where Grabu is mentioned as the composer very 
definitely, and even more so in the English libretto 
which emphasizes the fact of a new setting. 

The explanation that Grabu altered and adapted 
Cambert's original music, is not very satisfactory, 
but it is the only one which now can be offered. 
Possibly the lost music of Ariane may be discov- 
ered some day and give a clue as to the real com- 
poser. 

1675 

legrenzi: Eteocle e Polinice 

January. Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by T. Fattorini. Three acts. 

Score extant Also given at Naples 1680; Milan 



1684; Modena, T. Fontanelli 4 November 1690. 
Another opera by Legrenzi, called La Divisione 
del Mondo, and produced at the same theatre later 
in the same Carnival [4 February] 1675, is stated 
to have been one of his best works. A manuscript 
score of La Divisione del Mondo was sold in 1880, 
from the Gehring collection (no.1360). 



LULLY 



Thesee 



12 January. Saint-Germain 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Revived at Saint-Germain 16 February 1677 
and January 1678. 

First given at Paris April 1675, and revived 
there 29 October 1679; October 1688 ; November 
1698; 17 November 1707; 5 December 1720; 
29 November 1729; 10 December 1744; 3 De- 
cember 1754 (without the prologue); 13 (not 8) 
December 1765; 1 February 1767; 23 March 
1770; and 23 February 1779 (with some new ac- 
companiments by J. Grenier and one air re-set by 
him). 

Thus, Thisie remained in the repertory for well 
over 100 years, longer than any other of Lully's 
operas 1 . The score was first printed in 1688. 

Also given at Brussels 18 May 1682 (revived 
with a new prologue by P. A. Fiocco 10 Novem- 
ber 1697, and 1 January N J7i3); Wolfenbuttel 19 
August 1687 (in French); Lyons 1692; Ghent 
June 1698; probably also at the Hague in 1701; 
Lille 1718. 

The 1744 revival was followed by two paro- 
dies, Arlequin Thisie by A. J. de Valois d'Orville, 



1 Thisie 


from 1675 to 1779 *= 


104 years 


Atnadis 


„ I684 u 1771 — 


87 » 


Alceste 


„ 1674 » 1757 = 


83 „ 


Armide 


„ 1686 „ 1764 = 


78 „ 


Proserpine 


„ 1680 „ 1758 = 


78 „ 


Ads 


„ 1686 „ 1762 = 


76 „ 


Atys 


„ 1676 „ 1747 - 


71 » 


Roland 


„ 1685 „ 1755 « 


70 „ 


Festes de V Amour 


„ 1672 „ 1738 = 


66 „ 


Persie 


„ 1682 „ 1746 — 


64 », 


Cadmus 


» l<>73 » *737 = 


64 „ 


Phaeton 


„ 1683 „ 1742 « 


59 ., 


Isis 


„ 1677 „ 1732 = 


55 ., 


Bellirophon 


„ 1679 .» 1728 *= 


49 .. 


Psyche' 


„ I678 „ 1713 — 


35 >, 



55 



56 



1 675 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1675-76 



C.I. 30 January 1745, and Thfcie by C. S. Favart, 
P. Laujon and Parvi, O.C. 17 February 1745. 

Quinault's text was several times re-set in the 
1 8th century; first by Mondonville (Fontaine- 
bleau 7 November 1765, Paris 13 January 1767); 
the failure of Mondonville's setting was imme- 
diately followed by a successful revival of Lully's 
original; secondly, by Gossec (Paris 1 March 
1782). Both composers kept parts ofLulIy's music, 
including the famous air Faitcs grace a mon age en 
faveur de magloire. There is a third new setting by 
J, Grenier (text reduced by P. F. de Remuzat), 
probably produced at Marseilles in 1782 (libretto 
Bibl. Soleinne). 

locke: Psyche 

g March. London, Dorset Gardens 
Text by T. Shadwell (founded on a French 
tragcdie-ballct by Molicre, Pierre Corneille and 
Quinault, produced at Paris in 1671). Prologue, 
5 acts and epilogue. 

The 1675 libretto is called "A Tragedy"; the 
music was published in the same year as "The 
English Opera; or the Vocal Musick in Psyche, 
with the Instrumental therein Intermix'd". 

In the preface Shadwell states: "And by his 
excellent Composition, that long known able and 
approved Master of Musick, Mr. Lock, . . . has 
done mc a great deal of right; though, I believe, 
the unskilful in Musick will not like die more 
solemn part of it . . ."; he also informs us that 
"All the Instrumental Musick (which is not 
mingled with the Vocal) was composed by that 
Great Master, Seignior Gio : Baptista Draghi " 

Psyche was revived at Dorset Gardens in 1690 
(libretto reprinted) and at D.L. 20 June 1704, as 
Psyche or Love's Mistress. • 

As to the date of the first production, there has 
always been much uncertainty since Downcs in 
his Roscius Anglicanus (170S) stated that it was 
given in February 1673-74. The discovery of the 
now accepted date (which corresponds to the 
year in which text and music were printed) is due 
to A. Nicoll (sec The Times Literary Supplement, 
21 September 1922). The laconic statement in 
Evelyn's Diary under 5 January 1674: "I saw an 



Italian opera in music, the first that had been in 
England of this kind/* is now believed to refer 
to the French Ariane t not to the English Psyche 
(although why Evelyn calls it Italian remains a 
puzzle; the explanation that he meant to say 
"after the Italian manner" is not very satisfactory). 
Psyche may be called the earliest surviving 
example of an English opera. For a discussion of 
it, see chapter vi of E. J. Dent's Foundations of 
English Opera (1928). 

giannettini: Medea in Atene 

[14 December]. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by A. Aureli. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Giannettini's first and most successful opera. 
Revived at Venice, S. Angelo [30 December] 
1677 (with additions); Milan 1681; Lucca 9 Jan- 
uary 1683; Parma 1688 (as Teseo in Atene, with 
additional music by B. Sabadini). 

In Italian also Brussels 24 January 1682 (at the 
opening of the Opera du Quai au Foin); Wolfen- 
biittel 1686; February 1688 and 1692. 

In German (translated by C. H. Postel), Ham- 
burg Carnival 1695; Augsburg Summer 1697; 
Stuttgart 3 October 1700; and perhaps also Leip- 
zig October 1701 (a different translation). 

c. pallavicino: GaYxeno 

[23 December). Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by M. Noris. Three acts. 

Revived Naples, S.B. [17 February] 1685; Mi- 
lan T.R.D. [1 February] 1687. 



I676 

lully: Atys 

10 January. Saint-Germain 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

First given at Paris April 1676; Fontaincbleau 
August 1677; revived St. Germain 15 January 
1678 and 7 January 1682; revived Paris Novem- 
ber 1689; August 1690; 31 December 1699; 29 
November 1708; 28 November 1709; 23 Decem- 
ber 1725; 7 January 1738; and 7 November 1747 



57 



58 



it7<S 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1676-77 



(not 1740 as Lajarte has it); there were further 
concert performances at Versailles June 1749 and 
Jrine 1751, and (without prologue) Fontainebleau 
17 November 1753. 

In French also given at the Hague 1687; Mar- 
seilles February 1689; Lyons 7 August 1689 
(revived December 1742) ; Brussels 19 November 
1700; Lille 1720. 

The popularity of Atys (which was called 
VOptra du Roi because of its being a favourite 
with Louis xrv) is also indicated by no less than 
seven parodies, viz. Atys, by P. F. Dominique, 
O.C. [3 February] 1710; Arlequin Atys t byC.F.B. 
de Pontau, CI. 22 January 1726; La Grand-Mere 
amoureuse, by L. Fuzelier and d'Orneval, Foire 
St. G. 10 February 1726 (by marionettes); Atys, 
by A. Piron, O.C. 19 February 1726; Atys travesti, 
by D. Carolet, Th. des Marionettes, Foire St. G., 
March 1736; Cybelle amoureuse, by A.J. Sticotti, 
CI. January 1738 (according to Leris); perform- 
ance not recorded by Gueullette, Origny, or in 
the Mercure de France; libretto printed after 10 
February 1738 without indication of perform- 
ance; so it was probably replaced by Atys, by 
J. A. Romagnesi, CI. 27 February 1738. 

Score first published in 1689; 2nd edition 1720. 
It was in Atys that Lully introduced the double- 
bass into the opera orchestra (played by Teobaldo 
di Gatti, cf. 1701). A Dutch translation by G. T. 
Domis was published in 1723. (For Piccinnfs 
setting of Quinault's libretto, see 1780.) 

legrenzi: Germanico sul Reno 

[27 January], Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by G. C Corradi. Three acts. 

Also given at Modena, T. Ducale 1677; Milan, 
T.R.D. 1677 and Bologna Summer 1680. 

pasquini: La Donna ancora 
efedele 
ig April Rome, Pal. Colonna 
Text by D. F. Contini. Three acts. 

Pasquini's first opera and one of the few extant 
ones. Also given at Macerata [17 February] 1680. 
Scarlatti set the same libretto in 1698. From the 



preface to the libretto it appears that the opera 
was written to celebrate the birthday of Prince 
Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna, the husband of Maria 
Mancini. 

franceschini: UArsinoe 

[26 December], Bologna, T. Formagliari. 
Text by T. Stanzani. Three acts. 

Franceschini's best opera. Also given at Venice, 
S. Angelo Autumn 1677; Pesaro 1678 and Car- 
nival 1681; Innsbruck 12 January 1686. 

For an English version of the text, see 1705. 



1677 

freschi: Helena rapita da Paride 
Carnival Venice, S. Angelo 
Text by A. Aureli. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Freschi's first and most successful opera. Also 
given at Verona 1680 (as VEnone schernita, 
without the prologue); Milan, T.R.D. 1681; 
Modena, T. Ducale 1681 (with prologue and in- 
termezzi by Conte G. B. Rosselli); Hanover June 
1681 (text revised by Valenti); Lucca Carnival 
1683; Bassano 1684. Revived Venice, S. Moise 
[18 January] 1687 (with alterations and additions 
by F. Navarra); Rovigo Carnival 1707 (still 
Freschi's setting?). 

Helena was the first opera produced at Sant' 
Angelo the ninth Venetian opera-house. Kretz- 
schmar quotes from it the Lamento di Paride as one 
of the latest and most beautiful imitations of 
Monteverdi's Lamento d'Arianna (see 1608). 

LULLY ihis 

5 January. Saint-Germain 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

First given at Paris, April 1677; Marseille 9 
March 1701; revived Paris 14 February 1704; 
15 September 1717; and 14 December 1732. 

At its first appearance Lis (which later was sur- 
named *Top6ra des musiciens") was rather a 
failure, due perhaps to the fact that in the quarrel 
scene between Juno and the nymph Io occurs 



59 



60 



1677-78 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1678 



what was supposed to be an allusion to Madame 
de Montespan, the King's mistress. Quinault, 
anyway, was for two years banished from court 
and wrote his next libretto for Lully only in 1680. 

A parody, La Vache Io, by Charpentier, was 
produced at the Foire St. L. in 1718; another, by 
L. Fuzclier, A Fourbe Fourbe et demi, on le Trom- 
peur trompi, at the Th. dcs Marionettes, Foire St.G. 
3 February 1733. 

The score of Isis was first published in 1699; 
re-published 1719. 

LEGRENZi: Totila 
February. Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by M. Noris. Three acts. 

H. Kretzschmar (Geschichte dcr Oper, p.104) 
calls attention to the high musical value of this 
opera. 

I678 

stradella:!^ Forza dell' Amor 
paterno 

Carnival. Genoa, T. del Falcone 

Librettist unknown. Three acts. 
The first and only opera of Stradclla which is 

known to have been produced during his life- 
time (cf. 1686). 
The remarkable history of this opera can be 

told in a number of quotations (translated for the 

sake of conformity) : 

1789: CBurney, History, iv, p.105: "For being in 
possession of the drama he set for Genoa pre- 
vious to lus murder, which is entitled La Forza 
delV Amor paterno, and dated Genoa mdclxxviii, 
it appears that the dedication of this opera to 
Signora Teresa Raggi Saoli, was written by 
Stradella himself". 

1866: A. Catelani, Deile Opcre di A.S., p.38: 
"As for la Forza delV Amor paterno I do not 
know what to say: Burney asserted that he had 
seen and possessed the libretto. Until now, he 
is the only fortunate one. For my part, I have 
renewed inquiries ad infinitum, over land and 
sea, as you might say: but I did not find the 



libretto, not a trace in a thousand catalogues, 
not even a record of its having been produced". 

1906: H. Hess, Die Opern AS. 's: "Burney 's in- 
dication seems to prove correct, after all. 
Although no actual trace of the work itself has 
been found yet, there are some corresponding 
records referring to a production. . . ." 

1927: The MS score (partly in autograph) was 
discovered and identified by A. Gentili in the 
Mauro Foa collection, now in die National 
Library, Turin. See his report in Accademie e 
Biblioteche d'ltalia. Vol. 1 (1927-28), pp.40-42 
and in II Pianoforte, Vol. vni, no.5/6 (May-June 
1927). "My satisfaction then, may be imagined 
in recognising in the Foa collection the whole 
of the opera and in being able to establish it as 
the original score from , Stradella 1 s own hand. 
My considered opinion is that this opera must 
be regarded not only as its author's master- 
piece, but also as one of the most precious gems 
in the vast operatic output of the 17th century". 

1932: A vocal score, edited (trascritta e armoniz- 
zata) by A. Gentili, was published by Ricordi. 
There remains the question of the libretto, 

wliich seems to be unknown even to Gentili. 

Burney's statement was quite correct. His copy 

was in the British Museum in 1866 as well as in 

1906, when Catelani and Hess were writing, and 

it is there to-day. This completes the story of 

Stradella's opera: 
LA FORZA / DELL'AMOR / PATERNO. / 
DRAMMA PER MUSICA. / Da recitarsi 
nel Teatro del Falcone / L'ANNO M.DC. 
LXXVIII. / CONSACRATO / AlTillustris- 
sima Signora / TERESA RAGGI / SAOLI./ 
Genoa, Franchelli, n.d. Dedication signed by 

Alessandro Stradella.' 
The characters are Seleuco, Stratonica, Antioco, 

Lucinda, Arbante, Eurindo, Rubia. No cast. 

C. pallavicino: II Vespasiano 

20 January. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by G. C. Corradi. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy. Repeated at the same theatre, 
Carnival 1680 and also given at Genoa i68oand/or 



61 



62 



1678 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1678 



1682 (with additional music by C. F. Pollarolo); 
Ferrara 1682 (with additional music by G. F. 
Tosi) ; Modena Autumn 1685 ; Milan 1685 ; again 
at Ferrara 1687 (with alterations); Rome, Tord. 
24 January 1693 (text altered by S. Stampiglia) ; 
Bologna 3 February 1695; Pesaro Autumn 1718 
(this revival was arranged in honour of the Pre- 
tender James Francis Stuart, then residing at 
Pesaro). 

Il Vespasiano was written for the inauguration 
of the Teatro Grimano di San Giovanni Grisos- 
tomo, which was the tenth opera-house at 
Venice. After 1747 it was devoted chiefly to the 
drama, but it became an opera-house again in the 
19th century. Re-opened 25 December 1832; 
called Teatro Malibran since 8 April 1835; re- 
stored 26 July 1890 and again 17 December 1919 
(re-opened with Verdi's Otello). 

theile: Der erschaffene, gefallene 
und aufgerichtete Mensch 

12 January. Hamburg 
Text by C. Richter. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the first Ger- 
man opera-house, the Hamburg "Theater am 
Gansemarkt." Revived at Frankfort in 1698, and 
seemingly at Viborg (Viipuri), Finland, as late 
as about 1768 (by a travelling German troupe 
under the management of C. G. Seuerling; com- 
munication from Mr.Waino Sola, Helsinki). 

Libretto extant (as of all operas produced at 
Hamburg in the 17th and early, 1 8th century). 
Music lost, as is the music of Theile's second and 
last opera, Orontes, produced at Hamburg later 
in the same year. 

During the 72 years of its existence, more than 
280 operas were produced at the Hamburg opera- 
house, German original operas, German versions 
of Italian and French operas, from 1703 onwards 
chiefly operas which contained German as well 
as Italian airs, and after September 1738 purely 
Italian operas (under Mingotti's management). 
The last production of the German company was 
a pasticcio, Der Jahrwarkt von Saint-Germain, 2 



January 1738. The building was pulled down 
7 January 1750, and the Italian troupe continued 
from 18 November 1751 at another building, the 
"Reithaus". 

lully: Psyche 

ig April Paris, O. 
Text by T. Corneille and B. de Fontenelle. Pro- 
logue and 5 acts. 

Of all of Lully 's operas Psyche was the least 
successful. It was revived at Paris only twice, 8 
June 1703 and 22 June 1713. 

It was also given at Wolfenbuttel, August 1686 
(in French), and at Modena 1687 (in French, with 
Italian interpolations). Score published in 1720. 

Parts of Psyche had a modern hearing at the Th. 
des Arts, Rouen, on 7 June 191 1. 

Lully had dealt with the same subject before; 
a tragcdie-ballet of the same title by Moliere, 
Pierre Corneille and Quinault, to which he had 
written the music, had been produced at the Tui- 
leries on 17 January 1671. It was on that earlier 
non-operatic Psyche that Locke and Shadwell 
founded their English opera (see 1674). 

provenzale: Difendere VOffensore 
o vero La Stellidaura vendicante 

??. Naples. Pal. Reale 
Text by A. Perruccio e Fardella. Three acts. 

The second and last of Provenzalc's two extant 
operas (cf. 1671). Revived at Naples in 1685. 

No copy of the original edition of the libretto 
has been traced yet. According to Allacci (1755), 
there are editions of 1678, 1679, and 1685 (and a 
prose version, 1690), and the same dates are given 
in A. Mongitore's Bihliotheca Sicula (1707-14). 
F. Galiani (Del Dialetto Napoletano . . ., 1779) 
mentions a 1674 edition. According to B. Croce 
the production was at the Palazzo Regio; in G. 
Gimmzs Elogi Accademici, 1703, a performance at 
the Palace of Prince Cursi Cicinelli is mentioned. 

U. Prota-Giurleo (Francesco Cirillo e Vintrodu- 
zione del mchdramma a Napoti, Grumo Ncvano, 
1952, Appendix, p. 31) gives the date and place of 



63 



64 



1678 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1679 



first performance as 2 September 1674, in Prince 
Cursi Cicinelli's villa at Mergellina. 

The earliest known libretto is that of the revival 
of 1685, which contains the cast but does not 
mention the theatre (see Florimo, rv, p.576, and 
Croce, I Teatri di Napoli, 1891, p.191). 

The score ofLa Stellidaura (like that of IlSchiavo 
di sua Moglie) has been preserved in the Biblioteca 
di Santa Cecilia, Rome. It was examined by Ro- 
maih Rolland (see his Htstotre de VOpfra en Europe 
avant Lully et Scarlatti, 1895, pp.187-96) and by- 
Hugo Goldschmidt (sceSammelbande of the LM.S., 
Vol. vn, 1905-06). The two eminent historians 
contradict each other in a highly curious way. 
Rolland calls the score a manuscript without title, 
without list of characters, date, or author's name; 
nevertheless, he gives the date of 1670 (perhaps 
on the authority of a misprint in B. Croce's quo- 
tation from Mongitore!), while Goldschmidt 
claimed that 1678 was indicated in the score as the 
year of production. 

It may be mentioned that in 1895 Rolland sug- 
gested the possibility that Francesco Provenzale, 
the founder of the Neapolitan School and import- 
ant forerunner of Scarlatti, might be identical 
with one Francesco della Torre who, from 
1678-85, was manager of the Teatro San Barto- 
lomeo at Naples and might have been a composer 
himself as he signed, along with Perruccio, the 
dedication of an opera libretto, Chi tal nasce tal 
vive, overo V Alessandro Bala (score preserved at 
Monte Cassino; produced Naples, 20 December 
1678). The suggestion was founded on purely 
external evidence, not on reasons of style, etc. (as 
Goldschmidt maintains, who, by the way, also 
substituted the name of the hero, Alessandro Bala, 
for that of the supposed composer, Francesco 
della Torre !). Rolland's assumption has not been 
accepted by historians, it has even been rejected 
as a "fantastica ipotesi" by a recent writer on Pro- 
venzale (G. Pannain in R.M.I., 1925). Yet a copy 
of Chi tal nasce ... at the Naples Conservatorio is, 
in the recently published catalogue, now actually 
attributed to Provenzale. Prota-Giurleo also 
accepts Chi tal nasce as a work by Proven- 
zale. 



1679 



m. A. ziani: Alessandro Magno 
in Sidone 

Carnival Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by A. Aureli. Three acts. 

Ziani's first opera. Also given at Vicenza 1681 
and revived at Venice in Carnival 1683 (at the 
Teatro di Canal Regio as La Virtu sublimata dal 
Grande, ovvero II Macedone continente). 

pasquini: Dov' e Amore e Pieta 

6 January. Rome, Capr. 
Text: an abridged version of Moniglia's Hiper- 
mestra (see 1658). Three acts. Music lost. 

In the libretto Pasquini is mentioned as "che 
tra i Compositori piu eccellenti di Musica non e 
in Roma il secondo" and it is stated that he set 
the old text to music within a few days, "alia 
rnoderna usanza di bizzarre, e spiritose ariette". 

The opera was written for the inauguration of 
the Teatro Capranica, the second public opera- 
house at Rome (cf. 1664). Operas were given 
there, with many interruptions, for 202 years, the 
last being Verdi's Ernani on 1 March 18S1. To- 
day, the T. Capranica is a cinema. 

j. w. France: Die drey Tochter 
Cecrops 

January. Ansbach 
Text by M. A. von Konigsmarck. Prologue and 
5 acts. 

Given at Hamburg in 1680 (in a reduced ver- 
sion, perhaps with some new music by Strungk, 
to whom the opera was attributed byj. Mattheson 
in Der Musikalische Patriot, 1728) and revived at 
Ansbach 14 April 1683. Franck's authorship has 
been definitely established by the discovery of 
the original libretto, which mentions his name. 

One of the earliest German operas extant in 
full score. Discovered by A. Sandberger about 
1910, it was published only in 1938 (as VoL 38 of 
Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Bayern, edited by G. F. 



65 



66 



1 679 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1679-80 



Schmidt; see his account in Archiv fiir Musihfor- 
schung, Vol. iv). 

ivlly: Bellcrophon 

31 January. Paris, O. 
Text by T. Corncillc (who alone is mentioned in 
all earlier editions of the text; he seems to have 
had two famous collaborators, Fontenellc and 
Boilcau, who claimed their respective shares 
much later). Prologue and 5 acts. 

Very successful, given for about nine months 
running; performed at St.-Germain 3 January 
1680 and revived at Paris 10 December 1705; 
11 January 1718; 6 April 1728; Versailles 15 Feb- 
ruary 1749 (in concert form); and (not recorded 
so far) once more Versailles 27 November 1773, 
reduced to 4 acts, music arranged by Berton and 
Granier, at the wedding of the Comte d'Artois, 
the future King Charles x. 

Given at Lyons 20 June 1688 ; at Brussels 8 No- 
vember 1696 (with a new prologue by P. A. 
Fiocco; revived 14 November 1708). 

Parts of the music were revived at the Th. des 
Arts, Rouen, on 7june 1911. 

A parody Arlequin Bellerophon, by P. F. Domi- 
nique and J. A. Romagnesi, was produced at the 
C.I., Paris 7 May 1728. 

In the last act Lully introduced a "prelude avec 
trompettes". BelUrophon was the first of Lully *s 
operas the score of which was published (1679; 
2nd edition 1714). 

A. Scarlatti: Gli Equiuoci net 
Sembiante* 

February. Rome, Capr. 
Text by D. F. Contini. Three acts. 

Scarlatti's first opera. Score preserved. Also 
given at Bologna 1679 (as L'Errore imweente); 
Monte Filottramo, near Maccrata 1680; Naples, 
at Duke of Maddaloni's March 1680, and Pal. 
Reale 2 1 December 1 68 1 (with a prologue added) ; 
Vienna Carnival 1681 (as Amor non vuol Inganni, 
with intermezzi by G. B. Pederzuoli, II Giudice 
di Villa); Ravenna 1685. 



See on the Vienna production of Scarlatti's 
opera, A. Lorcnz in Zeitschrifi fiir Musikwisscn- 
schafu ix, p.86 (November 1926). 

Of 115 operas written by Scarlatti between 
1679 and 1721, about 80 arc known by their titles 
and 35 have been preserved in full score. 

c. pallavicino: Le Amazoni 
nell 'hole fortunate 

[u November]. Piazzola (near Padua) 
Text by F. M. Piccioli. Prologue and 3 acts. 

This and Frcschi's Berenice (see 1680) were two 
famous operas expressly written for the private 
theatre of the Venetian procurator Marco Conta- 
rini (1633-89). He plays an important part in the 
history of music as a collector of ms opera 
scores, chiefly by Venetian composers. His col- 
lection is now in the Biblioteca di S. Marco, 
Venice, where the 112 scores (Codices Contari- 
niani) were identified and catalogued by Taddeo 
Wiel in 1888. An astonishing number of "lost" 
works came to light, amongst them no less than 
28 scores by Cavalli. 

1680 

ago s tin i : 7/ Ratio delle Sabine 

Carnival. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by G. F. Bussani. Three acts. 

Of Agostini's operas the only one which is 
extant. Revived Bologna Carnival 1689. 

m. A. ziani: Damira placata 

Carnival. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by F. Acciaiuoli (Drama da rapprcsentarsi nel 
loco ov era il Teatro Zane a S. Moise. . . . Con- 
sacrato al genio de'euriosi). Three acts. 

The opera was produced on a provisional 
stage, by wooden puppets, "figure di legno al 
naturalc di estraordinario artificioso lavoro", as 
Bonlini tells us. The singers sang behind the 
scenes. In a similar way, Acciaiuoli's Ulisse in 
Feaccia (music by A. del Gaudio) and his Girello 
(see 1670) were produced at the same place in 



67 



68 



i68o 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1680 



1 68 1 and 1682, with wax puppets; and II Le- 
andro (text by Badovero, music by Pistocchi) had 
preceded them in 1679. Ziani's score is extant. 
(See on puppet operas, W. J. Lawrence, in The 
Musical Quarterly, Vol. x (1924), p.236.) 

draghi: La Patienza di Socrate 
con due Moglie 

6 January. Prague 
Text by N. Minato [Scherzo dramatko per wusica). 
Three acts. 

First opera ever produced at Prague. (See P. 
Nettl, Beitrage zur bohmischen and mahrischen Mu- 
sikgeschichte, 1927.) The ballet music was com- 
posed by J. H. Schmelzer. Score preserved. 

lully: Proserpine 

3 February. Saint-Germain 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

First given at Paris 15 November 1680 and 
revived there November 1681 ; Marly 1683 ; Paris 
31 July 1699; 7 March 1715; 28 January 1727; 
3ijanuary 1741; and i4Novemberi758 (without 
the prologue). Also given at Antwerp Autumn 
] 682 (first opera there) ; in French also, Wolfen- 
biittel 1685; Amsterdam 15 September 1688 and 
1703. 

The score was first published in 1680; 2nd edi- 
tion 1 714. 

The last three revivals of Proserpine were fol- 
lowed by parodies, viz. Les Notes de Proserpine, 
by A. R. Le Sage and d'Orneval, O.C. 31 March 
1727; Farinette, by C. S. Favart, O.C. 9 March 
1741; and Pctrinc, altered from Farinette by J. M. 
Sedaine, C.I. 13 January 1759. -(For Paisiello's 
new setting of QuinaiuYs text see 1803.) 

A. scarlatti: UHonesta negli Amori 

6 February. Rome, Pal. Bernini 
Text by "Felice Parnasso" (pseudonym of G. F. 
Bernini?). Three acts. 

The opera is dedicated to and was performed 
before Queen Christina of Sweden, then residing 
at Rome. Revived Siena 1690 (with additional 
music by G. Fabbrini). 



j. w. franck: Aeneas 

??. Hamburg 
Text probably by the composer. Prologue and 
3 acts. 

The full title reads: Aeneas des Trojanischen 
Fiirsten Ankunfft in Italien. Airs from this opera 
were printed in 1680. After Theile and Strungk, 
Franck was the third composer working for the 
new German opera-house at Hamburg (c.15 
operas, 1679-86). 

strungk: Esther 

??. Hamburg 
Text by J. M. Koler. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The full title reads : Die Liebreiche, durch Tugend 
und Schonheit Erhbhete Esther. Thirty-six airs from 
this opera were printed in 1684. After Theile, 
Strungk was probably the second composer 
working for the new German opera-house at 
Hamburg (c.8 operas, 1678-93). 

freschi: Berenice vendicativa 

[8 November]. Piazzola (near Padua) 
Text by G. M. Rapparini. Three acts. 

Produced at Contarini's private theatre (cf. 1 679) 
with a very splendid and prodigal display of stage 
effects (see Grove, in, p.694, 3 rd edition, 1 927). The 
production of Berenice has been frequently cited as 
an example of operatic baroque by writers on the 
history of opera since 1681, when its gorgeous 
scenery was first described by two eye-witnesses, 
C. Ivanovich [Minerva al Tavolino, Venice 1681, 
Vol. 1, p. 1 7) and J. Chassebras de Cramaillcs (His- 
toire de mes Conquetes, Meraire Galant, February 
168 1). See, for instance, A. Burgh, Anecdotes of 
Music, 11, p.383 (1814); Edinburgh Review, May 
1820; Allgemeine Musikalischc Zeitimg, 1821, etc. 

Frcschi's music is extant. That the opera with 
its choruses of many hundreds, with its elephants, 
and stables full of horses, was not given on other 
stages, seems only natural 



69 



70 



i68o-8i 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1681-82 



In this year, 1680, appeared the first Dutch 
opera, De Triomferende Min. Vredespel. Gemengt 
met Zang-en Snaarenspel, Vliegwerken en Baletten, 
text by D. Buijsero, music by Carolus Hacquart. 
The libretto, containing the airs, was printed 
(copies Hague, Coll. Scheurleer, and London, 
British Museum). The opera was written to 
celebrate the peace of Nymwegen (1679) ; but it 
was not produced until 240 years later (see 7 July 
1920) on which occasion the text was reprinted. 

I68l 

steffani: Marco Aurelio 

12 or 13 February. Munich 
Text by V. Terzago (the brother of the com- 
poser). Three acts. 

Steffani's first opera. Score preserved. 

lorenzani: Nicatidro e Fileno 

September, Fontainebleau 
Text by F. Mancini-Mazarini, Due de Nevers 
(Cardinal Mazarin's nephew). Poemetto dramatico 
per Musica. Three acts. 

Lorenzani's first opera; apparently the only 
Italian opera produced in France between 1662 
(see note on Cavalli's Ercole amante) and 1729. 
Anonymous undated libretto printed. Score re- 
covered by H. Prunieres (see Revue Musicale, 
August 1922). 

"Le Roy a permis au due de Nevers de faire 
un opera, et Lulli a fait tout son possible pour 
Pempescher, mais inutilement." (Nouvelles Extra- 
ordinaires, Leyden 25 September 1681.) 

"Dans son ensemble, cette partition est d'une 
reelle importance pour Fhistoire de Topera en 
France et represente un essai des plus interessants 
pour opposer a la tragedie en musique de Lully 
un ope*ra italien adapte au gout des spectateurs 
francais". (Prunieres.) 

freschi: Olimpia vendicata 
[20 November], Venice, S. Angelo. 
Text by A. Aureli. Three acts. 
Also given at Pavia 1684 (with additional 



music by M. Martinenghi), Naples December 
1686; Parma 1687 (as Olimpia placata, with addi- 
tional music by B. Sabadini); Bologna, T. For- 
magliari 1688 and T. della Sala 1694; Rome, 
Capr. 9 February 1692 (as Amor vince lo Sdegno, 
with a new third act by an unknown composer). 

1682 

draghi: La Chimera 

Carnival Vienna 
Text by N. Minato (Drama fantasttco musicale). 
Three acts. 

Revived at Vienna Carnival 1692. First per- 
formed in 1682 according to Allacci, Kochel, 
Weilen. A suspicion that the date of 1672 in Wot- 
quenne's Catalogue (1901, p.41) was a misprint 
has been confirmed by the Brussels Conserva- 
toire. 

j. w. franck: Diocletianus 

6 March. Hamburg 
Text by L. von Bostel. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Perhaps also produced at Ansbach, though 
certainly not in 1679 (as H. Mersmann, Beitrage 
zur Ansbacher Musikgeschichte, 1916, p.17, claims), 
but only between 1682 and 1686 as an Ansbach 
"inventarium de Anno 1686" (quoted by Mers- 
mann) states that Diocletiano was "in Partitura 
auss Hamburg gesandt". 

One of Franck's most important works. Airs 
from it were printed in 1682. 

lully: Persee 

18 April Paris, O. 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Given at Versailles in July of the same year and 
revived at Paris 10 April 1687; 9 February 1703 ; 
20 November 1710; 8 November 1722; 14 Feb- 
ruary 1737; 15 November 1746 and 1765 (with 
additions by B. de Bury and P. M. Berton). 

Revived at Versailles 1 March 1747 (with a 
new prologue, text by G. A. Leclerq deLaBruere, 
music by B. de Bury) and 17 May 1770 (reduced 
to 3 acts, text altered by N. R. Joliveau, with ad- 



7i 



72 



1682-83 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1683-84 



ditional music by B. de Bury, A. Dauvergne, F. 
Rebel and F. Francoeur), to celebrate the wedding , 
of the Dauphin Louis (xvi) with Marie Antoi- 
nette. Another 3-act version, by Marmontel, was 
composed by Philidor in 1780. 

Given at Brussels as early as November 1682 
(revived 6 November 1685 and 28 December 
1706); Amsterdam 21 August 1688 (airs a chanter 
published); Lyons Winter 1696-7. The score was 
first printed in 1682; 2nd edition 1722. 

Parodies: Persee le Cadet, anonymous (in mono- 
logues) Foire St. G. 4 February 1709; Arlequin 
Persee by L. Fuzclicr, C.I. 18 December 1722; Le 
Manage en I 'Air by D. Carolet, O.C. 13 March 
1737; Polichinelle Persee (by marionettes) Foire 
St. G. 1737. 

Date of first performance April 18 (not 17) 
according to the Mercure Galant. 



The score was first published in 1683. 

Louis xv was present at the 1721 revival (the 
first time that he visited the Opera.) 

Date of first production 9 January (not 6 Jan- 
uary, as usually given) has been established by 
P. Melese from contemporary papers. 

legrenzi: II Giustino 

January. Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by N. Beregani. Three acts. 

Legrenzi's last great success. Also given at 
Naples, Pal. Reale 6 November 1684 (with an 
added prologue); Genoa 1689; Milan [29 Jan- 
uary] 1689 and 1691 (text altered); Brescia 1691; 
Bologna 1691 and [29 January] 1692; Lucca 29 
December 1693 1 Rome, Tord. 8 January 1695 
(text altered by S. Stampiglia); Verona 1696; 
Modena, T. Fontanelli 9 January 1697. 



1683 

lully: Phaeton 

^January. Versailles 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

First given at Paris 27 April 1683 and revived 
there November 1692; 12 January 1702; 5 Jan- 
uary 1710; 11 November 1721; 21 December 
1730; and 13 November 1742. At Versailles 6May 
1749 and 3 August 1750 (in concert form). 

Also given at Avignon, July 1687 (first opera 
there); Lyons, 3 or 7 January 1688 (first opera 
there); Brussels 24 January 1696; Ghent 1708; 
Hague 15 December 1710; Lille 1718; Marseilles 
17 May 1720 (in concert form). 

Phaeton was one of Lully's most successful 
works; its popularity (it was surnamed 'Topera 
du peuple") called forth the following parodies 
at the C.I. : Arlequin Phaeton, by J. Palaprat, 4 Feb- 
ruary 1692 (Dutch translation by Emanuel van 
der Hoeven published 1724); Parodie de Phaeton, 
by Macharti, 1 1 December 1721 ; Arlequin Phaeton, 
by P. F. Dominique and J. A. Romagnesi, 22 Feb- 
ruary 173 1 ; Arlequin Phaeton, by F. Riccoboni, 
21 January 1743. A fifth parody, by G. Bailly, 
was published in 1758. 



A. SCARLATTI: II PompeO 

[2s January]. Rome, Pal. Colonna 
Text by N. Minato (first set to music by Cavalli 
in 1666). Three acts. 

One of Scarlatti's early serious operas. 

Also given at Naples, Pal. Reale, [30 January] 
1684; Ravenna [10 May] 1685; Leghorn 1688; 
Palermo 1690; Bologna 9 February 1692. 



I684 

lully :Amadis* 

18 January. Paris, O. 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The opera was to be produced first at Versailles 
(Louis xiv himself had suggested the subject of 
the opera), but owing to the death of the Queen, 
Amadis was first publicly performed at Paris, and 
at Versailles only one year later, viz. 5 March 1685. 

Revived in Paris 8 April 1687; 31 May 1701; 
1 March 1707; 26 April 1 71 8 (as Amadts de Gaule) ; 
4 October 1731 ; 8 November 1740; 6 November 
1759; and 26 November 1771 (additions by La- 
borde and Bcrton). 



73 



74 



1684 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1684-85 



Also given at Amsterdam 1687; Brussels Jan- 
uary 1695 (with prologue by P. A. Fiocco) and 
4 October 1709. 

The score was first published in 1684; 2nd edi- 
tion 1721. A Dutch translation by T. Arcndsz 
appeared in 1687. 

A modern revival was at the Twentieth Cen- 
tury Theatre, London, on I4june 1938 (by ama- 
teurs; English version by O. Daunt). 

There were two early satires (rather than paro- 
dies) produced at the Th. I. in the same year, viz. 
a comedy by N. dc Fatouvillc, Arlequin Empereur 
dans la Lune, 5 March 1684, and Amadis Cuisinier, 
May 1684. Later parodies include La Naissancc 
d'Amadis, by F. Rcgnard, C.I. 10 February 1694; 
Arlequin Amadis, by P. F. Dominique and J. A. 
Romagncsi, C.I. 27 November 173 1; Polichinelle 
Amadis (anonymous), Th. des Marionettes, Foire 
St. G.j March 1732; Amadis, by J. A. Romagncsi 
and F. Riccoboni, music by Blaise, C.I. 19 De- 
cember 1740; Amadis, by A.J. Labbet dc Moranv- 
bert, C.I. 31 December 1759; Amadis, by A.J. 
Sticotti, 1760, not performed. 

J. C. Bach set the same text to music 95 years 
later (sec 1779). 

c. pallavicino: Massimo Puppieno 

[28 December]. Venice, SS.G. c P. 
Text by A. Aurcli. Three acts. 

Very successful in Italy: repeated with addi- 
tions Venice, same theatre, 1685; Milan 18 June 
1685; Trent- 1688; Verona 1689; Genoa 1690; 
Bologna 9 January 1692; Fcrrara 1692; Fano 
1694; Lucca 20 August 1695; Florence Carnival 
1699; Rome Carnival 1718. Music lost. 

£.1684? 

blow: Venus and Adonis* 
??. London 
Librettist unknown. Prologue and 3 acts. Date and 
place of first performance unknown. 

From a ms. score in the British Museum (Add. 
MS.22100) we "know that in this "Masque for the 
Entertainment of the King" (the only work Blow 



wrote for the stage) the part of Venus was sung 
by Mary Davies, the actress who became the 
mistress of Charles 11 in 1667 (sec Pcpys's Diary, 
14 January 1668), and the part of Cupid by Lady 
Mary Tudor, their daughter. As the title was be- 
stowed on her in December 1680, and she became, 
by marriage, Lady Derwcntwatcr in August 1 687, 
the performance must have taken place between 
those two dates, as generally stated. 

The margin, however, can be narrowed down, 
considering that Charles 11 died on 6 February 
1685, and that his mistress and his natural child 
arc not likely to have sung the masque under his 
successor. On the other hand, it seems preferable 
to suggest the latest possible year, as Lady Mary 
Tudor was born in 1763 and so, in 1684, was only 
a child of eleven, which is rather young even for 
the part of Cupid. 

The libretto does not seem to have been printed. 
The score was published in 1902 by G. E. P. Ark- 
wright, as no.xxv of his Old English Edition, and 
again in 1939, edited by A. Lewis. 

Venus and Adonis was revived at Glastonbury 
5 April 1920; London, Old Vic 1 June 1920 (by 
the Glastonbury company) and Scala Th. 13 July 
1926; Liverpool 17 February 1928; Oxford 9 
March 1937; London, R.C.M, 19 June 1938. 



I685 

lully: Roland 

8 January. Versailles 
Text by P. Quinault. Prologue and 5 acts. 

First given at Paris 8 March 1685, and revived 
there 12 February 1705; 15 November 1709; 15 
December 1716; 11 November 1727; 19 Decem- 
ber 1743; and 11 November 1755 (additions by 
L. Aubcrt). Given at Lille 1720; Brussels 19 No- 
vember 1721. 

A Dutch version by T. Arcndsz was published 
at Amsterdam in 1686. The metres of the trans- 
lation prove that it was intended to go with Lully's 
music. But there is no record of a production. 

Parodies: Pierrot Furieux, on Pierrot Roland, by 
L. Fuzclicr, O.C. 3 February 1717; Arlequin Ro- 



75 



76 



1685 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1685-86 



land, by P. F. Dominique and J. A. Romagnesi, 
C.I. 31 December 1727; Roland, by C. F. Panard 
and A.J. Sticotti, C.I. 20 January 1744; Bolan ou 
Le Midecin amoureux, by J. Bailly, C.I. 27 Decem- 
ber 1755. Leris mentions one more, Polichinelle 
Cros-Jean, performed at the Th. des Marionettes 

(i744). 

The first production was on 8 January (not 18 
as indicated in later editions of the libretto). 
Again, as in Amadis, Louis xiv had suggested the 
subject himself. The score was first printed in 
1685. 

Piccinni used the same libretto 93 years later 
(see 1778). 

GAULTiERrLe Triomphe de la Paix 

28 January. Marseilles 
Text by the composer (according to A. Fabre, 
Les Rues . . . de Marseille, m, p.295). Prologue and 
3 acts. 

The text was printed in 1685, but no copy of it 
has been traced yet. The music is also lost. 

This was the first opera ever produced at Mar- 
seilles. See on Gaultier (who was a pupil ofLully), 
L. de La Laurencie's paper in Vol. xm (1911-12) 
of the Sammclhande of the LM.S. 

(The wrong date of 1682 for the opening of the 
Marseilles opera-house is due to Castil-Blaze or 
Fetis and still occurs in books of reference.) 

c. pallavicino: Penelope la Casta 

[28 January]. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by M. Noris. Three acts.. 

Also given Milan 1696. 

Bonlini (1730) says: "Questo Drama . . . e uno 
di quelli che ha piu incontrato nel genio univer- 
sale de'Spettatori", meaning Noris's libretto, 
which was reset by Perti (Rome 1696), Scarlatti 
(Naples 1696) and Chelleri (Venice 1716). 

grabu: Albion and Albanius 

1 3 June. London, Dorset Gardens 
Text by J. Dryden (an opera). Prologue, 3 acts and 
epilogue. 

c 77 



Libretto published in 1685, score in 1687. 
Besides Ariane (the authorship of which is doubt- 
ful, see 1674) Grabu's only opera, as far as we 
know. For a detailed account of the work, its 
musical importance and its political meaning, see 
E. J. Dent, Foundations of English Opera (1928), 
pp. 1 60-70. In his most interesting preface, Dryden 
pays high tribute to his musical collaborator; his 
coining of the term "Songish Part" (as opposed 
to the recitative part of opera) is worth mention- 
ing once more. 

A. scarlatti: Olitnpia vendicata 
23 December. Naples, Pal. Reale 
Text by A. Aureli (first composed by Freschi, 
see 1681). Three acts. 

This opera contains a very early instance of 
accompanied recitative (quoted by E. J. Dent, 
Scarlatti, p. 46). 

The date of first performance has been very 
ingeniously detected and established by A. Lorenz 
(Alessandro Scarlatti's Jugendoper, Vol. 1, 1927, 
PP.93-96). 

steffani: Servio Tullio 

[30 December]. Munich 
Text by V. Terzago (the brother of the com- 
poser). Prologue and 3 acts. 

Written for the wedding of the Elector Max 
Emanuel with Maria Antonia, the daughter of 
the Emperor Leopold 1. 

For an analysis of Servio Tullio, see A. Neisser's 
monograph (1902). 



1686 

bernabei: UAscanio 
January. Munich 
Text by F. R. Sbarra. Three acts. 
One of the 15 operas the younger Bernabei 
wrote for the Munich court, where he succeeded 
his father in 1688. Produced some days after Servio 
Tullio (see [30 December] 1685) as indicated in 
the preface. 

78 



i686 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1686 



j. w. franck: Cara Mustapha 

January. Hamburg 
Text by L. von BosteL Prologue and 3 acts. 

The full title reads: Der Gluckliche Gross-Vezier 
Cara Mustapha Erster Theil, nebenst der grausamen 
Belagerung, und Besturmung der Kayserlichen Resi- 
dentz-Stadt Wien; a sequel, called Der Ungliick- 
liche Gross-Vezier Cara Mustapha . . . followed a 
few nights later. Airs from the two operas were 
printed in 1686 (some of them reprinted by F. 
Zelle in 1889). The last traceable work Franck 
wrote for Hamburg before he came to London 
c.1690 (see W. B. Squire, in The Musical Anti- 
quary, July 1912). 

c. pallavicino: UAmazone Corsara 

[1 February], Venice, SS.G. e P. 
Text by G. C. Corradi. Three acts. 

Sub-title: VAlvilda, Regina de Goti. Successful 
in Italy, revived at Venice Carnival 1688 and 
subsequently given at Bologna 17 January 1688; 
Naples, Pal. Reale 6 November 1689; Vicenza 
1690; Turin, T.R. Carnival 1696; Verona 1697; 
Rovigo 1697. 

lully : Armide* 

*5 February. Paris, O. 
Text by P. Quinault (after Tasso). Prologue and 
5 acts. 

This last of Lully's tragedies-lyriques was 
regarded to be his masterpiece by his contem- 
poraries as well as by later generations. Score first 
published in 1686; then in 1710 and once more 
in 171 8. In January 1687 there was a performance 
in honour of the ambassadors from Siam. Re- 
vived in Paris 27 November 1703 ; 26 December 
1713; June 1714; 9 November 1724; 7 January 
1746 (previously, 3oDecember 1745 at Versailles) ; 
17 February 1747; 3 November 1761 ; and 4 De- 
cember (not 3 October) 1764 (this latest revival 
preceded Gluck's new setting of the same libretto 
by less than 13 years). Outside Paris given 
at Avignon September 1687; Lyons 15 February 
1689; 1698 and 29 April 1730; Brussels 20 Jan- 



uary 1695 (with a new prologue by P. A. Fiocco) ; 
Hague 1701; Marseilles 10 March 1701. 

Also performed at Rome in 1690, as the first 
French opera ever given in Italy. Italian trans- 
lation (by S. Stampiglia?) published in that year. 
According to F. Torrefranca (Festschrift fur Jo- 
hannes Wolf 1929) performed at some private 
palazzo rather than in public. According to Sal- 
violi perhaps also given at Mantua in 1695. Armide 
must have been rather well-known in Italy, as the 
president De Brosses mentions in his letters a 
private performance at Cardinal Ottoboni's as 
late as about 1740. 

A German translation by J. J. Eschenburg was 
published in 1766. 

According to an old tradition Armide is also 
said to have been produced at Madrid in 1693, 
as the first opera at the Spanish court. The state- 
ment first occurs in Bonnet-Bourdelot's Histoire 
de la Musique et de ses Effets (1715), p*379t was 
repeated by Arteaga in he Rivoluzioni del Teatro 
Muskale Italiano (1783), 1, p.241, and by many 
other writers since. According to E. Cotarelo 
y Mori (Origines . . .dela Opera en Espaiia 9 1917) 
neither Armide nor any other of Lully's operas 
was ever given in Spain. 

Parodies on Armide, of the same title, were 
produced at the C.I., Paris 21 January 1725 (by 
J. Bailly, part of the music by J.J. Mouret) and 
11 January 1762 (by P. Laujon). A third, anon- 
ymous one, was printed in 1747. 

Armide was revived, in concert form, at Paris 
24 November 1905 (by the Schola Cantorum); 
Florence 12 May 191 1 (by the Associazione dei 
Musicologi; orchestration revised by C. Cor- 
dara) ; and, on the stage, at Monte Carlo 6 April 
1918 and Geneva December 1939. 

For Gluck's setting of Quinault 's text, see 1777. 

lully : Ads et Galatee 

6Septembre. Anet 
Text by J. G. de Campistron {pastorale hiroique). 
Prologue and 3 acts. 

Lully's last work. Score published in 1686. First 
produced at a fete galante given by the Duke of 
Vendome to the Dauphin; given at Paris 11 days 



79 



80 



1686 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1687 



later (17 September 1686) and revived 5 June 
1689; 10 June 1695 (according to the Mercure 
Galant, 20 June 1695 at Trianon "pour le Roi de 
Angleterre"); 13 June 1702; 5 October 1704; 18 
August 1718; 13 September 1725; 19 August 
1734 (with new divertissement, Les Plaisirs cham- 
petres, by Rebel pere) ; 1 8 August 1744; 23 January 
1749 (at Versailles, with the prologue from 
Phae'ton); 6 June 1752 (after 1 August 1752 on the 
same bill with Pergolesi's La Serva Padrona) ; and 
7 September 1762 (without the prologue). 

Also given at Hamburg December 1689 (in 
French; first opera there by a non-German com- 
poser and sung in a foreign language) and at 
Brussels 7 November 1695 (with a prologue by 
P. A. Fiocco). 

In German (translator not mentioned), Ham- 
burg 1695 and Stuttgart 1698. 

A parody by C. S. Favart, called Tircis et Do- 
ristie was produced at the CI. 4 September 1752 
and at Laxenburg, near Vienna 10 May 1756 
(Champe'e signed the Vienna score as copyist, not 
as composer, as claimed by Mantuani and Eitner). 

Ads et Galatie was revived at Amsterdam 23 
November 1933 (in French, under Pierre Mon- 
teux, by the Wagnervereeniging, on which oc- 
casion the libretto was reprinted, edited by H. 
Prunieres). In London the opera was broadcast 
on 29 March 1937 (in French). 

(stradella): II Trespolo Tutore 
balordo 

[October], Modena 
Text by G. C Villifranchi (altered from a prose 
comedy by G. B. Ricciardi). Three acts. 

The libretto was first published at Bologna 
1679, under the title Amore e Veleno, e Medicina 
degY Intelletti vero Trespolo Tutore (and again 
in 1682 and 1686 as // Tutore balordo) ; from Villi- 
franchi's dedication to Ricciardi, dated 1 1 June 
1679, it appears that this edition was not printed 
for a special occasion, and his allusions to previous 
productions at Rome, Genoa and Naples — with 
or without music — are rather vague. 

The 1686 production at the T. Fontanelli, Mo- 



dena, is the earliest (and only one) to be connected 
with Stradella's score, which is extant. 

(An anonymous libretto of the same title, pre- 
served at Vienna, has probably nothing to do 
with Stradella's opera; see Weilen, no.945; ac ~ 
cording to him perhaps performed at Vienna 4 
March 1737.) 

gabrieli: IlMauritio 
[23 December], Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by A. Morselli. Three acts. 

The most successful of Gabrieli's 11 operas; 
also given at Milan 1687 and/or 1689; Bergamo 
[12 January] 1689; Modena, T. Fontanelli 30 Oc- 
tober 1689; Padua May 1691; Vicenza 1691; 
Rome, Tord. February 1692 (with alterations by 
S. Stampiglia); Bologna 31 December 1696; 
Udine 1696. 

I687 

c. pallavicino: La Gierusalemme 

liberata 

[3 January], Venice, SS.G. e P. 

Text by G. C Corradi (founded on Tasso's 

poem). Three acts. 

Given some weeks later, 2 February 1687 at 
Dresden (German translation in libretto by C 
Bernhardi). Revived at Hamburg Spring 1694 
(in Italian) and releated there 1695 in German (as 
Armida, translated by G. Fiedler; this German 
version contains, for the first time at Hamburg, 
also one Italian air). 

The score was published in 1916 as Vol. lv of 
Denkmaler Deutscher Tonkunst, edited by H. Abert. 

steffani: Alarico ilBaltha 

18 January, Munich 
Text by L. Orlandi. Three acts. 

Full tide: Alarico il Baltha, doe VAudace, Re de 
Gothi, Written for the birthday of the Bavarian 
Electress Maria Antonia. 

The score was published in 1912 as Vol. xi of 
Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Bayern, edited by H. 
Riemann. 



81 



82 



1687-88 



ANNALS OF OFERA 



1688-89 



biber : Chi la dura la vince 

[30 June]. Salzburg 
Text by F. M. RafFaclini. Three acts. 

Biber's only extant opera. See on this earliest 
Armimus opera C. Schneider in Archivjiir Musik- 
wissenschaft, Vol. vm (1926), p.281. The date of 
the election of the Archbishop Johann Ernst von 
Thun (to whom the work is dedicated) gives a 
terminus a quo for the date of production. 

c o l A s s e : Achile et Polixene 

7 November. Paris, O. 
Text by J. G. dc Campistron. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Overture and first act were Lully's last com- 
position (d. 22 March 1687). Colasse finished the 
work of his master, thus setting up a tradition 
held by French opera composers throughout the 
centuries. Also given at Hamburg December 1692 
(in French) and revived at Paris 11 October 1712. 

The score was published in 1687. 

A French opera Andromaque, produced at Am- 
sterdam 20 July 1688, probably was Colasse's 
work (in which Andromache is one of the chief 
characters); there is no French 17th-century opera 
of that title. 



1688 

A. scarlatti: La Rosmene overo 

Ulnfedeltafedele 

Carnival. Naples, Pal. Reale 
Text by G. D. de Totis. Three acts. 

According to A. Lorcnz one of Scarlatti's best 
works. Also given at Florence 1689; Rome 1690; 
Ferrara 1694. 

lorenzani: Orontce 

23 August. Chantilly. 
Text by M. Leclerc (adapted from Cicognini's 
Italian libretto, sec 1649). Tragedie en Musique, 
prologue and 5 acts. 



Produced at a fete given by the Prince of Conde 
in honour of a visit of the Grand Dauphin. 

Lorenzani's only French opera (cf. 1681). Lib- 
retto printed in 1688. Of the music only some 
airs de ballet are extant. An account of Orontee 
will be found in Revue Musicale, June 1928 (A. 
Tessicr). 

lohner: Theseus 

15 November. Nuremberg 
Text by the composer (translated from an Italian 
libretto by Aurcli, Teseo tra le Rivali, composed 
by Freschi in 1685). Three acts. 

Forty-four airs from this opera were printed 
in 1688. Sec A. Sandbcrger in Archiv fur Musik- 
wissenschaft , Vol. 1 (October 191 8). 



1689 

colasse: Thetis et Relet 

u January. Paris, O. 
Text by B. de Fontenellc. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Colasse's chief work and one of the most suc- 
cessful French operas between Lully and Rameau. 

Revived in Paris 1697, 27 April 1699; 16 April 
1708 (with additions by A. Campra and B. 
Stuck); 13 May 1712; 4 November 1723; 19 Jan- 
uary 1736; and 29 November 1750 (Fontenclle is 
said to have been present at this revival, nearly 
62 years after the first production. He died, a 
centenarian, in 1757); Fontainebleau 14 Novem- 
ber 1754 (without the prologue). Given at Brussels 
in 1709 (revived 12 May 1726); Lille [1720]. 

Parodies: Arlequin Thetis, by A. R.Lesage, O.C. 
3oJuly 1713; Thetis et Pelee, byP. C.Roy, Sceaux 
August 1714; Lcs Noces a" Arlequin et de Silvia, ou 
Thetis et Pelee deguises, by P. F. Dominique, CI. 
19 January 1724; Les Amants inquiets, by C. S. 
Favart, CI. 9 March 175 1 and Versailles 22 Jan- 
uary 1755. 

Score published in 1689, 1708 and 1716. Fonte- 
nelle's text was reset by Laborde (Fontainebleau 
10 October 1765), who retained some parts of 
Colasse's original music. 



83 



84 



1 689 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1689 



s t e f f a n i : Henrico Leone 



30 January. Hanover 
Text by O. Mauro. Three acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the Hanover 
Italian opera-house. 

Steflfani's most successful work. Given in a 
German translation by G. Fiedler at Hamburg 
1696; Brunswick August 1697 (revived August 
1699; 2 February 1716 [with Italian airs, some 
from StefFani's Tassilone, and additions by G. C. 
Schurmann]; August 1729); Augsburg 1698; 
Stuttgart 11 October 1701 (as Mechthilde). 

Date of first performance indicated in a letter 
of the Italian composer Antonio Giannettini (see 
E. J. Luin, Antonio Giannettini e la Musica a Mo- 
dena, 193 1). 

(c. pallavicino): UAntiope 

14 February. Dresden 
Text by S. B. Pallavicino (the son of the com- 
poser). Three acts. 

Pallavicino's last work (d. 29 January 1688), 
completed by Strungk. (See F. Bercnd, N. A. 
Strungk, 1913, for an analysis of the opera and the 
share of the two composers.) 

pur cell: Dido and Aeneas* 

December? London 
Text by N. Tate. Prologue and 3 acts. 

The only known copy of the original (undated) 
libretto (in the R.C.M., London) has no proper 
title, it simply reads: An Opera Perform* d at Mr. 
Josias Priest's Boarding School at Chelsey. By Young 
Gentlewomen. The Words made by Mr. Nat. [sic; 
should be Nah. = Nahum] Tate. The Mustek 
composed by Mr. Henry Purcell. 

The date of the first performance of the most 
famous English opera is still uncertain. 1 For a long 
time, in fact since Hawkins (1776) up to 1904, it 
was believed to have been written- about 1677. 
Only W. B. Squire's and W. H. G. Flood's re- 
searches (sec Sammelbande of the I.M.S., Vol. V, 
1903-04, and Musical Times, June and November, 
1918) have fixed the date of "second half of 1689, 

1 See Dating PurcelTs Dido and Aeneas by John Buttrey ; 
RMA Proceedings 1967-8. 



probably Christmas" with a high degree of prob- 
ability. Surely, a mis-dating by no less than 12 
years of a work of such outstanding importance 
is a unique case in the history of opera. 

The score was published for the first time in 
1 841, edited by G. A. Macfarren for the Musical 
Antiquarian Society. There are later editions by 
E. F. Rimbault 1872 (vocal score); W. H. Cum- 
mings 1889 (as Vol. in of the collected edition 
of Purccll's works); A. Bodanzky 1924; E.J.Dent 
1925. 

Some public performances, after Purccll's 
death, took place about February 1700, 9 Feb- 
ruary 1704 and 19 April 1704, when The Loves 
of Dido and Aeneas ("a Mask, in Four Musical 
Entertainments") was given as an interlude at the 
Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre. Parts of the music 
were heard at concerts occasionally in the 18th 
century. But it was only after a lapse of more than 
195 years that Dido and Aeneas reached the stage 
again. The following revivals are to be recorded: 
London, r.a.m. iojuly 1878 (in concert form, by 

the Gluck Society). 
london, st. j.'s hall i March 1888 (in concert 

form, by the Bach Choir; Cummings' version). 
london, ly. 20 November 1895 (on the stage, by 

the R.C.M., in celebration of the bicentenary 

of Purcell's death, additional accompaniments 

by C. Wood). 
Dublin 14 December 1895 (in concert form, by 

the University Society). 

LONDON, HAMPSTEAD CONSERVATOIRE 17 May 

1900 (by the Purcell Operatic Society). 
london, coronet th. 25 March 1901 (by the 
Purcell Operatic Society). 

LONDON, GUILDHALL SCHOOL 17 March 19IO. 

london, hyde park 3 July 1920 (by the League 

of Arts). 
london, scala th. 3 1 December 1929. 
london, sadler's wells 6 November 193 1. 

LONDON, NEW TH. I July I94I. 
GLASTONBURY August 1915. 

clifton 14 October 1924. 

alton, hants. io February 1926. 

Bristol 21 October 1926. 

Glasgow 13 April 1932 and 24 April 1940. 



85 



86 



1689-90 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1690 



oxford 10 November 1937. 

Revivals outside Great Britain: 
new York, town hall 1 3 January 1924 (in concert 

form, Bodanzky's version); on the stage: Juil- 

liard School of Music 18 February 1932 and 

29 March 1939 (Dent's version). 
homburg (near frankfort) 12 June 1924 (in 

concert form). 
munster 14 March 1926 (on the stage, Dent's 

version; German translation by A. Mayer). 
paris, petite scene 21 March 1927 (in French, 

translation by P. Landormy). 
Vienna 27 March 1927 (at the Redoutensaal, in 

German; music arranged from Dent's version 

by H. Gal). 
stuttgart 15 July 1927 (in German, Dent's 

version). 
basle 9 June 193 1 (in German, Dent's version). 
the Hague November 1934 (Gal's version). 
Budapest 6 December 193 8 (in Hungarian, trans- 
lated by K. Nadasdy; music arranged by J. 

Adam). 
nantes February 1939 (in concert form). 
Florence 1 4 May 1940 (Dent's version, translated 

M. Labroca, orchestrated by V. Gui). 

1690 

A. Scarlatti: La Statira* 
5 January. Rome, T. Tordinona 
Text by P. Ottoboni (the nephew of Pope 
Alexander vm). Three acts. 

Score preserved. Written for the reopening of 
the Tordinona theatre (closed 1675-89). 

steffani: La Superbia d'Alessandro 

??. Hanover 
Text by O. Mauro. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Repeated at Hanover in 1691 as // Zelo di 
Leonato, without the prologue, and with altera- 
tions. 

Successful in a German version by G. Fiedler, 
Der hochmiithige Alexander : Hamburg 1695 ; 
Brunswick August 1699; Stuttgart 18 September 
1700. Text later set by Handel 1726. 



KVSSBKlJulia 

August. Brunswick 
Text by F. C. Bressand. "In einem Schauspiel 
singend vorgestellt". Three acts. 

Kusser's first traceable opera. Music lost. Leib- 
niz mentions the opera in a letter to the Land- 
grave of Hesse-Rheinfcls, dated 14 September 
1690. 

krieger: Der grossmiithige Scipio 

2 November. Weissenfels 
Text: a German version by an unknown trans- 
lator of Minato's Scipione Afrkano (see 1664). Pro- 
logue and 3 acts. 

Airs from this opera were printed in 1692. 

Krieger was court conductor at Weissenfels 
from 1680-1725. Of the numerous operas written 
by his successor, J. A. Kobelius, nothing is left. 

A. scarlatti: Gli Equivoci in Amore 
overo La Rosaura 

December. Rome, French Embassy 
Text by G. B. Lucini. Three acts. 

Written for a double wedding of the Colonna, 
Ottoboni, and Barberini families. Repeated Rome 
1692 by the Accademici Uniti; an intended pro- 
duction at Tord. 1691 did not take place. 

Two acts of this opera were published by R. 
Eitner in 1885 (in Vol. xiv of the Publikationen 
der Gesellschaft fur Musikforschung). 

ottoboni?: Il Colombo overo 
U India scoperta 

28 December. Rome, T. Tordinona 
Text by the composer. Three acts. 

The earliest Columbus opera, written (and 
perhaps composed) by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, 
the nephew of Pope Alexander vm. Music lost. 
See on this opera Ademollo and Wotquenne, 
who cite amusing criticisms from the Memoires 
of Philippe Emmanuel de Coulanges (1820 edi- 
tion, p.227) and a poem by the Duke of Nevers 
ending thus : 



87 



88 



1690-91 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1691-92 



Le grand bruit de la peste, en tous lieux repandu, 

A fait cesser cette musique; 

Cet opera sauvage est enfin defendu 

Et nous ne verrons plus ce monstre dramatique. 

1691 

purcell: King Arthur or 
The British Worthy* 

May or June. London, Dorset Gardens 

Text by J. Dryden (A dramatkk opera). Prologue* 
5 acts and epilogue. 

Regarded by Dryden as a sequel to his Albion 
and Albanius (see 1685). 

Only one air was printed in Purcell's lifetime, 
and extracts followed in the 18th and 19th cen- 
turies. 1 The score was first published in 1843, 
edited by E. Taylor for the Musical Antiquarian 
Society. Further editions by G. E. P. Arkwright 
(1889), W. H. Cummings (1897), J. A. Fuller 
Maitland (1897), and D. Arundell (1928, as 
Vol. xxvi of the collected edition of Purcell's 
works). 

King Arthur was very successful and frequently 
revived. Given at London, D.L. 13 March 1706; 
London, Goodman's Fields Th. 30 December 
1735 (as Merlin or The British hichantcr and King 
Arthur, the British Worthy; this version is attri- 
buted to William GifFard, the manager of Good- 
man's Fields Theatre; see on this production Tho- 
mas Gray's letter to Walpole of 3 January 1736); 
York 24 January 1747; Dublin 17 March 1750 
and 7 February 1763 ; London, D.L. 13 December 
1720; 12 November 1772; 19 October 1781 (text 
altered by D. Garrick, additional music by Arne) ; 
22 November 1784 (as Arthur andEmmeline, addi- 
tions by Linley); Dublin 1789 (Arne's version, as 
Arthur and EmmeHne) ; London, Royalty 5 April 
1790; New York 24 April 1800 (with Purcell's 
music?); Arthur and EmmeHne revived London, 
C.G. 2 November 1803 and 26 October 1819 
(music arranged by Bishop), also Lyceum 2 July 
1827 (music arranged by W. Hawes); D.L. 16 
November 1842. 

1 Complete text of the play with lyrics published in 

1717. 



Modern revivals, mostly in concert form : 
Birmingham 6 October 1 897 (Fuller Maitland's 

version). 

paris (privately) 9 May 1922 (French version by 

I. Dclage-Prat). 
falmouth 3 December 1924 (on the stage). 
Cambridge 14 February 1928 (on the stage). 
new york, university 24 April 1935 (in concert 

form). 
London, queen's hall 11 December 1935 (in 

concert form). 

steffani: Orlando generoso 

December. Hanover 

Text by O. Mauro. Three acts. 

In German (translated by G. Fiedler) Hamburg 
January 1696 and revived there in 1707; 29 Jan- 
uary 1720, "erneuert, doch mit Beibehaltung der 
Fiedlerschen Ubersetzung, wenigstens in Recita- 
tiv" (Mattheson); Brunswick August 1697 (in 
German) and February 1698 (in Italian). 

Airs from this opera were printed in 1699 at 
Liibeck. 



1692 

perti: II Furio Camillo 

Carnival Venice, S. Salv. 
Text by M. Noris. Three acts. 

The most successful of Perti's 24 operas. Also 
given at Bologna 17 January 1693 ; Milan, T.R.D. 
[25 January] 1693; Genoa 1693; Rome, Tord. 
February 1696 (text altered by S. Stampiglia); 
Mantua 1700. 

The music seems to be lost. 

STEFFANirLe Rivali concordi 

20 February. Hanover 
Text by O. Mauro. Three acts. 

In German (as Die vereinigten Mit-Buhler oder 
Die siegende Atalanta, translation by G. Fiedler) 



89 



90 



1692 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1692-93 



Hamburg 1698 and probably Stuttgart 18 Sep- 
tember 1699 (as Le Rivali concordi oder die ver- 
sohnten Nebenbuhler), 

pur cell: The Fairy-Queer? 

April London, Dorset Gardens 

Text: an anonymous adaptation, perhaps by E. 

Setde, of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's 

Dream. Prologue and 5 acts. Revived 1693. 

Only some songs were published in PurcelTs 
lifetime. The original score was lost as early as in 
October 1700, when there appeared in the London 
Gazette the well-known advertisement offering 
20 guineas reward for its recovery. Perhaps it was 
recovered through this advertisement, for ad- 
vertisements in the Daily Courant show that one 
act was performed at D.L. 1 February 1703. The 
score was re-discovered more than 200 years later, 
by J. S. Shedlock, in the library of the R.A.M., 
London. Edited by Shedlock in 1903 and again 
in 1914, as Vol. xn of the collected edition of 
PurcelTs works. 

Revivals: 
london, st. George's hall 15 June 1901 (in con- 
cert form, under Shedlock). 
London, morley college io June 1911 (in con- 
cert form, under G. Hoist). 
Cambridge io February 1920 (first production on 
the stage since 1692, under C. B. Rootham). 

LONDON, RUDOLF STEINER HALL 23 June I927. 

Cambridge io February 193 1. 

essen 27 June 193 r (open-air performance, in 

German, translation by E. Schulz-Dornburg). 
BRUSSELS 28 June 1935 (in French, translated by 

J. Rousseau and J. Weterings). 

A German arrangement by H. Stieber was 
published in 1936. 

kusser: Ariadne 

15 February, Brunswick 
Text by F. C. Bressand. Five acts. 

Revived at Brunswick 28 August 1692 and 
1715. Airs from this opera were printed at Stutt- 
gart in 1700 (as Heliconische Musen-Lust). 



kusser:_/o5<w 

1 September. Brunswick 

Text by F. C. Bressand. Five acts. 

Also given at Hamburg 1695 and Stuttgart 
1698 (as Die ungluckliche Liebe des tapfern Jasons, 
reduced to 3 acts); 7 November 1700; and 1702. 
Revived at Brunswick August 171 5 and August 
1724 (as Die an des Jasons Untreue sich rachende 
Medea; 1715 "reduced to 3 acts; 1724 additional 
music by Schurmann, 3 acts). 

The music of Jason seems to be lost. An anon- 
ymous score in the Staatsbibliothek, Berlin, was 
for a long time thought to be Kusser's work, 
copied by Keiser. But it has been proved to be 
a different opera, Jason oder die Eroberung desgul- 
denen Fliesses, Hamburg 25 November 1720, 
music chiefly by Schurmann. See G. F. Schmidt, 
Friihdeutsche Oper (1933-34), Vol. 1, pp.44 and 
Vol. n, p.8; W. Schulze, Quellen der Hamburger 
Oper (1938), pp.41-44. 



1693 

steffani: LaLiberta contenta 

3 February. Hanover 

Text by O. Mauro. Three acts. 

In German (as Der in seiner Freyheit vergnugte 
Alcibiades, translated by G. Fiedler) given at 
Hamburg 1697; Stuttgart 28 April 1699 (with a 
prologue, perhaps by Kusser, added) and 28 April 
1701; Brunswick February 1700. 

strungk: Alceste 

18 May. Leipzig 
Text by P. Thiemich (founded on Aureli's Anti- 
gona delusa da Alceste, see 1660). Prologue and 
3 acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the Leipzig 
opera-house. Repeated at Naumburg and Weis- 
senfels in the same year, 1693 (as Hercules). Music 
lost, as is the music of Nero, the second opera 
Strungk wrote for Leipzig in Autumn of the 
same year. 



91 



92 



1693 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1693-94 



See on the early history of the first Leipzig 
opera-house F. Bercnd's dissertation on Strungk 
(1913) and G. F. Schmidt in the Sandberger Fest- 
schrift (1919). About too German operas were 
given there until 1720, most of them anonymous 
and all except one lost. Strungk, Boxberg, Tele- 
mann, Griincwald, Hofmann, Heinichen, J. G. 
Voglcr are the few composers mentioned in the 
libretti. 

bronner: Echo und Narcissus 

??. Brunswick 
Text by F. C. Bressand. Three acts. 

Also given at Hamburg 1694. The first of 
Bronncr's 7 operas, none of which is extant. See 
F. Chrysandcr in fahrbikher fiir Musikwissenschaft 
(1863), pp.210-227. 

erlebach: Die Plejades oder 
Das Siebengestime 

??. Brunswick 
Text by F. C. Bressand. Three acts. 

Also given at Hamburg 1694 and revived at 
Brunswick February 1699. Erlebach' s only opera. 
Music lost. 

conradi: Gensericus 

??. Hamburg 
Text by C. H. Postel. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Full title reads: Der grosse Konig der Africa- 
nischen Wenden Gensericus, als Rom- und Kartha- 
gens Uberwinder. 

Of Conradi's 8 operas the only one which is 
extant, at least in a revised version in which it 
was revived at Hamburg 20 June 1722 under the 
new title o£Sieg der Schonheit (text altered by C. F. 
Weichmann, additional music by Telcmann). 
In his Der Musikalische Patriot (1728) Mattheson 
states: "Dieser Sieg bestund in dem alten Gense- 
ricus . . . mit einigen Neuerangen: von Teleman- 
nischer Composition. Hrn. Postels Poesie wurde 
verbessert durch Hn. Weichmann". See also 
Mattheson's review in his Critica Musica, Vol. 1, 
Pt. 3 (July 1722) which is the first opera review 
in the first German musical periodical. 



In Tclemann's version the opera was also given 
at Brunswick February 1725 ; 1 8 August 1728 and 
February 173-; revived at Hamburg 18 Novem- 
ber- 1734. 

Conradi was, after Theilc, Strungk, Franck, 
and Fortsch, the fifth composer writing for the 
Hamburg German opera. 

m. A. charpentier: Medee* 

4 December. Paris, O. 
Text by T. Corneillc. Prologue and 5 acts. Char- 
penticr's only opera produced at the Academic. 
Never revived in Paris, although considered by 
some critics to equal even Lully's operas. Also 
given at Lille 17 November 1700. The score was 
printed in 1694. 



1694 

pollarolo: Ottone 

Carnival Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by G. Frigimclica Roberti. Five acts. 

In Italian also given at Udine 1696; Brunswick 
August 1697; and, with alterations, Venice Car- 
nival 1716. 

k u s s e r : Erindo oder 
Die unstrafliche Liebe 

Carnival? Hamburg 
Text by C. F. Bressand. Three acts. 

Also given at Augsburg 1698 (as Die unstraf- 
liche Liebe). Forty-four airs from Erindo were 
printed in 1695 and reprinted in 193S (edited by 
H. Osthoff). 

(The first production was, according to W. 
Schulze, rather in the beginning of 1694 than in 
the Autumn of 1693 as has been assumed.) 

Revived, in concert-form, Hamburg Decem- 
ber 1939. 

a. scarlatti: Pirro, e Detnetrio 

[28Jamtary\. Naples, S.B. 
Text by A. Morselli (first composed by Tosi in 
1690). Three acts. 



93 



94 



1694 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1694-95 



One of Scarlatti's most famous works. Repeated 
at Rome, Capr., in the same year, 1694 (not 
1696); Siena, Ace. Rozzi 1695, with prologue and 
intermezzi by D. Franchini; Florence, Ace. dei 
Sorgenti 1696; Milan, T.R.D. Carnival 1695; 
perhaps also Mantua 1700; revived Florence 
Carnival 171 1, as La Forza delta Fedelta and Fano 
[9 January] 1716, under the same title, with addi- 
tional airs by other composers, arranged by A. 
Massarotti). At Naples, an intermezzo (charac- 
ters: Amor and RufFino, his secretary) was per- 
formed between Acts 11 and 111. 

Outside Italy given at Brunswick August 1696 
(in Italian) and February 1700 (in German, trans- 
lated by G. Fiedler). Perhaps also Leipzig October 
1696. 

London, Hm. 25 December 1708, as Pyrrhus 
and Demetrius, English version by O. MacSwiney, 
music arranged by N. F. Haym, with additions 
from Scarlatti's Rosaura, see 1690. Sung partly in 
English and partly in Italian (London debut of the 
famous Italian singer Nicolo Grimaldi, called Ni- 
colino). Very successful in London, given 61 
times until 1717. Last revived 21 March 1716, 
wholly in Italian. Also given Dublin Spring 
1711. 

e. c. delaguerre: Cephale etProcris 

15 March. Paris, O. 
Text by J. F. Duche. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Unsuccessful, but worth recording as the first 
work of a woman composer to be produced at 
the Paris Opera. It was her only work for the 
stage. Score printed 1694. A Dutch translation 
of the text by G. T. Domis was published at 
Amsterdam in 1710. 

KEISER:Brt5l7/ws 
Spring? Hamburg 
Text by F. C. Bressand (founded on an Italian 
libretto by F. Parisetti). Three acts. 

The full title reads: Der honigliche Schdfcr, oder 
Basilius in Arcadien. 

One of Keiser's earliest operas. Music lost. It 
has been generally thought to be actually his first 



opera, on the authority of Matthcson, who stated 
in his Ehrenpforte that Basilius had been heard at 
Brunswick or Wolfcnbiittel before it was given 
at Hamburg. Chrysander (1863) hesitatingly ac- 
cepted that statement, but according to G. F. 
Schmidt (Neue Beitrage, . . . 1929) the opera mad~ 
its appearance at Brunswick only about February 
1696 (as Basilius). Mattheson probably con- 
founded Kciser's opera with the Italian original 
(II Re Pastore overo il Basilio in Arcadia) which had 
indeed been produced at Brunswick in 1691 (with 
music by Alveri) and of which Bressand made a 
German translation (see F. Chrysander in Jahr- 
biicher fur musikalische Wissenschaft, 1863, pp.204- 
205). 

Whether it was in fact Keiser's first opera will 
be difficult to decide, as the date of the first per- 
formance of Basilius at Hamburg is not known, 
and two other operas by him were produced at 
Brunswick in the same year, 1694, viz. Procris 
und Ccphalus (date unknown) and Die wiedergc- 
fundenen Verliebten (sometimes also believed to 
be his first work for the stage) on 14 October. 



1695 

pollarolo: Gl'Ingannifelici 

25 November. Venice, S. Angclo 
Text by A. Zeno. Three acts. 

The first setting of Zeno's first libretto. Also 
given at Verona 1697; Naples, S.B. Autumn 
1699; Brescia 1707; Vicenza 1709. Music lost. 
"L'Autore di qucsto dramma, ora eelebcrrimo 
per tanti altri, e per Tcrudizionc singolarc di cui 
e fornito; fu certamentc il primo a nobilitarc il 
nostro Teatro" (Groppo). 

meder: Nero 

Before 2$ November. Danzig 
Text: the same German version, by an unknown 
translator, of an Italian libretto by G. C Corradi, 
which Strungk had composed two years earlier 
(see 1693). Three acts. 
The first German opera ever produced at 



95 



96 



1695-96 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1696 



Danzig. Music lost. (An Italian opera, Le Nozze 
a" Amore e di Psiche, text by V. Puccitelli, music by 
M. Scacchi, had been given there as early as 15 
February 1646.) The composer's attempt to 
introduce opera as a regular institution was sup- 
pressed by the municipal council. Meder's next 
opera had to be performed at Schottland, a small 
place outside Danzig territory (1698). (SeeJ.Bolte 
in Vierteljahrsschriftfiir Mtisikwissenschaft, 1891). 

steffani: J Trionji del Fato overo 
Le Glorie d'Enea 

December. Hanover 
Text by O. Mauro. Three acts. 

According to Kretzschmar, StefFani's most im- 
portant opera. Given at Hamburg 25 November 
1699 (in German, as II Triumfo del Fato oder Das 
maechtige Geschick bei Lavinia und Dido, translated 
by G. Fiedler). Revived Brunswick February 
1716 (in Italian, as Enea in Italia), 

I696 

keiser: Circe and Penelope 

February, Brunswick 
Text by C. F. Bressand. Two parts, m 3 acts each. 

Full titles: Circe oder Des Ulysses erster Theil and 
Penelope oder Des Ulysses zweiter Theil. 

Both parts were repeated at Brunswick Feb- 
ruary 1697 and also given at Hamburg in 1702, 
the second part under the title of Penelope und 
Ulysses, ander Theil. The first part also perhaps 
Leipzig October 1697 and January or October 
1699. The second part was revived at Brunswick 
in August 1708 as Ulysses Wiederkunfft. 

Keiser's Ulysses, written 26 years later for Co- 
penhagen (see 1722), is a different work alto- 
gether. 

m. A.(orG.)BONONCiNi: II Ttiotifo di 
Camilla Regina de' Volsci 

26 December. Naples, S.B. 
Text by S. Stampiglia. Three acts. 

Bononcini' s most successful opera; given at 



Vienna 1697? (according to Allacci and Gerber); 
Rome, Capr. [8 January] 1698, as La Rinovata 
Camilla Regina de Volsci; Mantua 1698; Piacenza 
1698; Venice, S. Salv. [4 October] 1698; Ferrara 
1699 (and according to Burney 1707); Genoa 
Carnival 1700 (and 1703, and Autumn 1710?); 
Siena 1700; Turin, T.R. Carnival 1701; Leghorn 
1 701; Lucca February 1702; Milan 1702; Udine 

1704 (as La Fede in Cimento); Rovigo October 

1705 (as La Fede in Cimento) and 1706; London, 
D.L. 10 April 1706 (see below); Padua Carnival 
1707 (as La Fede in Cimento); Bologna 1709 (as 
Amore per Amore) and 30 December 1718 (as La 
Fede in Cimento); Dublin March 171 1; Udine 
1715; Leghorn May 1715. 

There has always been much uncertainty about 
this opera, beginning with the composer and the 
year and place of its first production. It is often 
attributed to the older Bononcini, Giovanni, e.g. 
in a ms score preserved at Munster (see E.J. Dent, 
Scarlatti, p.65); in the Avvisi di Napoli, reporting 
the performance of 1696: "posta egregiamente in 
musica daireccellente Sonator di Violone Sig. 
Giovanni Bononcini, Bolognese" ; in two mss. in 
the British Museum (Add. mss. 14185 and 14186) ; 
also by the anonymous author of A Critical Dis- 
courson Opera s and Musick in England (1709), who 
says : "Compos'd by Gio. Buononcini, and pre- 
pared for the English Stage by Ni . . . o Ha . . . 
m". See also Burney, iv, p.210, note. Most of the 
earlier librettos do not mention the composer, 
but M. A. Bononcini's name is given in the 
Venice 1698 libretto; also in a ms score in Vienna. 

As to the first production, there is no evidence 
for the often repeated statement that Camilla was 
first produced at Vienna in 1693 (even the 1697 
production there is doubtful). The Naples libretto 
is the earliest known (copy in the Brussels Con- 
servatoire). Neither Florimo nor Croce mentions 
the production at Naples; but apart from the fact 
that the libretto gives the full cast, there is further 
evidence for the production to be found in the 
preface to the libretto of Alessandro Scarlatti's 
Emiretw, from which we also learn the approx- 
imate date, as it is stated there that Camilla was 
produced between an anonymous Comodo An- 



97 



98 



1696-97 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1697 



totrino (text by F. M. Paglia; according to Croce 
1 8 November 1696) and Scarlatti's Emiretio (prob- 
ably Carnival 1697). 

In London, Camilla was produced at D.L. 
10 April 1706 in an English version by O. 
MacSwiney 1 , music adapted by N. F. Haym (but 
according to Sonneck not altered or enlarged, but 
practically intact). Very successful in London; 
first given wholly in English, but from 17 De- 
cember 1707 half English and half Italian, when 
Valentini and "The Baroness" sang their parts in 
the latter language (Burney, iv, p.205). Revived 
in London (in English) at Lincoln's Inn Fields Th. 
13 January 1717, 7 March 1719 and 30 November 
1726. Also given at Dublin Spring 171 1 (see 
above). There were no less than 113 performances 
between 1706 and 1728, which is by far the 
greatest number an Italian opera reached in 
London in the course of the whole 18 th century; 
most of the performances, it is true, were wholly 
in English. 

1697 

pistocchi: IlNarciso 

March. Ansbach 
Text by A. Zeno (Pastorale per musica). Five acts. 
The first opera Pistocchi wrote for a German 
court (for the inauguration of the Italian opera- 
house at Ansbach) and the first setting of Zcno's 
libretto. The composer himself sang the name 
part. Revived Munich Carnival 1701. Music lost. 

desmarets; Venus et Adonis 

17 March, Paris, O. 
Text by J. B. Rousseau. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Revived in Paris 17 August 1717; given at 
Lunevillc 15 November 1707; Lille 1720; Ham- 

1 He signed the dedication in the printed libretto. 
From an agreement between Haym and Christopher 
Rich, dated 14 January 1705, and published by A. 
Nicoll, A History of Early Eighteenth Century Drama 
(1929), p.274, it appears that the English version origin- 
ally had been prepared by an otherwise unknown 
Mr. Northman. 



burg April 1725 (in French, with a "teutschem 
comiquen Vorspiel"). 
Score published in 1697. 

keiser: Dergeliebte Adonis 

Spring? Hamburg 
Text by C. H. Postel. Three acts. 

This is the earliest of Reiser's operas the score 
of which has been preserved. Parts of the opera 
were revived at Hamburg 14 January 1878 (at the 
bicentenary celebrations of the Hamburg opera, 
as Klage urn den toten Adonis, music arranged by 
J. N. Fuchs). 

destouches: Isse 

7 October. Fontaincbleau 
Text by A. Houdar de La Motte (pastorale he- 
roique). Prologue and 3 acts. 

Destouches's most successful work. Repeated 
at Trianon 17 December and at the Paris Opera 
30 December 1697, and revived there 14 October 
1708 (enlarged to 5 acts); 7 September 171953 Feb- 
ruary 1721; 19 November 1733; 14 November 
1741; Versailles 26 November 1749, without the 
prologue; Paris 23 December 1756; finally at Ver- 
sailles 18 December 1773 (with alterations by 
Berton). 

In French also Lyons 1709; Hague 27 Decem- 
ber 1710; Brussels 22 December 1711. 

In German (as Isse oder Die vergnugende Liebe) 
Wolfenbiittcl 12 September or 4 October 1710 
(music arranged [partly newly composed?] by 
Schurmann). 

Revived in concert form by the Schola Can- 
torum, Paris 27 November 1908. 

The first performance at Fontaincbleau is re- 
corded in the Journal of the Marquis de Dangeau: 
"On chanta un petit opera dont un mousquetaire 
a fait la musiquc; 1c roi ct les courtisans convinrent 
qu'clle est aussi bonne que cellc de Lully ct qu'cllc 
n'est point voice". 

The score was published in 1708 and 1724. Two 
parodies were produced at the C.I., Paris, viz. Les 
Amours de Vincennes, by P. F. Dominique, 12 Oc- 
tober 1719; and La Oracles, by J. A. Romagnesi, 
21 December 1741. 



99 



100 



1 697 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1697-98 



campra: L'Europe galante 

24 October. Paris, O. 
Text by A. Houdar de La Motte. Prologue and 
4 entrees. 

L! Europe galante is the first outstanding example 
of "opera-ballet", a French favourite form during 
the 1 8th century. Marmontel (Elements de Lite- 
rature) defines it as "un spectacle compose d'actcs 
detaches quant a Taction, niais reunis sous unc 
idee collective". Each act or entree may be called 
a little opera in itself where the action is reduced 
to a strict minimum, where the subject often 
becomes a mere pretext for the development of 
music, and above all, dance (P. M. Masson, Ra- 
mcau, 1930, p.21). 

In such "spectacle coupe" the single entrees arc 
easily interchangeable; new ones could be sub- 
stituted almost ad libitum. About the middle of the 
century the "idee collective*' was often lost sight 
of, and the earlier "Festes de . . ." and "Amours 
de . . ." titles become, more honestly, "Fragments 
de . . ." 

Li Europe galante consists of a prologue, Les 
Forges de l' Amour, and of four entrees, La France, 
UEspagne, V Italic, and La Turquie. 

Revived in Paris 1 8 May 1 706 ; 20 August 1 7 1 5 ; 
February 1716 (with cantata CEnone added); 20 
June 1724; 22 February 1725 (with another entree 
La Provencale, in place of L'Espagne); 14 June 
1736; 9 May 1747; 26 August 1755 (with addi- 
tions by L. Aubert); 17 June 1766 (parts); and 
16 February 1775 (the last entree only). 

Also given probably at the Hague in 1701; 
Ghent 1706 (with a prologue by P. A. Fiocco); 
Lille [1718]; Brussels 4 November 1726. Score 
published in 1724. 

Given at Hamburg 21 February 1724 (in 
French, in an abridged version), as the first act of 
a 3 -act pasticcio, called DerBeschJuss des Carnevals. 
The second act was a French comedy (without 
music) and the third act was a German comic 
opera by Telemann, with the Italian title, // Ca- 
pitano. "Surely one of the oddest mixtures imag- 
inable!" (Sonneck), even in the pasticcio-minded 
1 8th centurv. 



A. scarlatti: La Caduta 
de > Decemviri 

November. Naples, S.B. 
Text by S. Stampiglia. Three acts. 

According to B. Crocc, Scarlatti's best score 
written to Stampiglia's worst libretto. Also given 
at Palermo 1698 (with a prologue L'Alcide); and 
probably Leghorn 1699; Florence Carnival 1700; 
Genoa Autumn 170 1 ; Siena Carnival 1704 (com- 
poser not mentioned in librettos of these perform- 
ances). 

duron: Veneno es de Amor 

la Embidia 
(Envy is the Poison of Love) 
l j November. Madrid 
Text by A. de Zamora. Three acts. 

One of the very few surviving examples of 
early Spanish zarzuela. See for an analysis E. Co- 
tarclo y Mori, in Boletin de la Academia Espatiola y 
1932, pp.767 sqq. 

1698 

reiser: Augustus 

gjune. Flamburg 
Text by C. H. Postel Three acts. 

The lengthy title reads : Der bey detn allgemeinen 
Welt-friede von detn grossen Augustus geschhssene 
Tempel des Janus. The opera was written to cele- 
brate the peace of Ryswick (1697) and the glory 
of the Emperor Leopold 1 in general. Although a 
pieced* occasion, it was revived at Hamburg in 1712 
and even as late as 10 October 1729 (with pro- 
logue by Telemann); also, in an adaptation, at 
Copenhagen 30 November 1722, as Der von 
Othino, dem Urheber des Danischen Reichs ge- 
schhssene Tempel des Janus (not 10 October 1746, 
as E. H. Miiller, Angelo u. Pietro Mingotti, 1917, 
p.xxn, supposes). Score preserved. 

"Hr. Kciscr machte die Music, Hr. Postel die 
Verse. Diese beiden Verfasser verstunden sich 
sehr wol, und brachten viel schones zu Wege. 
Diese Opera bewiess es sonderlich" (Mattheson). 



101 



102 



1698-99 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1699-1700 



boxberg: Sardanapalus 
??. Ansbach 
Text by the composer. Prologue and 3 (?) acts. 

Of Boxbcrg's operas (most of them written for 
Leipzig) the only one which is extant. The score 
was discovered by A. Sandberger (see H. Mers- 
mann, Beitrdge zur Anshachcr Musikgcschichte, 
1916). An anonymous opera of the same title, 
produced at Leipzig in 1 708, is (according to G. F. 
Schmidt) a different work. 

keiser: Orpheus 

??. Brunswick 
Text by F. C. Brcssand. Five acts. 

Consisting of two parts, called Die sterbende Eu- 
rydicc oder Orpheus erster Theil, and Die verwandelte 
Leyer des Orpheus, respectively, under which titles 
it was given at Brunswick February 1699, and 
Hamburg 1702 (as two 3-act operas). Revived 
Brunswick February 1700 (as Orpheus undEuri- 
dice, 3 acts) and February 1770 (in the same form); 
Hamburg 1709 (in 5 acts, as Die biss in und nach 
dem Todt unerhoerte Treue des Orpheus) and 1726 
(as Die wunderbare Bestandigkeit der Liebe oder Or- 
pheus); Brunswick August 1727 (in 3 acts, re- 
modelled by Schurmann). 

A. scarlatti:// Prigioniero 
fortunato 

14 December. Naples, S.B. 
Text by F. M. Paglia. Three acts. 

Also given at Mantua 1699; Florence Autumn 
1699; Palermo 1702. 

1699 

POLLAROLo: Faramondo 

Carnival Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by A. Zeno. Three acts. 

Given at Pratolino later in the same year (with 
alterations); Bologna 24 June 1709 (as pasticcio). 
In German (translated by G. Fiedler) Brunswick 
August 1699 and February 1701 (no composer 
mentioned, but probably Pollarolo's opera). 

Revived Brussels 4 November 1727 (in Italian). 



destouches: Amadis de Grece 
25 March. Paris, O. 
Text by A. Houdar de La Motte. Prologue and 
5 acts. 

Revived in Paris 3 November 171 1 (with alter- 
ations); 9 March 1724; 7 March 1745; and, in 
concert form, Versailles 30 April 1749 and 16 
January 1751. 

Given at Brussels 2 January 171 1; Lille [1718]; 
Lyons in 1742. 

Score published 1699. 

A parody, Amadis le Cadet, by L. Fuzelier was 
produced at the C.I., Paris 24 March 1724. 



1700 

keiser: La Forza delta Virtu oder 
Die Macht der Tugend 

Carnival Hamburg 
Text by C. F. Bressand (translated from an 
Italian libretto by D. David, first set to music by 
Pollarolo in 1693). Three acts. 

Successful at Hamburg, given there nearly all 
the year through. Score preserved. Airs from the 
opera were printed in 1701. 

A. scarlatti: UEraclea 

Carnival? Naples, S.B. 
Text by S. Stampiglia. Three acts. 

Given at Parma in the same year (music by 
Scarlatti and Sabadini). 

JjEraclea contains the earliest known example 
of a vocal operatic septet (quoted in E. J. Dent's 
monograph, pp.56-58). 

PiSTOCCHi:Le Risa di Democrito 

February. Vienna 
Text by N. Minato (first set to music by Draghi 
in 1670). Three acts. 

Also given at Bologna 16 January 1708 (revived 
in 1727), at Forli 1710, and at the Stadttheater, 
Vienna, as late as in September 1737 (eleven years 
after Pistocchi's death) and once more in 1742. 



103 



104 



1700 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1700-01 



destouches: Omphale 

10 November. Paris, O. 
Text byA. Houdar deLaMottc. ProIogueand5 acts. 
One of Destouches 's chief works. Given at 
Lyons in 1713; at Brussels 4 November 1715; 
revived at Paris 21 April 1721; 27 January 1733; 
13 January 1735; and 14 January 1752 (at Marly 
10 May 1751). 

In German (translated and arranged by G. P. 
Telemann), Hamburg 24 April 1724. 

Parodies: Hercule filant, by L. Fuzelier,, C.I. 15 
May 1721 ; PolichineUe Alcide ou Le Heros en Que- 
nottille, by D. Carolet, Th. des Marionettes, Foire 
St. G. 26 February 1733 ; La Fileuse, by J. J. Vade, 
O.C. 8 March 1752; Fanfale, by C. S. Favart and 
P. A. L. de Marcouville, C.I. 8 March 1752. A 
fifth parody, by J. Bailly, was published in 1758, 
not performed. 

After the last revival, the Baron F. M. de 
Grimm published (February 1752) his famous 
Lettre sur Omphale (against the French tragedie- 
lyrique in general), thus opening the notorious 
"Guerre des BoufFonnistes et Anti-Bourfonnistes" 
before the Italian buffo troupe had actually started 
their performances at the Paris Opera (on 1 Au- 
gust 1752 with Pergolesi's La Serva Padrona). 

The original libretto of Omphale gives 10 No- 
vember 1701 (instead of 1700) as the date of the 
first performance, and this has been followed by 
all authorities and books of reference. P. Melese, 
however, in his recently published Repertoire Ana- 
lytique (1934), enters the opera under 1700, on the 
authority of the Journal du Marquis de Dangeau, 
who records several rehearsals at Fontainebleau in 
October 1700, and also the general rehearsal there 
on 4 November 1700. There is no review of the 
opera in the Mercure Galant. Whether, after the 
rehearsal, the Paris production was postponed for 
more than a year, or the date of 1701 in the lib- 
retto is a misprint, it is difficult to decide. 

cam pr a: Hesione 

21 December. Paris, O. 
Text by A. Danchct. Prologue and 5 acts. 

After two opera-ballets in 1697 and 1699, this 
was Campra's first tragc'die-lyrique. 



Given at Brussels in 1710; Lille [1720]. Revived 
in Paris 19 July 1709 (with new airs); 13 Septem- 
ber 1729; 1 March 1743; Versailles and Com- 
•piegne, May 1750; and Versailles 20 November 
1752 (in concert form). 

Score published 1700 and 1701. 

A parody of the same title, by P. F. Dominique 
and J. A. Romagnesi, was produced at the CI. 
22 October 1729. 



1701 

POLLAROLO:Le Pazzie degli Amanti 

February. Vienna 
Text by F. Passarini. Three acts. 

The only opera the Venetian composer wrote 
for Vienna. Revived Rovigo Autumn 1711; Ven- 
ice Carnival 1719. 

reiser: Stoertebecker und Joedge 
Michaels 
??. Hamburg 
Text by Hotter. Three acts. 

A second part followed later in the same year. 
In the preface to the libretto the unusual character 
of the subject is emphasized (Stortebecker was a 
14th-century Hamburg pirate). 

The music, apart from a single instrumental 
minuet, is lost. 

A r I o s t I : La Fede ne Tradimenti 

12 July. Berlin 
Text by G. Gigli (first set to music by Fabbrini 
in 1689) l . Three acts. 

One of the very few operas produced at Berlin 
before the reign of Frederick the Great. The per- 
formance took place at the Lietzenburg (now 
Charlottcnburg) palace. Score preserved in the 
British Museum. 

1 As the result of a comparison, C. Sachs suggests 
that the text might have been written by Queen Sophia 
Charlotte, in French, and that it was translated into 

Italian by O. Mauro. 



105 



106 



1701-02 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1702-03 



gatti: Scylla 
16 September. Paris, O. 
Text by J. F. Duche. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Given since 20 December 1701 in an altered 
version and with a new prologue. 

The last and best opera of Gatti who, after Lully 
and Lorenzani, was the third Italian composer 
who contributed to the French operatic stage. 

Score published. 

Scylla was revived in Paris, 1 October 1720 and 
11 September 1732. A parody by L. Fuzelicr, he 
Cheveu, was produced at the O.C. 25 September 
1732. 

aldrovandini: Mitridate in Sebastia 

December, Genoa, T. del Falcone 
Text by G. Maggi. Three acts. 

Also given at Turin, T.R. Carnival 1702; Flo- 
rence Carnival 1704; and (with additional music 
by G. Vignola) Naples, S.B. December 1706. 



Campra's chief work. Given at Brussels in 
1708. Revived in Paris 20 October 1707 (widi 
alterations); 8 June 1717 (with added ballet Les 

Fetes CorinthiemieSy music by Campra); 3 (not 30) 
March 1729 (with new alterations); 23 October 
1738; after Campra's death (1744); Versailles 10 
December 1748 (without the prologue); Paris 
22 February 1750 and 5 October 1764. 

The part of the heroine Clorinde (sung by Mile. 
Maupin) is written for contralto for the first time 
in French opera. 

A parody by N. Barbier, La Vengeance de Co- 
lombine ou Arlequin bcau-frere du Grand Turc, was 
produced at Lyons as early as 13 July 1703 ; two 
others Pierrot Tancrede ou La Meprise de Y Amour 
(by L. Fuzelier, C. F. Panard and C. F. B. de 
Pontau) and Arlequin Tancrede (by P. F. Domi- 
nique and J. A. Romagnesi) were produced at 
the O.C. and at the C.L, Paris, 10 and 19 March 
1729, respectively. 



1702 

G. bononcini: Polifemo* 

Summer. Berlin 
Text by A. Ariosti. One act (17 scenes). 

The first opera produced at Berlin which is 
extant; the performance took place at theLietzen- 
burg Palace (now Charlottenburg, called after 
Queen Sophia Charlotte, who played the cem- 
balo part at the production of Bononcinfs opera). 

Exact date of first performance unknown, but 
it appears from the Queen's letter to Stcffani that 
it must have taken place after 25 July; see C. 
Sachs, Musik ttnd Oper am Kurbrandenburoischen 
Hoj\ 1910 (where the libretto was printed for the 
first time). 

In a new arrangement by G. Kacrnbach, Poli- 
femo was broadcast from Berlin on 6 August 
1937; vocal score published 1938. 

campra: Tancrede* 

7 November. Paris, O. 
Text by A. Danchct (after Tasso). Prologue and 
5 acts. 



1703 

gasparini: IlPiiifedelfra i Vassalli 

[3 February]. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by F. Silvani. Three acts. 

Gasparini's second and most successful opera. 
Given at Milan, T.R.D. Carnival 1703 (revived 
26 December 1720); Bologna 31 May 1710 (pas- 
ticcio); London 23 December 171 1 (as Antioco) 1 ; 
Padua 1714; Udine 1715; Venice Carnival 1716 
(revived at the T.S. Angelo, with alterations); 
Durlach 1716 (in Italian; probably Gasparini's 
setting). 

badia: La Psiche 

21 February. Vienna 
Text by P. A. Bernardoni [Pocmetto drammatico). 
One act. 

1 Gasparini actually wrote an opera Antioco, text by 
A. Zeno and P. Pariati, first produced at Venice in 1705. 
Comparison of the libretti shows that the work given 
in London was not that Antioco, but that it is identical 
with II piufedelfra i Vassalli, the hero in question being 
an Egyptian prince, and not Antiochus 1, King of Syria, 
as in the opera of 1705. 



107 



108 



1703-04 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1704 



One of the 27 operas of Badia who, from 1696 
to 1738, was court conductor at Vienna. 

keiser: Die verdammte Staat-Sucht, 
oder Der verfuehrte Claudius 

Spring? Hamburg 
Text by H. Hinsch. Three acts. 

The first opera produced at Hamburg which 
contains besides 56 German airs, 11 in Italian, thus 
indicating the beginning of the decadence of style 
there. 

Revived at Hamburg 1706; 21 November 1718 
and 17 July 1726 as Claudius, Roemischer Kayser 
(with alterations). 

fedeli: Almira 

??. Brunswick 
Text by G. Pancieri (first composed by Boniventi 
in 169 1). Three acts. 

The composer spent the greater part of his life 
at various German courts (Dresden, Berlin, Cas- 
sel). Exact date of first production unknown. See 
on this opera G. F. Schmidt, Die friihdeutsche 
Oper. . . (i933), Vol. 1, p.38. 



1704 
F. conti: Alba Cornelia 

Carnival Milan, T.R.D. 
Text by S. Stampiglia. Three acts. 

Revived Vienna February 1714 (with inter- 
mezzi Milo e Lesbina) ; Breslau 19 February 1726; 
Brussels Carnival 1728. 

keiser : Nebucadnezar 

Carnival. Hamburg 
Text by C. F. Hunold, called Menantes. Three 
acts. 

The full title reads : Der Gestuertzte und wieder 
Erhoehte Nebucadnezar, Kbnig zu Babylon unter 
dem grossen Propheten Daniel 

Revived Hamburg 28 July 1728 (music revised 
by Telemann). 



GASPARiNi: La Fede tradita 
e vendicata 
[5 January], Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by F. Silvani. Three acts. 

One of Gasparinf s most successful operas. 
Given at Florence Carnival 1705; Verona 1705; 
Lucca Carnival 1706; Leghorn 1707; Naples, 
S.B. December 1707 (text altered by C dePetris, 
additional music by G. Vignola); Brescia 1709; 
Rome, Capr. Carnival 1712; Bologna 15 August 
1712 (with additional music by Orlandini); 
London 9 March 171 3 (as Ernelinda, pasticcio); 
Modena 26 December 1713; Venice, S. Moise, 
Autumn 171 5; Turin, T. Carignano, Carnival 
1719; Brunswick February 1726 (as Rodoaldo Re 
di Norvegia); Prague 1727 (Gasparini mentioned 
for the last time). 

By degrees, Gasparini's original music seems 
to have been displaced by additions from a rival 
setting by Orlandini which was first produced 
at Genoa, S. Agostino Autumn 1709 (copy of the 
libretto Bibl. Soleinne; in the Catalogue, no.4728, 
one Cesare Buonazzoliis mentioned as the author; 
he rather seems to have been the manager of the 
Genoa theatre who signed the dedication). 

There are further anonymous productions of 
La Fede tradita e vendicata at Graz Autumn 1736, 
and Prague 1738. In the meantime, however, Sil- 
vani's text had been reset by Vivaldi (1726) and 
Bioni (1729). 

DESMARETS and CAMPRA: 

Iphigenie en Tauride 

6 May. Paris, O. 
Text by J. F. Duche and A. Danchet. Prologue 
and 5 acts. 

Revived in Paris 12 March 171 1; 15 January 
1719; 16 December 1734; in concert form, Ver- 
sailles 13 July 1746 and Compiegne 6 June 1750; 
and once more Paris, O. 16 November 1762 
(music revised by P. M. Berton). 

Given at Lyons in 171 2 and February 17 14; 
Lille [1720]; Brussels 11 August 1726. 

Score published without date; re-published 
1721 and 1723. 



109 



no 



1704-05 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1705 



This was the earliest opera on the subject. The 
first Italian Ifigenia in Tauride, by Domenico Scar- 
latti, was produced at Rome on 15 February 1713 
(text by C. S. Capeci). 

grunewald: Germanicus 
October. Leipzig 
Librettist unknown. Three acts. 

Given at Naumburg and Hamburg in 1706 (as 
Die errettete Unschuld oder Germanicus, Rbmischer 
General) and (according to Gottsched) revived at 
Leipzig in 1710 and 1720. 

mattheson: Cleopatra 

20 October. Hamburg 
Text by F. C. Feustking. Three acts. 

The full title reads: Die betrogene Staats-Liebe, 
oder Die ungltickselige Cleopatra, Konigin von Egyp- 
ten. Score preserved. 

In this opera Mattheson sang and conducted 
alternately ! It was after a performance of Cleo- 
patra on 5 December 1704, when Handel refused 
to give up his seat at the cembalo, that the well- 
known duel between the two composers took 
place. 



1705 

gasparini: Ambleto 

Carnival Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by A. Zeno and P. Pariati. Three acts. 

The first Hamlet opera. (Shakespeare is not 
mentioned amongst the sources in the libretto; 
see L. Collison-Morley in The Athenceum 31 De- 
cember 1910.) Also given at Verona 1707; Naples, 
S.B. 1711; London 9 March 1712. 

Domenico Scarlatti's opera on the same subject 
(sometimes stated to be the first) was produced at 
Rome in 1715 only (same text). 

(Gasparini' s setting was first given in Carnival 
1705, according to the libretto; in Carnival 1706 
or even 1707 according to other authorities.) 



handel: Almira* 



S January. Hamburg 
Text by F. C. Feustking (founded on an Italian 
librettob y G. Pancieri, set to music by Boniventi 
in 1691). Three acts. 

The full title reads: Der in Krohnen erlangte 
Gliickswechsel, oder Almira, Koenigin von Castilien. 

Handel's first opera, containing 41 German and 
15 Italian airs. 

Revived Hamburg 7 February 1732 (with 
alterations; probably revised by Telemann). 

Modern revivals, in a «iew version by J. N. 
Fuchs, were at Hamburg 14 January 1878 (bi- 
centenary of the Hamburg Opera); Leipzig 25 
June 1879; Hamburg 23 February 1885 (Handel 
bicentenary). 

Keiser, being jealous of his young rival's 
success, set the same libretto in 1706 (text 
altered by B. Feind: Der durchlauchige Secretarius, 
oder Almira, Koenigin in Castilien; produced Au- 
tumn 1706; some airs printed). Handel wrote 
three more German operas for Hamburg (Nero, 
1705, and Florindo and Daphne, 1708), which are 
lost. 

Clayton?: Arsinoe, Queen of Cyprus 

27 January. London, D.L. 
Text: an English version, probably by P. A. 
Motteux, 1 of an Italian libretto by T. Stanzani 
(composed by Franceschini, see 1676). An opera, 
after the Italian manner: All sung. Three acts. (The 
words "All sung" were omitted on the title page 
of later editions of the libretto. The editors prob- 
ably realized that the English public had soon 
got accustomed to recitative and needed no ex- 
planation any longer.) 

Although it was, strictly speaking, an English 
opera, the history of Italian opera in England 
begins with Arsinoe, as there is a steady develop- 
ment, from the mere translation of an Italian 
libretto to the actual insertion of Italian airs in 
Camilla (see 1696; in London 1706), to Almahide 
(see 1710; with English intermezzi) and Vldaspe 
fedele (1710, see Gli Amanti generosi 1705). Burney 

1 First attributed to him by Whincop in 1747. 



Ill 



112 



1705 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1705 



gives a detailed account of those early years and 
in the light of modern research they have been 
dealt with by A. Nicoll (Anglia, Vol. xlvi) and 
others. 

Whether Clayton composed the music of 
Arsinoe or merely utilized a collection of Italian 
airs, is still an unsolved problem. It should be 
noted, however, that in the preface to the libretto, 
which lie signed himself, he docs not claim to 
have composed the music. 

The preface has been reprinted in Sonncck's 
Catalogue. Burncy closes his most unfavourable 
account of Arsinoe with this passage: "It is scarce 
credible, that in the course of the first year this 
miserable performance which neither deserved 
the name of a drama by its poetry, nor an opera 
by its music, should sustain twenty-four repre- 
sentations, and the second year eleven". The 
anonymous author of A Critical Discourse upon 
Opera's in England. . . (1709) is even more severe: 
"There is nothing in it but a few Sketches of anti- 
quated Italian Airs, so mangled and sophisticated, 
that instead of Arsinoe, it ought to be called the 
Hospital of the old Dccrcpid Italian opera's". 

g r e b e r : The Lo ves ofErgasto 

20 April. London, Hm. 
Text probably by A. Amaltco: Gli Amori piace- 
voli d'Ergasto (favolctta per musica) Vienna 1661. A 
pastorale, prologue and 3 acts. 

Produced at the inauguration of the Queen's 
Theatre, Haymarket, the first opera to be given 
at the house which was to become the regular 
home of Italian opera in London for more than 
r 50 years. 

There has always been much uncertainty about 
this work, its title, the date ofitsfirstperformance, 
and the language in which it was sung. 

The title given here is that of the printed lib- 
retto and that under which it was advertised for 
a second (and apparently last) performance on 
24 April (5 May) 1705. Cibber (writing 34 years 
later) called it "a translated opera, to Italian 
musick", and gives the title as The Triumph of 
Love; and later still there is a permanent confusion 
with two almost contemporary English operas 



with similar titles, viz. The Temple of Love, text 
by Motteux, music by G. F. Saggione, produced 
at the same theatre, 7/18 March 1706; and Love's 
Triumph, text by Motteux (after Ottoboni), music 
by Cesarini, Giovanni del Violonc and Gasparini, 
produced at the same theatre, 26 February (8 
March) 1708. The date of the first production, at 
die opening night of the new theatre, is quite 
correctly given in Downcs's Roscius Anglicanus 
(1708), and was then "corrected" by later writers. 

As to the language, there seems to be no doubt 
that the opera was sung in Italian, thus antedating 
Almahide (which is generally believed to be the 
first example) by five years (see 1710). The cast 
of The Loves ofErgasto is unknown, apart from the 
"Italian boy" (Burney, iv, p.200) ; but Downcs, 
the earliest critic, clearly says, *'.... opened his 
theatre with a foreign opera, performed by a new 
set of singers arrived from Italy", and Congreve s 
epilogue "at the Opening . . . with an Italian Pas- 
toral" (Works, i7io,Vol.m) stresses the fact that 
die fare offered on that occasion was something 
entirely new. 

Moreover, there is the libretto of The Loves of 
Ergasto ; for what other reason should it have been 
printed in English and Italian on alternate pages 
than to give the public the opportunity of follow- 
ing what they heard in a foreign language? The 
fact that the opera was so unsuccessful as to be 
given only twice, and that it was both preceded 
and followed, at Drury Lane and at the Hay- 
market, by eight other operas, all of which were 
sung in English (before Almahide cleared the way 
for the final victory of Italian opera), may have 
contributed to Burncy *s not mentioning its signif- 
icance as the first Italian opera in London. 

The historical importance of the work is even 
greater, as the score has been preserved (at the 
Vienna National-Bibliothck, under the Italian 
title of Gli Amori d'Ergasto). Eitncr, followed by 
all books of reference, dates the score c.1701, 
whereas Weilen (Catalogue no.581) gives the 
date of f.1707-08, on the authority of an allusion 
in die prologue (not to be found in the London 
libretto) to the bride of the Emperor Charles vi, 
Elisabeth Christina of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, 



113 



114 



1705 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1705-06 



who was in Vienna from May 1707 to Aprili7o8. 

So it seems that Greber, who had come to 
London with the singer Francesca Margherita de 
1'Epine in 1692, and is not known to have left 
before 1705, wrote the opera for London, not 
for Vienna, where it was produced (or intended 
to be produced) only about two years later with 
a new prologue expressly written for that occa- 
sion. A comparison of the London libretto and 
the Vienna score might throw further light on the 
history of The Loves ofErgasto. 

(For details on the London production, see 
W.J. Lawrence in The Musical Quarterly, Vol. vn 
(1921) and A. Nicoli in Anglia, Vol. xlvi (1922). 

mancini: Gli Amanti generosi 

??. Naples, S.B. 
Text by G. P. Candi (first set to music by Vina- 
cese, Venice 1703). Three acts. 

Mancini's opera became better known as 
L* Idaspe fedele, under which title it was produced 
in Lvridon, Hm. 3 April 1710 (dedication dated 
6 Marzo 1709-ro, and signed by Cav. Nicolino 
Grimaldi, who sang the title part). 

Very successful; performed 46 times until 1716 
(revived 2 December 1711, with additional songs, 
and 18 May 1715). In this work English songs 
and singers have definitely disappeared, and the 
victory of purely Italian opera is complete. 

"Nicolini's combat with a lion in the Hay- 
market" was the subject of Addison's famous 
satire in the thirteenth Spectator of 15-26 March 
1711 (1710, old style). The essay was published 
nearly one year after the first performance of 
Idaspe, and not about the time of its production 
(a fact which has not always been realized by 
historians). 

Burney gives 23 May as the date of the first 
London performance, which is obviously a 
misprint for 23 March (3 April, n.s.). In the 
British Museum copy of the 1712 edition of the 
libretto there is a hand- written note: "Produced 
. . . more properly March 2 d when it was rehearsed 
for Nicolini's benefit". This fact of a sort ofpublic 
dress rehearsal is corroborated by the newspapers 
(cf. A. Nicoli in Anglia, Vol. xxvi, p.277). 



There is a little-known reference to Idaspe in 
Z.C. von UfFenbach's Merkwiirdige Reisen (1753), 
Vol. n, p.440. 

A parody, Harlequin-Hydaspes : or, The Gresh- 
amite, a Mock-Opera in 3 acts, by Mrs. Aubert, 
was produced at the Lincoln's Inn Fields Th. 7 
June 1719, three years after the run of the original 
was finished. As indicated in the libretto of Har- 
lequin-Hydaspes, most of the songs were taken 
from Idaspe, but there were also songs from 
other London operas of those years, from Almahide 
(see 1710), Pyrrhus (see 1694), from Handel's Ri~ 
naldo (see 171 1) and Amadigi (see 1715), and from 
an anonymous Clearte (1716). 

keiser: Octavia 

5 August. Hamburg 
Text by B. Feind. Three acts. 

The full title reads: Die roemische Unruhe, oder 
Die edelmuehtige Octavia. 

One of Keiser's better works, written in com- 
petition with Handel's second (lost) opera, Die 
durch Blut und Mord erlangete Liebe, oder Nero (text 
by F. C. Feustking; the same subject as in Octavia). 
The score was printed in 1902 as a supplement to 
the Handel Gesamtausgabe (edited by M. SeifFert). 

lacoste: Philomele 

20 October. Paris, O. 
Text by P. C. Roy. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The most successful opera of Lacoste, who 
was a chorus singer, and later became conductor 
at the Opera. Revived in Paris 8 October 1709; 
27 April 1723; and 19 October 1734. Given at 
Lille [1720]; Brussels 10 January 1727; Lyons 26 
April 1730 and 1742. 

Score published 1705. 

A parody of the same title, by A. Piron, was 
produced at the C.I., Paris 12 June 1723. 

1706 

f. conti: Clotilda 

February. Vienna 
Text by G. B. Neri (first composed by Ruggeri 
in 1696). Three acts. 



115 



116 



1706 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1707 



In English, London, Hm. 13 March 1709 
(adapted by J. J. Heidegger ; a pasticcio, which 
also contained airs by Scarlatti and Bononcini, 
some of them sung in Italian) and again 27 May 
1711. 

marais: Alcione 

1$ February. Paris O. 
Text by A. Houdar de La Motte. Prologue and 
5 acts. 

Very successful in Paris; revived there \j April 
1719; 9 May 1730; 21 September 1741; 19 Oc- 
tober 1756 (with many alterations and additions 
by L. Aubert); and 30 April 1771 ("partition 
completemcnt transformee", according to La- 
jarte; see his Les Transformations d'un Opera au dix- 
huitieme siecle, Chronique Musicale, 15 April 1874). 

The opera was famous for its tempeste sympho- 
nique, one of the first essays in operatic realism. 

Score published 1706. 

A parody by J. A. Romagncsi (Alcionne) was 
produced at the C.I. on 26 October 1741 (with 
music by Blaise). 

keiser: Masagniello Furioso, oder 
Die Neapolitanische Fischer-Empoerung* 

June. Hamburg 
Text by B. Fcind. Three acts. 

Revived at Hamburg in 1714 and 18 June 1727 
(new version; music revised by Telemann). 

The first opera on this subject, 122 years before 
Auber's Muctte de Portici (see 1828). 

schurmann: Telemaque 

June or July. Naumburg 
(German) text by J. C. Frauendorf (?). Four acts. 
Revived in a much altered 3-act version, as Te- 
lemachus and Calypso, Brunswick August 1717; 
February 1720; and February (?) 1723; at Ham- 
burg 26 November 1721. 

m. A. ziani: Meleagro 

16 August. Vienna 
Text by P. A. Bernardoni. Three acts and licenza. 
Also given at Brescia 1710. 



1707 

steffani: Arminio 

Carnival. Diisseldorf 
Librettist unknown. Five acts. 

The first of the three operas Steffani wrote for 
Diisseldorf before finally sacrificing his musical 
career to his diplomatic activities. 

A. scarlatti: 7/ Mitridate Eupatore* 

Carnival. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by G. Frigimclica Roberti. Five acts. 

The first of Scarlatti's operas produced at 
Venice. Revived probably Rcggio 171 3; Milan, 
T.R.D. [15 January] 1717. 

Clayton: Rosamond 

15 March. London, D.L. 
Text by J. Addison. Three acts. 

Clayton's second and last experiment in English 
opera. Failure, performed three times only. (For 
Arne's setting of the same libretto see 1733.) 
Addison, in his satirical Spectator essays, is silent 
on this his own unfortunate contribution to the 
history of opera. The anonymous author of A 
Critical Discourse upon Operas in England (London 
1709) reviews Rosamond as follows: "In short, this 
Opera is no better than a confus'd Chaos of 
Musick, where there is ev'ry thing, and nothing, 
and for my part I think the only thing to be lik'd 
in it, is that it's short : and I believe, if a Reward 
was to be ordain'd for him that made the worst 
Musick in all the World, the Author of Rosa- 
mond woud have reason to say he had not lost 
his Labour, since he wou'd have an undoubted 
Title to the Gratification". 

[pepusch]: Thomyris, Queen 
ofScythia 

12 April. London, D.L. 
Text by P. A. Motteux. Three acts. 

The music consisted of airs by A. Scarlatti, G. 
Bononcini (these two named in the printed score), 
Steffani, Gasparini, and Albinoni (these three 



117 



118 



1707 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1708-09 



mentioned by Hawkins). Pcpusch adapted and 
arranged the music and wrote the recitatives. 
Thomyris is the first perfect example of a London 
pasticcio. It was sung partly in English and partly 
in Italian. Very successful* performed 42 times 
until 1728 (revived D.L. 28 November 1709; 
Lincoln's Inn Fields 20 May 1717 and 20 No- 
vember 1728, in English). 

There can be hardly a doubt as to Motteux's 
authorship as he is mentioned on the title-page 
of all editions of Thomyris. Yet the anonymous 
author of A Critical Discourse upon Operas in Eng- 
land (London 1709) most decidedly attributes it, 
along with Clotilda (see 1706), to the "Swiss 
Count whose Earldom lies in the Land of the 
Moon", meaning not Motteux but obviously 
J. J. Heidegger. In a later paragraph the author 
calls Thomyris and Clotilda plainly "the Swiss 
Operas". 

graupner: Dido, Koenigin von 
Carthago 

Spring. Hamburg 
Text by H. Hinsch. Three acts. 

The first opera Graupner wrote for Hamburg. 
Score preserved. See on Graupner W. Nagel's 
study in Sammelbdnde of the I.M.S., Vol. x 
(1908-09). 

keiser and graupner: 

Der angenehme Betrug oder 
Der Carneval von Venedig 

Summer. Hamburg 
Text by Meister and M. Cuno. Three acts. 

One of Reiser's most successful works, fre- 
quently revived until 1735. Some of the airs were 
sung in Italian. 

The greater part of the music has been preserved 
and a selection was published in Denkmdlcr 
Deutschcr Tonkunst, VoLxxxvin (1912), edited 
by M. Schneider. 

There was a modern revival at Hamburg in 
March 193 1 (music arranged by F. Tutenberg). 



1708 

Prunella 

23 February. London, D.L. 
Text by R. Estcourt (an interlude. . . . The sense 
and musick collected from the most famous masters). 
Four acts. 

Isolated example of English musical intermezzi 
and probably the first English operatic satire on 
Italian opera. 

Prunella was performed (for the author's bene- 
fit) at a revival of George Villicrs, Duke of 
Buckingham's comedy, The Rehearsal (originally 
produced in 1671), apparently between the acts. 
Some of the airs are indicated as to be sung to 
tunes from Clayton's Arsinoe (see 1705), Bononci- 
ni's Camilla (see 1696) , and from Thomyris (seei707) . 

"Some of the songs in the above-mentioned 
operas are parodied in it. It was a strange medley, 
and could not, we think, be very entertaining" 
(Biographia Dramatica). 

"... some of the songs are sung by the char- 
acters in the Rehearsal — it was meant as a burles- 
que on the Italian Opera — it might amuse in repre- 
sentation, but it is dull in perusal . . ." (Genest). 

uteres: Accis y Galatea 

iq December. Madrid, Buen Retiro 
Text by J. de Canizares. Two acts. 

Early Spanish "zarzuela heroica", "casi uno 
opera por el gran niimero de recitativos, arietas 
y cuatros que tiene" (Cotarelo y Mori). It was 
produced at the Buen Retiro Palace. Pedrell 
published one air from it in Vol. u of his Teatro 
Hrico Espanol anterior al Siglo xix (1897). An 
anonymous work of the same title, produced at 
Lisbon 22 October 1711 (in Spanish) may have 
been Literes's opera. 

1709 

m. a. zi ani: Chilonida 
21 April. Vienna 
Text by N. Minato (first set to music by Draghi 
in 1677). Three acts and licenza. 



119 



120 



1709 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1709-10 



Ziani's setting was written for the birthday 
of the Empress Amalia Wilhelmina. Repeated 
Vienna, Carnival 1710. 

astorga: Dafni 

21 April Genoa, S. Agostino 
Text by E. Manfredi (first set to music by Aldro- 
vandini in 1696), with alterations by F. M. Paglia 
(first set in this form by A. Scarlatti in 
1700). Drama Pastorale per Musica. Three acts. 

Only the first act is extant. 

Also given at Barcelona June 1709; Parma 
Carnival 1715 (composer not mentioned; ac- 
cording to Volkmann rather Astorga's than Scar- 
latti's setting); Breslau September 1726. 

For a detailed account of the history of Dafni 
see H. Volkmann's monograph on Astorga. 
Volkmann suggests Carlo de Petris as the author 
who adapted Manfredi's Dafni for Scarlatti and 
Astorga. Paglia however is mentioned in the 
original libretto which was unknown to Volk- 
mann; see Giuseppe Dura, Catalogo diLibri antichi 
e rari, Naples 1861, no. n 892. 

reiser : Desiderius, Koenig der 
Longobarden 

26 July. Hamburg 

Text by B. Feind. Five acts. 

Written to celebrate the birthday of the Em- 
peror Joseph 1. 

A. orefice: Patro Calienno de 
la Costa 

October. Naples, Fior. 
Text by "Agasippo Mercotellis" 1 . Three acts. 

Music lost. Libretto preserved. According to 
M. Scherillo this was the first Neapolitan comic 
opera (analysis of the libretto in his V Opera buffa 

1 According to Scherillo ananagrammaticpseudonym 
of one (unknown) "Giasoppe Martoscelli"; according 
to B. Croce the libretto is founded upon an unpublished 
comedy, La Perna, by Nicolo Corvo. The work was 
referred to in the Avvisi di Napoli, 8 October 1709, as 
"una graziosa e piaciutissima Commedia in Musica, 
tutta in lingua napolctana". 



Napoletana, 1916). A still earlier example is La 
Cilia, text by F. A. Tullio, music by M. A. Fag- 
gioli, produced 1706 and revived at the palace of 
Prince Chiusano, Naples 26 December 1707. 

Patro Calienno de la Costa incorporated also 
arias by an anonymous "azzellente Autore", 
possibly Alessandro Scarlatti. 

A. orefice and mancini: 
UEtigelberta o sia La Forza 

delVlnnocenza 
4 November. Naples, Pal. Reale 
Text by A. Zeno and P. Pariati (first set to music 
by Fiore and by Gasparini in 1708). Three acts. 
The composers had an equal share; Orefice 
composed the first and part of die second act, 
Mancini the rest. Score preserved. Intermezzi, 
Melissa schernita, were performed between the . 
acts and at the end of the opera. 

handel: Agrippina* 

26 December. Venice, S.G.Gr, 
Text by V. Grimani. Three acts. 

Probably Handel's only opera produced in 
Italy in the course of his three years' journey 
there, the performance of Rodrigo (Florence? 
1708?) still being doubtful. 1 Successful at Venice, 
given there for 27 nights during the Carnival 
season. In Italian also given at Naples S.B. 15 Feb- 
ruary 1 71 3 (with additional music by Mancini); 
Hamburg 3 November 171 8 and 5 November 
1722; Vienna 1719. 



1710 

G. bononcini?: Almahide 

21 January. London, Hm. 
Librettist unknown; the libretto is founded upon 
Dryden's Almanzor and Almahide, the second part 
of his The Conquest of Granada by the Spaniards 
(1672). Three acts. 

1 Cf. Music and Letters, Vol.xx, nos.i and 4. (January 
and October 1939). 



121 



122 



1710 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1710-1 1 



The historical importance of Almahide is em- 
phasized by Burney as follows : "Neither the poet 
nor composer is mentioned in the book of the 
words or printed copy of the Musick, which 
seems all of one style, and that style more like 
Bononcini*s than any other composer of the 
times. This was the first opera performed in 
England, wholly in Italian and by Italian singers; 
who were Nicolini, Valentini, Cassani, Marga- 
rita, and Isabella Girardeau. There were, indeed, 
intermezzi between the acts, in English, and sung 
by Dogget, Mrs. Lindsey and Mrs. Cross; but the 
opera was wholly Italian in poetry, Music and 
performance". (As to the question whether Al- 
mahide really was the first Italian opera in London, 
see note on Grebers The Loves oj 'Ergasto, 1705.) 

The score, published by Walsh in 1710 as Songs 
in the new opera calVd Almahide, states on the title- 
page: "The Songs done in Italian & English as 
they are Perform'd at ye Queens Theatre". There 
are 3 5 Italian airs, and the intermezzi as mentioned 
by Burney; 8 English songs, duets, etc., sung by 
D°gg ct > Mrs. Lindsey and Mrs. Cross in the 
characters of Floro, Blesa and Eliza. Almahide was 
given 24 times until 1712. 

campra: Les Festes Venitiennes* 

17 June. Paris, O. 
Text by A. Danchet. Prologue and 3 entrees, 
called La Feste des Barquerolles, Les Serenades et les 
Joueurs and L' Amour saltimbanque. 

The following new entrees were added later: 
La Feste marine, 8 July 1710 (instead of La Feste 
des Barquerolles) ;LeBal t 8 August 1710; Les Devins 
de la Place Saint-Marc, 5 September 1710; UOpira, 
14 October 1710; Le Triomphe de la Folie, De- 
cember 1710. 

After I40ctoberi7io (51st performance) given 
as Le Carnaval de Venise. 

Given at Lyons in 1711. Revived in Paris in 
manifold variations of the single entrees, 11 Oc- 
tober 1712; 10 July 1721; 14 June 173 1; 19 July 
1740; 16 June 1750; and 28 August 1759 (with 
additions by P. M. Berton). The 1740 revival 
was followed by a parody by C. S. Favart, called 
Les Festes Villageoises, and produced at the O.C. 



30 August 1740; an earlier anonymous parody, 
Les Fetes Parisiennes, had been given by a troupe 
of rope-dancers on 3 February 1711. 

heinichen: Paris und Helena oder 
Dergluckliche Liebeswechsel 

??. Naumburg 
Text, an altered German version, by an unknown 
author (B. Feind?), of an Italian libretto, La Forza 
delV Amore, first produced with music by Reiser 
at Hamburg in 1709. Three acts. 
Score preserved. 

I7II 

reiser: Croesus* 

Carnival? Hamburg 
Text by L. von Bostel (founded on an Italian 
libretto by Minato, 1678, and first set to music by 
Fortsch in 1684). Three acts. 

The full title reads: Der hochmuethige, gestuerzte 
und wieder erhahne Croesus. 

One of Reiser's best works. Revived in a new 
version, Hamburg 6 December 1730. Both 
versions extant. The opera was published in 
Vol. xxxrx of Denkmaler Deutscher Tonkunst, 
1912 (edited by M. Schneider). 

A parody by J. P. Praetorius, called Buchhofer 
Der Stumme Prinz Atis t was produced at Hamburg 
in 1726. According to the preface it was meant to 
be a parody after the French model, with music 
partly from the original. 

The exact date of the first production of 
Croesus is unknown; as the ms score bears the 
date of 1710, die libretto the date of 1711, one 
might assume that it was performed early in 171 1. 

c H e L L E R i : Ulnnocenza giustificata 
Carnival? Milan, T.R.D. 
Text by F. Silvani (first set to music by Vinacese 
in 1698). Three acts. 

The only opera of Chelleri which is partly 
extant. In Italian (as Ulnnocenza difesa) also given 
at Venice Carnival 1722; Casseli726; Brunswick 
1731. 



123 



124 



I7H 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1711-12 



In German (as Judith, Gcmahlin Kayser Ludewigs 
des Frommcn oder Die siegende UtischuU, translated 
by J. G. Hamann), Hamburg 27 November 1732 
(with recitatives and three new airs by Tclemann 
and three airs from Handel's Lotario, sec 1729; 
the airs were sung in Italian) ; given at Hamburg 
until 1737. 

f. conti: J/ Trionfo deWAmore 
e della Costanza 

21 January. Vienna 
Text by F. Ballerini. Three acts. 

In German (translated by J. J. Hoc), Hamburg 
January 1718 (music adapted by Keiscr; some airs 
were sung in Italian); in German also Copenhagen 
28 November 1722. In Italian, Breslau Winter 
1725. 

mattheson: Henrico w 

g February. Hamburg 
Text by J. J. Hoe. Five acts. 

The full title reads : Die gehcimen Begebenheiten 
Henrico iv, Konigs von Castilicn undLeon, oder Die 
gethcilte Liebe. 

Airs from this opera were printed in 171 1. 

handel: Rinaldo* 

7 March. London, Hm. 
Text by G. Rossi (from a sketch, after Tasso, by 
A. Hill, who then provided the printed English 
translation). Three acts. 

The first opera Handel wrote for London. In 
the preface to the libretto Rossi calls the composer 
the "Orfeo del nostro secoto". 

Rinaldo was more or less a pasticcio containing 
several airs from Handel's earlier operas. The 
famous Lascia ctiio pianga derives from this opera. 
Very successful in London; given 15 times during 
the first season, again 22 times until 1715, and 
revived, with extensive alterations, on both 16 
January 1717 and 17 April 1731. 

Also given at: 
Dublin April 171 1 (by Nicolino's troupe as the 

first Italian opera in Ireland). 1 

1 This has now been disproved by T. J. Walsh in his 
Opera in Dublin 1705-1797: the first Italian opera was 
not performed in Ireland until 1761. H.R, 



Hamburg November 1715 (in German, translated 
by B. Fcind); frequently revived until 1730. 

Naples, pal. reale i October 1718 (in Italian, 
with additional music by L. Leo). 

RUGGERi:E/l5<I 

November. Venice, S. Angclo 
Text by D. Lalli. Three acts. 

After 74 years of operatic activity at Venice, 
this was the first comic opera ever produced 
there. Music lost. 

For a discussion of the libretto, see M. Schcrillo, 
L'Opera buffa napoletatia (1916), p.4.90. 

f a s c h : Lucius Verus 

27 November. Zeitz 
Text, a German version, by an unknown author, 
of Zeno's Lucio Vero (first composed by Polla- 
rolo in 1700). Three acts. 

The most successful opera of Fasch, who is 
more important as a composer of instrumental 
music. Lost, like the rest of his operas. 

Revived at Zeitz 27 November 171 3 (as Bere- 
nice), and once more at Zerbst January 1739. 



1712 

CAMPRA: Idomenee 

12 January. Paris, O. 
Text by A. Danchet. Five acts. 

Revived at Paris 5 April 173 1. (Varesco's Italian 
Idomeneo, composed by Mozart in 1781, was 
derived from Danchet's libretto.) 

Score published (n.d.). 

GALLIARD: Calypso and Telemachus 
25 May. London, Hm. 
Text by J. Hughes. Three acts. 

Revived Lincoln's Inn Fields Th. 10 March 

1717. 

This was, for many years, the last attempt at 
English grand opera. (For an account, see Burney, 
iv, p.232). Airs printed. 



125 



126 



1712 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1712-13 



Hughes closes his preface (in which he calls his 
opera "an Essay for the Improvement of Theat- 
rical Musick in the English Language, after the 
Model of the Italians") with the following tribute 
to Galliard: "I cannot conclude without acknow- 
ledging the Pleasure I have had, to find the Words 
of this Opera so naturally express'd in the Musick, 
that I believe the Gentleman who has compos'd 
it, has offer'd a much more prevailing Argument 
than any I cou'd urge, to shew that the English 
Language is capable of the most agreeable Graces 
of Harmony. I have mention'd this without his 
Leave, yet coud not refrain from doing him a 
Justice, which I perswade [sic] my self will be 
confirm'd by the Opinion of the most disin- 
terested Judges." 

"Dr. Arnold told me M r Handell had so high 
an opinion of Calypso and Telemachus as to have 
declared he would sooner have composed it than 
any one of his own Operas. W.K. 1813" (hand- 
written note by William Kitchener in his copy 
of the Songs, sold in Julian Marshall's Sale, 29 July 
1884 (sale catalogue no.442). 

MARTINEZ DE LA ROCA: 

Los Desagravios de Troya 
(The Relief of Troy) 
June or July. Zaragoza 
Text by J. F. Escuder. Prologue and 3 acts. 

The only Spanish opera of the 18th century 
(and even up to about 1840) which was printed 
in full score. See E. Cotarelo y Mori, Historia de 
la Zarzuela (1934), pp.78-80. 

The opera was written in honour of the birth 
of a Spanish prince, and privately produced at 
the palace of Count de Montemar, field-marshal 
and governor of Zaragoza. The dedication in the 
score is dated 28 July 1712. 

handel: II Pastor jido* 

3 December. London, Hm. 
Text by G. Rossi (from Guarini's pastoral play, 
1585). Three acts. 

Revived in a new version, London, Hm. 29 
May 1734 and C.G. 20 November 1734 (with a 



new prologue in the "Temple of Erato, President 
of Musick"), and a different version with much 
ballet. 

destouches: Callirhoe 
27 December. Paris, O. 
Text by P. C. Roy. Prologue and 5 acts. 

One of the best of Destouches's later works. 
Given at Lyons 14 March 171 5; Brussels 9 De- 
cember 1721. Revived in Paris 3 January 1732, 
22 October 1743, and 9 November 1773 (with 
alterations by Dauvergne) at the O. and once 
more as late as 2 March 1875 at the Th. Taitbout 
(re-scored by P. Lacome). 

Score published 1712. 

1713 

feo: L'Amor tirannico ossia Zenobia 

18 January. Naples, S.B. 
Text by D. Lalli (first set to music by Gasparini 
in 1 710). Three acts. 
Feo's first extant opera. 

handel: Teseo* 

21 January. London, Hm. 
Text by N. F. Haym. Five acts ; virtually a transla- 
tion of Lully's Thesee (see 1675). 

Given 14 times during the season, but never 
revived. 

heinichen: Calfurnia 

[26 January]. Venice, S. Angelo 
Text by G. Braccioli. Three acts. 

With and after Handel, Heinichen was one of 
the first German composers to write operas for 
Italian towns. A second work of his was produced 
at the same theatre in the same Carnival. 

Calfurnia was also given at Hamburg February 
1716 (in German, as Die roemische Grossmuht oder 
Calfurnia^ translated by J. U. Konig; some of the 
airs were sung in Italian). 

Salomon: Medee et Jason 
24 April. Paris, O. 
Text by A. de La Roque (later attributed to S. J. 
de Pellegrin). Prologue and 5 acts. 



127 



128 



I7I3-H 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1714 



The first and more successful of the two operas 
of Salomon, who was a gambist in the Paris 
Opera orchestra. Revived in Paris 17 October 
17 1 3, with alterations; 29 April 1727; 22 Novem- 
ber 1736; and 22 February 1749. Given at Brussels 
14 September 1726. 

Score published 171 3. 

A parody of the same title (by P. F. Domi- 
nique, F. Riccoboni, and J. A. Romagnesi) was 
produced at the C.I. 28 May 1727 and revived 
there 10 December 1736 (altered by D. Carolet). 



1714 

d. scarlatti: Amor d'un Omhra 
e Gelosia d'un Aura 

2oJamtary. Rome 
Text by C. S. Capeci. Three acts. 

The last of eight operas composed by Scarlatti 
for the private theatre of Queen Maria Casimira 
of Poland (who lived in Rome from March 1699 
until June 1714). Also produced in London 10 
June 1720 (as Narciso, text altered by P. A. Rolii) 
with additional numbers (two songs and two 
ducts) by Thomas Roseingrave, who (according 
to Burney, iv, p.266) had brought over the score 
from Italy. 

leo: Pisistrato 

13 May. Naples, S.B. 
Text by D. Lalli (171 1). Three acts, 
Leo's first opera. Score preserved. 

schweitzelsperger: 
Die romanische Lucretia 

??. Durlach 
Librettist unknown. Prologue and 3 acts. 

Probably repeated at Durlach in 171 5 and 1716 
and also given at Coburg 1718 and Nuremberg 
Spring 1 71 9 (with alterations). 

The only extant opera of Schweitzelsperger 
and of some 50 German operas (by Trost, Blinzig, 
Kafer, and others) produced at the court of 
Baden-Durlach between 1712-31. 



See on Schweitzelsperger and his Lucretia score 
L. Schiedermair in Sammelbdnde of the I.M.S., 
Vol. xiv (1912-13). 

m o u r e t : Les Festes de Thalie 

19 August. Paris, O. 
Text by J. de Lafont. Prologue and 3 entrees. 

In this successful opera-ballet the comic element 
was first introduced into the sphere of French 
opera. Originally it consisted of three i-act comic 
operas called La Folic, La Femme, and La Veuve t 
respectively. An epilogue, La Critique des Festes de 
Thalie, was added on 9 October 1714, the third 
act was replaced by La Veuve coquette on 12 March 
1 71 5 , and a fourth entree, La Provencale, was added 
on 17 September 1722 in place of La Critique. In 
various combinations revived at Paris 25 June 
1722; 2 June 1735; 29 June 1745; and 24 Sep- 
tember 1754. La Femme on 13 August 1765; La 
Provencale on 10 August 1745; 6 February 1755; 
31 January 1758; 18 August 1769; and 16 February 
1775; at Versailles 22 February 1764. The opera 
was given at Brussels as early as 2 October 1714 
(revived 1 September 174a). 

A parody on Les Festes de Thalie, by P. Laujon 
and Parvi, with music by Blaise, called La Fille, 
la Femme, et la Veuve, was produced at the C.I. on 
21 August 1745 (after which parodies of grand 
operas were prohibited there for six years). 

There were also two successful parodies of 
single acts, the music of both was written by 
Duni, viz. (1) La Fille mal gardee ou Le Pidant 
amour eux (parody of La Provencale, text by C. S. 
Favart, Madame Favart, and LourdetdeSanterre), 
produced at the C.I. 4 March 1758. In French 
also Amsterdam and Hague 1760; Brussels 7 Jan- 
uary 1 761; Vienna 4 February 1764; Frankfort 
io April 1764. Dutch versions by J. T. Neyts 
(Rotterdam 1 764) and by J. F. Cammaert (Brussels 
1767) printed. (2) La Veuve indecise (parody of La 
Veuve coquette, text by J. J. Vade^, produced at the 
O.C. 24 September 1759; Vienna 1761 (with new 
airs); Amsterdam 16 September 1761 (revised by 
L. Anscaume). 

See on Les Festes de Thalie and its parodies, R. 
Viollier inRevue deMuskologie ,Vol.xix(Mayi93 5) . 



129 



130 



1714 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1715 



f. conti: I Satiri in Arcadia 
28 August Vienna 
Text by P. Pariari (Favola pastorale). Three acts. 
In German (as Claris una* Tirsis, translated by 
Dr. Gazal), Hamburg 23 January 1719 (with 
Italian airs); Copenhagen 18 December 1721. An 
anonymous German opera, Die Satyren in Arca- 
dien (perhaps a version of Conti's work), was 
produced at Leipzig in 1719. 

porpora: Ariattna e Teseo 
1 October. Vienna 
Text by P. Pariari. Three acts. 

Revived Vienna Carnival 171 7; Venice Au- 
tumn 1727; Florence 9 August 1729. No connec- 
tion with Ariadne in Naxus, text by Rolli, pro- 
duced London, Lincoln's Inn Fields Th. 9 January 
1734. 

mouret: Ragonde 

December. Sceaux 
Text by P. Nericault Destouches. 

The full tide reads: Le Mariage de Ragonde et de 
Colin ou La VeilUe de Village. The second suc- 
cessful opeVa-ballet by Mouret, produced in 1714. 
It consisted of three intermedes, called La VeilUe, 
Les Lutins, and La Noce et le Charivari, and was 
privately produced at one of the "Grandes Nuits" 
at the palace of the Duchess of Maine at Sceaux. 

First given at the Paris Opera only four years 
after the composer's death as Les Amours de Ra- 
gonde, 31 January 1742 (then called comidie en 
musique and somewhat altered). 

Revived Paris 12 February 1743; Versailles 
24 March 1745 and 27 February 1748 (instead of 
Destouches, Nicolas de Malesieux 1 is mentioned 
as the author in the 1748 libretto); again Paris 
11 February 1752; 5 February 1769; and 22 Feb- 
ruary 1773 (these latest two revivals not recorded 
by Lajarte). 

Given at Lyons 1742; Brussels 10 March 1748; 
Bordeaux 1758. 

1 He had been one of the chief literary contributors 
to the theatrical performances at Sceaux — hence the 
mistake in the later libretto. 



1715 

A. scarlatti: II Tigtane overo 
Uegual Impegno d'Amore e di Fede* 

16 February. Naples, S.B. 
Text by D. Lalli (originally called L'Amor di 
Figlio non conosciuto, set to music by Albinoni, 
Venice 1715). Three acts. 

Scarlatti's most famous opera ; it is stated in the 
libretto that this was his 106th work for the stage. 
In Tigrane, horns were introduced into the opera 
orchestra for the first time. 

Repeated at Innsbruck in the same year; at 
Leghorn Carnival 1716. 

Date of first performance given in the Naples 
Avvisi of 19 February 1715 (Piovano). 

reiser: Fredegunda 

March. Hamburg 
Text by J. U. Konig (founded on an Italian lib- 
retto by F. Silvani, set to music by Gasparini in' 
1704). Five acts. 

One of Reiser's most popular works; given at 
Hamburg until 1738. 

An early description of Fredegunda is given in 
E. L. Gerber's Historisch-Biographisches Lexicon der 
Tonkiinstter (1791). 

handel: Amadigi di Gaula* 

5 June. London, Hm. 
Text probably by J. J. Heidegger (who signed 1 
the dedication; cf. Burney, iv, p. 255). Three acts. 
Given in London 19 times until 1717. Ham- 
burg September 1717 and 6 February 1719 (in 
German, as Oriana, translated by J. Beccau, ad- 
ditional airs by Keiser; the airs were sung in 
Italian). There is a printed Dutch translation by 
K. Elzevier (n.d.). Revived Osnabriick 7 January 
1929 (new German version by H. Dutschke). 

orlandini: Amove e Maesta 
Summer. Florence, T. Cocomero 
Text by A. Salvi. Three acts. 

Given in an altered version by P. A. Rolli (as 
Arsace), with additional music by F. Amadei, 

1 Not so; a translation probably by Haym, of 
Destouche's Amadis de Grece (see 1699). 



131 



132 



I7I5- T ^ 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1716-17 



London, Hm. 12 February 1721 ; this version was 
translated into German by J. Mattheson (who 
also composed the German recitatives) and given 
at Hamburg on 18 May 1722 (frequendy revived 
until 1736). 

The original (presumably without Amadei's 
additions) was revived at Turin Carnival 1726 
and Florence, P. Carnival 1732 (as Arsace). 

Date and place of the first production are 
recorded by F. Piovano in Sammelbdnde of the 
I.M.S., Vol. rx (1907-08), p.272. The original 
libretto is recorded by R. Uccelli, Contribute alia 
bibliografia della Toscana, 1922. See also Allacci, 
cols. 62 and 116, and Sonneck's Catalogue, p. 15 7. 
That Orlandini did not compose his opera 
expressly for London becomes clear, moreover, 
from the remark in the London libretto: "This 
Opera was Originally set to Musick by Signor 
Orlandini, excepting those Songs mark'd with 
a Star, which are compos'd by Signor Philippo 
Amadei". 



1716 

BERTIN DE LA DOUE: AjdX 

20 April Paris, O. 
Text by Mennesson. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The most successful of Benin de la Doue's 
five operas. Revived at Paris 16 June 1726 (debut 
of the famous dancer, Marie- Anne Cupis, called 
Camargo); 2 August 1742; and 14 October 1770 
(with additions by L. J. Francceur). 

In French also given at Lille 1723; Brussels 
December 1723; Stockholm 9 April 1724; Lyons 
1742. 

Score published 17 16. 

A parody by L. Fuzelier, called L'Amant brutal, 
was produced at the O.C. on 3 July 1726. 

pollarolo: Ariodante 

Autumn. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by A. Salvi (originally called Ginevra Prin- 
cipessa di Scozia and set to music by Perti in 1708). 
Three acts. 



Faustina Bordoni's first appearance was in this 
opera. Repeated Rome 1717. Venice Autumn 
1 71 8 (text altered by G. Boldini) ; Treviso 1722. 

A popular work, many performances. 

vivaldi: Arsilda, Regina di Ponto 

Autumn. Venice, S. Angelo 
Text by D. Lalli. Three acts. 

One of Vivaldi's earliest operas. Up to 1927, 
of more than 40 operas, only two were known to 
be extant; Arsilda was one of them. But a good 
many more have been discovered since in the 
Mauro Foa Collection purchased by the Biblio- 
teca Nazionale, Turin, in that year. 

gervais: Hypermnestre 

3 November. Paris, O. 
Text by J. de Lafont. Prologue and 5 acts. 

It has been stated, without sufficient evidence 
though, that the Duke Philip of Orleans col- 
laborated in this opera. 

Revived at Paris April 171 7 (fifth act remo- 
delled by S.J. de Pellegrin); 1 June 1728; 18 Au- 
gust 1746; and 1 October 1765. Given at Lyons 
in 1742. 

A parody by P. F. Dominique and J. A. Ro- 
magnesi, called La bonne Femme, was produced at 
the CI. on 28 June 1728. 

lotti: Alessandro Seveto 
26 December. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by A. Zeno (first setting of the libretto). 
Three acts. 

The last opera Lotti wrote in Italy before he 
went to Dresden in 1717. 

Revised Brussels 6 July 1729 (in Italian). 



1717 

reiser: Die grossmiithige Totnyris* 

July. Hamburg. 
Text by J. J. Hoe (founded on an Italian libretto 
by D. Lalli, UAmor di Figlio non conosciuto, set to 
music by Albinoni in 171 5 and Scarlatti in 171 5). 
Three acts. 



133 



134 



i 71 7-1 8 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1718 



Brunswick August 1719; revived there in 
August 1720; February 1721 ; February 1724; and 
once more in August 1749 (with additional Italian 
airs by Hasse and others). Probably also given at 
Durlach 1721 and revived at Hamburg 5 May 
1721 and 3 November 1723. 

lotti: Giove in Argo 

2$ October. Dresden 
Text by A. M. Lucchini. Three acts. 

The first opera Lotti wrote for Dresden. Pro- 
duced at the Redoutensaal ("Sala di Ridotto") as 
the new opera-house ("Regio Electoral Teatro") 
was not ready yet. It was inaugurated on 3 Sep- 
tember 1719 with the same opera. 

Between the acts of Giove in Argo the inter- 
mezzi Vespetta e Milo (text by S. Stampiglia and 
F. Ballerini, music by A. Scarlatti and F. Conti) 
were produced, one of the first instances of that 
sort of performance in Germany. 

(Date of first performance according to Fiirste- 
nau and Schatz; the dedication in the libretto is 
dated November 1717.) 

campra: Camille, Reine des Volsques 

9 November. Paris, O. 
Text by A. Danchet. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Revived at Paris, after an interval of 44 years, 
22 September 1761 (without the prologue; music 
revised by P. M. Berton). 



I7I8 

orlandini: Antigona 

January. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by B. Pasqualigo. Five acts. 

One of Orlandini's most successful serious 
operas. Revived at Venice, S. Angelo Carnival 
1721 and S.Cass. 7 November 1724; Turin, T.R. 
Carnival 1727; and Bologna 14 June 1727 as La 
Fedelta coronata (reduced to 3 acts). 

In Italian, also given at Brunswick February 
and August 1724; Wolfenbiittel 17 April 1725; 
Brunswick again (with German recitatives and 



choruses) August 1732 ; at Breslau 1 October 1728 
(as Antigone vendicata). 

schurmann: Heinrich der Vogler 

[1 August], Brunswick 

Text by J. U. Konig. (The title reads in full: 
Heinrich der Vogler, Hertzog zu Braunschweig, nach- 
mahls erwehlter Teutscher Kayser.) Three acts. 

Hamburg 6 November 1719 and revived 18 
July 1735. Revived at Brunswick February 1721 ; 
August 1726 as Henricus Auceps (with some ad- 
ditional airs by Graun) and August 1730 (under 
the original title). Given by a German company 
at Stockholm 29 January 1734. 

A second part, by the same authors, was 
produced at Brunswick [11 January] 1721. 

porpora: Temistocle 

1 October. Vienna 
Zeno's text (first set to music by M. A. Ziani in 
1701). Three acts. 

Revived at Brussels 28 September 1729. 

The opera by Porpora of this title performed 
in London 5 March 1743 was an entirely different 
work (libretto by Metastasio). 

caldara: Ijigenia in Aulide 

4 November. Vienna 
Text by A. Zeno. Three acts. 

One of the earliest operas Caldara wrote for 
Vienna. Revived there 22 November 1723. 

(It has been stated that the opera was first 
produced at Vienna four years earlier, viz. 4 No- 
vember 1714. According to Weilens Catalogue, 
M. A. Ziani's Andromeda was given on that 
day.) 

A. Scarlatti: II Ttionfo delV Onore* 

26 November. Naples, Fior. 
Text by F. A. Tullio. Three acts. 

The first extant example of a comic opera of 
the Neapolitan School. Two scenes from it were 
published by E. J. Dent in Sammelbande of the 
I.M.S., Vol xi (1909-10). The opera was revived 



135 



136 



1718 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1718 



at Loughton, Essex 23 July 1937 (in English, 
translated and produced by G. Dunn; open-air 
performance) and once more 20 July 1939; also 
revived at Siena iS September 1940 (revised by 
V. Mortari) ; which omitted 22 of the 41 arias. 

ORLAndini: II Mart to Gbqatoreela 
Moglie Bacchettona* 

24 December. Venice, S. Angclo 
Text by A. Salvi. Three parts. 

These famous intermezzi were first performed 
between the acts of F. Chcllcri's opera scria Ama- 
lasunta. Besides several revivals on Italian stages 
(Florence 1720; Rome, T. Alibert Carnival 1 721; 
Fcrrara Carnival 1722; Genoa Spring 1723 (as 
Serpilla e Bacocco); Lucca Carnival 1724 and 
Autumn 1740; Bologna 1725 (as // Ghiocatore) 
and Carnival 1748 (as Bacocco sia il Ghiocatore); 
Naples, S.B. 1 October 1725; Palermo 1726, etc., 
between the acts of various opcre scrie by other 
composers) they were also given at: 
Munich 27 October 1722 (under the title of Ser- 
pilla e Bacocco, as intermezzi in Albinoni's / veri 
Amid). 
breslau November 1727 (in Bioni's Attah ed 

Arsinoe). 
BRUSSELS 4 November 1728 (in OrlandinTs Lucto 

Papirio Dittatore). 
paris, o. 7 June 1729 (as Bajocco e Serpilla). 
TRIESTE August 1730 (as Serpilla c Bacocco). 
Moscow 25 March 173 1. 
Vienna 8 April 1733 (in Giacomelli's La Cacda in 

Etolia). 
ST. Petersburg 1733 and 2i October 1757. 
Lisbon 1736 (in Schiassi's Alessandro neWlndie). 
LONDON 12 January 1737 (as The Gamester, sung 
in Italian; the first "intermezzo, or comic in- 
terlude, which was ever introduced between 
the acts of an Italian opera in England" [Burney, 
iv, p.400]. The opera was Hasse's Siroe). 
Hamburg 15 February 1741 and again 3 August 
1744, 24 February 1746, 4 July 1753 and 1767. 
Prague 1744 (under the original title; no com- 
poser mentioned). 

DRESDEN 29 AugUSt 1 746. 



AUGSBURG I746, 

potsdam Summer 1748 and again 16 October 
175*. 

paris, 0. 22 August 1752 (as // Giocatore, revived, 
after 23 years, by Bambini's buffo troupe, with 
additional music by Pcrgolesi, Buini and, prob- 
ably, Aulctta). 

hanover 20 September 1753. 

Copenhagen 5 February 1755, 19 December 
1755* an d 4 February 1757 (in Italian) and again 
1758 (in Danish, with recitatives by J. C. 
Klccn). 

MAYENCE I758. 

Edinburgh 27 June 1763. 

Berlin 28 April 1777 (with German recitatives; 

the play-bill mentions as the composer "Herrn 

Bergulesi"). 

Following the productions at the Paris Opera, 
two French parodies were performed at the C.L, 
viz.: (1) Lejoueur, 21 July 1729; text (a mixture 
of French and Italian) by P. F. Dominique and 
J. A. Romagnesi, music, it seems, partly from the 
original, partly composed by J. J. Mourct; also 
given at Fontaincbleau 7january 1730. (2) Baiocco 
et Serpilla, 6 March 1753 ; text (wholly in French 
now) partly rewritten by C. S. Favart, music by 
C. Sodi. This latter parody was (in French) also 
given at Stockholm 20 January 1757, Hague 1758, 
Amsterdam 1761, and Brussels 1766; revived 
Paris, Varictcs-Amusantes, 16 July 1797. In 
Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), Stock- 
holm 21 April 1784 (given there until 1798) and 
Gothenburg 13 March 1795 (revived 10 Decem- 
ber 1810). There was a recent revival of Sodi's 
setting at the Mercury Th., London, 25 July 1940 
(as The Gamester, English version by G. Dunn), 
produced by the "Intimate Opera Company". 

On the complicated history of this opera the 
following authorities should be consulted: A. 
Wotquenne, Catalogue de la Bibliotheque du Con- 
servatoire Royal de Bruxcllcs, Vol. i, pp.458-60 
(1 898) ; L. de La Laurencic in Revue Musicale (Bul- 
letin Francais de la S.I.M), 1912, no.6-8; G. Cal- 
mus in Monthly Magazine of the I.M.S., 1912-13, 
p.114; O. G. T. Sonneck, ibid., p.170; O. G. T. 
Sonncck in The Musical Antiquary, 1913, p.160; 



137 



138 



1718 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



171 8-19 



O. G. T. Sonneck, Catalogue . . . Washington, 

pp.730-34 (i9H). 

No composer is mentioned in the original 
Venice libretto. Orlandini's name occurs for the 
first time in the London 1737 libretto. A MS 
score at Wolfenbiittel names Leonardo Vinci as 
the composer. Sonncck's verdict in 191 3 was: 
". . . therefore I do not think that we should 
longer hesitate, at least at present, to attribute ll 
Giocatore to Giuseppe Maria Orlandini"; but in 
1914: ". . . consequently we must further assume 
that both Vinci and Orlandini composed the same 
text at a very early date, but we cannot as yet 
definitely attribute the earliest setting, that for 
Venice 171 8-19, to cither one or the other". 

Since then, the score has been attributed again 
to Orlandini by G. Pavan (R.M.I., 1922, p.433) 
and by H. Liebrecht (Histoirc du Theatre Francais 
a Bruxelles, 1923, p.157), who mentions scores 
bearing Orlandini's name at Vienna and Rostock; 
to Vinci by G> F. Schmidt (Zeitschrift fur Musik- 
wissenschaft, vi, p. 523). 

The "meprises invraisemblables" (Wotqucnne) 
which have been made in dealing with the history 
of II Giocatore we need not enumerate again. They 
have not ceased since, either. J. G. Prod'homme, 
for instance, in his & Optra (1925), p-75* g ives f° r 
the 1729 production at the Paris Opera the names 
of the librettists of the 1729 parody "Romagnesi 
et Dominique/* and the name of the composer 
of the 1752 parody "Sodi (011 Auletta?)". 

As several of the above performances were 
anonymous, it must be mentioned that there are 
at least four later settings of the libretto, by G. 
Scarlatti, Florence Carnival 1747; Hassc, Frank- 
fort 5 April 1755; Paisiello, Turin 1 774 (according 
to Florimo); Schacht, Regensburg 1775 (libretto 
British Museum). 



and the same composer's Crispo (see 1721) are 
the subject of discussion in Richard Steele's 
comedy, The Conscious Lovers (1723), 11, 2. Rolli 
translated the comedy into Italian (1724) and does 
not fail to emphasize in a note his collaboration 
with Bononcini. 



1719 

A. Scarlatti: M. Attilio Regolo 

Carnival Rome, Capr. 
Text by M. Noris (first composed by Pagliardi 
in 1693). Three acts. 

Revived Bologna October 1724. 

f. conti: Don Chisciotte in Sierra 
Morena 

1 1 February. Vienna 
Text by A. Zeno and P. Pariati (Tragicommedia 
per mttsica), after Cervantes. Five acts. 

(In later editions of the text the title was 
changed into Don Chisciotte in Corte della Du- 
chessa.) 

Also given at Brunswick February 1720 (in 
Italian). 

In German (as Don Quixotte in dan Mohren- 
gchucrge, translated by J. S. Miillcr) Brunswick, 
August 1721 (revived February 1733 [with some 
Italian airs] and February 1738) and Hamburg 
5 October 1722 (with some airs sung in Italian; 
given there until 1737). 

Revived Vienna 9 April 1826 (private perform- 
ance at Hofrat von Kiesewctter's ; see A.M.Z., 
1826, p. 360, and Grove, in, p.21, 3rd edition, 
1927). 



m. A, bononcini: Griselda 

26 December. Milan, T.R.D. 
Zeno's text (first composed by Pollarolo in 1701). 
Three acts. 

London 5 March 1722 (text altered by P. A. 
Rolli) and revived there 2 June 1733. This opera 



schurmann: Die getreue Alceste 

February. Brunswick 
Text by J. U. Konig (founded on Quinault's 
French libretto, see 1674). Three acts. 

Hamburg 3 July 1719, as Alceste (given until 
1723); Brunswick August 1721. 



139 



140 



1719 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1720 



FUX 



Elisa 



2 5 August. Laxenburg, near Vienna 
Text by P. Pariati (Festa teatrale). One act. 

The only opera of Fux which was published in 
his lifetime. Written for the birthday of the 
Empress Elizabeth Christina. 

Revived Vienna 31 August 1729; in this year 
the score was published at Amsterdam — probably 
the only printed full score of an Italian opera seria 
between 1662 (Bontcmpi's Paride) and 1756 (Sar- 
d's Ciro riconosciuto). 

Gerber says that the Emperor Charles vi con- 
ducted the 1729 revival at the cembalo. 

lotti: Teofane 
13 September, Dresden 
Text by S. B. Pallavicino. Three acts. 

Written for the wedding of Prince Frederick 
Augustus of Saxony and Maria Josepha, Arch- 
duchess of Austria. 

Lotti's last opera. A German translation by C. 
F. Teuchcr was published in the same year. 

torri: La Merope 

12 October. Munich 

Zcno's text (first composed by Gasparini in 171 1). 
Three acts. 

Torri's best and most successful opera. Re- 
peated at Munich 9 June 1720 and 24 January 
1723. Also given at Brussels December 1728 (in 
Italian). 

The third act was printed in Denkmaler der 
Tonkunst in Bayern, Vol. xix-xx (1920), edited 
by H. Junker. 

caldara: Lucio Papirio Dittatore 

4 November. Vienna 
Text by A. Zeno (written for Caldara). Three 
acts. 

In Italian also given at Brunswick 9 February 
1721 and Brussels 4 December 1728. 



1720 

stuck: Polidore 

15 February. Paris, O. 
Text by J. L. I. de La Serre (founded on a tragedy 
by S.J. de Pellegrin, 1706). Prologue and 5 acts. 

The last opera of Stuck, who was one of the 
earliest violoncellists in the orchestra of the Paris 
Opera. Revived there 21 April 1739. 

Score published 1720. 

porta: Numitore 

13 April. London, Hm. 
Text by P. A. Rolli. Three acts. 

Handel's "Royal Academy of Music" was 
inaugurated with this opera. Porta's most suc- 
cessful work. 

In Italian also given at Brunswick 1723 (as Rhea 
Sylvia) ; in German as Die helden-muethige Schaefer 
Romulus und Remus) Hamburg 2 November 1724 
(with additional music by J. P. Kuntz; recitatives 
sung in German, airs partly in German, partly in 
Italian). 

handel:// Radatnisto* 

8 May. London, Hm. 
Text by N. F. Haym, based on D. Lalli's Vamor 
Titanico e Zenohia, first set by Gasparini in 1710, 
and modified for Florence in 1712. Three acts. 

The first opera of Handel which was produced 
at the newly-founded "Royal Academy of 
Music". Repeated there, with alterations, in- 
cluding the Act 3 quartet, one of the only three 
quartets in his 40 Italian operas, 8 January 1721 
and 6 December 1721, and once more in January 
or February 1728. This latter revival, mentioned 
by Burney, iv, p. 259, but not recorded in F. 
Colman's Opera Register (see p. 93), nor by Fassini 
and Nicoll, I was not able to verify from the news- 
papers as the parts in question are missing in the 
British Museum set. J That the revival actually took 
place is confirmed by the printed libretto, with 
full cast, a copy of which has been found in the 
National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh. 

1 January and February of the Daily Courant, the only 
paper in which the Italian operas were advertised then. 



141 



142 



1720-21 



Given at Hamburg 28 January 1722 (in Ger- 
man, as Zenohia, oder Das Muster rcchtschaffener 
ehelichen Liebe, translated by J. Mattheson, who 
also composed the German recitatives; the airs 
were sung in Italian; revived 20 January 1736). 

Revived in a new German version by J. Wenz: 
Gottingen 22 June 1927; and once more Diissel- 
dorf 14 May 1937 (translated by PL Buths). 

torri: Lucio Veto 

12 October. Munich 

Zeno's text (first composed by Pollarolo in 1700). 
Three acts. 

Revived at Munich 3 January 1723. 

G. bononcini: Astarto* 

30 November. London, Hm. 

Text by P. A. Rolli (altered from an earlier 
libretto by Zeno and Pariati, first set to music by 
Albinoni in 1708). Three acts. 

The first opera Handel's rival wrote in London. 
"V.E. e stata una delle principali Cause non solo 
di promovere nella Reale Accademia, quest* 
Opera; ma pur' anche il di lei rinomato Compo- 
sitore, il quale l'a di nuove Bellezze accresciuta 
per mostrare tutta la dovuta attenzione a suoi 
Protettori" (from Rolli's dedication to Richard, 
Earl of Burlington; it appears from it that the 
latter had seen Astarto some years ago at the T. 
Capranica, Rome, which must have been Pre- 
dieri's setting in 1714)- 

Bononcini's opera was also given at Hamburg 
20 October 1721 (in Italian) and was revived in 
London, Lincoln's Inn Fields 9 March 1734. 



1721 

A. scarlatti: La Griselda* 

January. Rome, Capr. 

Zeno's text (first set to music by Pollarolo in 
1701). Three acts. 

Scarlatti's 114th opera and the last which is 
extant. 



ANNALS OF OPERA 1721 

orlandini: Nerone 



January. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by A. Piovene. Three acts. 

In German (translated by J. Mattheson who 
also added six airs of his own), Hamburg 17 No- 
vember 1723 and given there until 1738 (the airs 
were sung in Italian). In Italian also, Vienna 3 
April 173 1 (probably Orlandini's setting). 

telemann: Der gedultige Socrates* 

28 January. Hamburg 
Text by J. U. Konig (founded on Minato's La 
Patienza di Soar ate con due Moglie, see 1680). Three 
acts. 

The first opera Telemann wrote for Hamburg. 

Revived Crefeld 16 June 1934 (revised by J. 
Baum). 

g. bononcini: Crispo 

February. Rome, Capr. 
Text by G. Lemer. Three acts. 

Successful in London 31 January 1722 (text 
revised by P. A. Rolli); given for 21 nights. (Cf. 
note on Griselda, 171 8.) 

F. MATTEI (AMADEl), 
G. BONONCINI and HANDEL: 

Il Muzio Scevola* 

26 April London, Hm. 
Text by P. A. Rolli. Three acts. 

None of the composers is mentioned in the 
libretto. Burney (rv, p.258) and Hawkins (v, 
p.277) assumed that Ariosti 1 joined hands with 
Bononcini and Handel in this opera, but Chrys- 
ander proved that the third composer was one 
Filippo Mattei, called Pippo (who perhaps is 
identical to Filippo Amadei, Orlandini's collab- 
orator in Arsace, see 171 5). 

1 Ariosti's name as the composer of the first act still 
occurs in modern publications, e.g. in T. Vallese's Paolo 
Rolli in Inghilterra, 1938. 



143 



144 



1722 



Mattei wrote the first act, Bononcini 1 the 
second act, Handel the third act. 

In Italian also Hamburg 7 January 1723 (per- 
formed with a prologue in German). 

The third act, i.e. Handel's share, was revived 
at Essen on 9 June 1928 (German versioi by R. 
Steglich). 

hasse: Antioco 

11 August. Brunswick 
Text by A. Zeno and P. Pariati (first set to music 
by Gasparini in 1705). Three acts. 

Hasse's first opera. Only some airs are extant. 

The statements that Hasse's first opera was 
either called Antigonus (or Antigono) or that it was 
written to a German libretto have been refuted 
long ago. But since Burncy [Present State, 1, p. 343) 
and Gerber, they obstinately recur even in modern 
books and papers. The Italian-German libretto of 
Antioco, which is extant, proves that the opera 
was composed to an Italian text and was sung 
either wholly in Italian (according to G. F. 
Schmidt) or else with Italian airs and German 
recitatives (according to R. Haas and H.J. Moser). 

porsile: Meride e Selinunte 

28 August Laxenburg, near Vienna 
Text by A. Zeno. Five acts. 

The first greater work of Porsile, who was 
court conductor at Vienna from 1720-40. Inter- 
mezzi, Rosina e Lesbo, were produced with the 
opera. 

handel:// Floridante 

20 December. London, Hm. 
Text by P. A. Rolli, based on F. Silvani's La 
Costanza in Trionfo (Venice 1697), modified for 
Livorno, 1706. Three acts. 

Revived London 10 May 1727 and 14 March 
1733. In German (as Der thrazischc Printz Flori- 

1 See on Muzio Scaevola also W. H. Cummings in 
The Musical Times, 1911, p.18. It should be mentioned 
that Bononcini had composed a whole opera of his own 
on the same subject for Vienna in 1710 (produced there 
10 July 1710; text by N. Minato); score preserved. One 
wonders if Bononcini used parts of his old music again 
and how far Rolli's libretto is indebted to Minato's 
earlier text. 



ANNALS OF OPERA 1721-23 

dantes y translated by J. Beccau), Hamburg 28 April 



1723 (the airs were sung in Italian). 
1722 

v i n c I : Li Zite y n Galera 

Carnival. Naples, Fior. 
Text by B. Saddumcnc. Three acts. 

Vinci's first extant opera. Autograph score at 
Naples dated 20 November 1721. Not Saddu- 
mene's first original libretto as has been stated; 
preceded by Don Ciccio, also set by Vinci 
and produced at the same theatre in 1721. (Lib- 
retto in the British Museum; music apparently 
lost.) 

keiser: Ulysses 

November. Copenhagen 
(German) text by F. M. Lersner (founded on 
a French libretto by Guichard, composed by 
Rebel pcre in 1703). Three acts. 

Score preserved. Written for the birthday of 
King Frederick iv of Denmark. The only opera 
Keiser wrote for Copenhagen, where, from 
Christmas 1721 to January 1723, a German 
operatic company acted at the court theatre. 

(Sec T. Krogh in Aarbogfor Musik y 1924, and 
in Festschrift fur Johannes Wolf 1929.) 

1723 

handel: Ottone, Re di Ger.nania* 

23 January. London, Hm. 
Text by N. F. Haym (altered from Pallavicino's 
Teofane, see 1719). Three acts. 

Successful in London; first produced for Fran- 
cesca Cuzzoni's debut; revived 16 February 1726 j 1 
22 April 1727; 24 November 1733; and 21 De- 
cember 1734 (40 performances in all). 

In Italian also, Brunswick August 1723 (with 
intermezzi Barlafuso e Pipa) and February 1725 
(with additional airs by Lotti). 

In German (translated by J. G. Glauche), Ham- 
burg 15 May 1726 (music adapted by Telemann; 

1 Revival announced for 16 February but postponed 
because of Cuzzoni's illness until 19 February. 



145 



146 



1723 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1723 



the airs were sung in Italian; given there until 
1729). 

There exists an edition of the libretto printed 
at Paris in 1724 (copy recently acquired by the 
Library of Congress) with French synopses. Prob- 
ably there is a connection with an intended visit 
of the London opera company to Paris in the 
Summer of 1723 which however came to nothing. 
See Le Mercure, April 1723, p.770: "Quelques 
Acteurs Italiens de TOpera de Londres doivent 
venir a Paris, & donner douze representations 
dans le cours du mois de Juillet prochain. . . .** 

Revived (in a new German version by O. 
Hagen) at Gottingen 5 July 1921 ; Graz 19 De- 
cember 1923 ; Berlin 6 September 1926, etc. 

An English translation of Hagen's version by 
P. E. Pinkerton was published in 1928. 

ariosti: Cajo Marzio Coriolano 

2 March, London, Hm. 
Text by N. F. Haym. Three acts. 

This was probably the first opera Ariosti wrote 
for London. VOdio e I'Amore (1721), which 
Burney attributed to him was, according to 
Chrysander, by G.Bononcini. Revived inLondon 
5 April 1732. 

feo: Siface 

13 May. Naples, S.B. 
Text by P. Metastasio (altered for Feo from an 
earlier libretto by D. David, La Forza della Virtu, 
set to music by Pollarolo in 1693). Three acts. 

One of Feo's best works. 

Date of first performance according to the ms 
score at the Conservatorio S. Pietro a Majella, 
Naples; corroborated by G. Pavan (.R.M.I., Vol. 
xxvm, 1922, pp.427 and 432), who also reveals 
Metastases source which was unknown to 
Schatz and Sonneck (although Bonlini, p.i99> 
gave a hint as early as 1730, and a copy of David's 
text actually is in the Schatz Collection; see 
Sonneck's Catalogue, pp.526 and 1005). 

As Schatz rightly claimed, Feo was the first 
composer of Siface and not Porpora (see 1725); 
consequently, Metastasio's Siface text precedes 
that of Didone abbandonata (see 1724). 



handel: Flavio, Re de' Longobardi* 

25 May. London, Hm. 
Text by N. F. Haym (partly founded on Cor- 
neille's Cid and altered from an earlier Italian 
libretto by S. Ghigi, set to music by Pollarolo in 
1706). Earlier libretto by M. Noris, Flavio 
Cuniberto, set by Franceschini for Venice in 1692; 
revived Rome 1696. Three acts. 
Revived in London 29 April 1732. 

blamont; Les Testes grecques 
et romaines 

13 July. Paris, O. 
Text by L. Fuzelier (ballet hiroiqtte). Prologue and 

3 acts, called Lesjeux Olympiques, Les Bacchanales, 
and Les Saturnales, respectively. 

A fourth act, La Fete de Diane, was added on 
9 February 1734 (but dropped in later revivals). 
Very successful in Paris. 

Revivals at the Opera were on 11 June 1733; 

4 July 1741 ; 5 June 1753 ; 4 May 1762 (Les Satur- 
nales only, with alterations); 28 August 1770 
(with alterations by Dauvergne). 

Given at Brussels in 1741. Fuzelier claims in the 
preface to a later edition to have introduced into 
French tragedie-lyrique for the first time "les 
evdnemens de l'histoire," following the Italian 
example of Scarlatti and Bononcini, and calls his 
work "un ballet d'une espece toute nouvelle". 

Given at Moulins 1742 in concert form; pro- 
logue and Les Bacchanales revived Versailles 26 
March 1748; Les Saturnales revived Versailles 13 
February 1749; Prologue revived Fontainebleau 
11 October 1764. 

Aparody, by Fuzelier himself, called Les Satur- 
nales, three acts, was produced at the CI. 2 Sep- 
tember 1723 ; reduced to one act as Les Dibris des 
Saturnales, 6 September 1723 ; another, Les Festes 
desEnvirons de Paris, by P. T. Gondot, 4july 1753. 

fux: Costanza e Fortezza 

28 August Prague 
Text by P. Pariati. Three acts. 

Written to celebrate the coronation of the 
Emperor Charles vi as King of Bohemia and the 
birthday of the Empress Elizabeth Christina. 



147 



148 



1723-24 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1724 



Produced at the Hradzhin palace. Sometimes 
wrongly claimed to have been the first opera ever 
produced at Prague (but see 1680). The score was 
printed as Vol. vn of Denkmaler der Tonkunst in 
Osterreich (1910), edited by E. Wellesz. 

The opera was revived at: 
Northampton, mass, 7 May 193 8 (by Smith Col- 
lege students, under W. Josten, in an English 
version by G. P. Smith). 
Prague r July 1938 (by students of the Prague 
Conservatoire under O. Jeremias), 

v i n c i : Silla Dittatore 

1 October. Naples, Pal. Reale 
Text probably by Vincenzo Cassani (II Tiranno 
Eroe, Venice 1710, originally set to music by 
Albinoni). Three acts. 

Vinci's first extant opera seria. Written to cele- 
brate the birthday of the Emperor Charles vi. 
Publicly performed at the Teatro S.B. 17 October 
1723 (according to the Mercure de France). 

torri: Griselda 
12 October. Munich 
Zeno's text (first set to music by Pollarolo in 
1701). Three acts. 

Name part created by Faustina Bordoni (the 
first part she sang in Germany). 

Revived at Munich Carnival 1735. For a com- 
parison of Scarlatti's and Torri's Griselda operas, 
see H. Junker in Sandberger-Festschrift (1919). 



1724 

sarro: Didone ahbandonata 

5 February. Naples, S.B. 
Text by P. Metastasio. Three acts. 

The first setting of Metastasio's first drammaper 
musica (not counting some smaller works and his 
Siface, altered from an earlier libretto by 
D. David), which established his fame as the 
leading librettist of the 18th century (there are 
far more than a thousand settings of his librettos; 
no complete bibliography yet available). Sarro's 
opera was repeated at Turin, T.R. Carnival 1727 



and Venice, Autumn 1730 (text altered by G. 
Boldini). (Date of first performance according to 
the Manure de France. E. Gabrici, Metastasio in 
Napoli [1918], p.75, gives 8 February.) 

handei : Giulio Cesare inEgitto* 

2 March. London, Hm. 

Text by N. F. Haym, based on Bussani's libretto, 
first set by A. Sartorio for Venice, 1677. Three 
acts. 

Along with Rodelinda (see 1725) and Rinaldo 
perhaps Handel's most successful opera. 

Revived in London 13 January 1725, 28 January 
1730 and 12 February 1732; and once more, with 
Rubinelli and Mara, 1 March 1787, according to 
Edgcumbe * 'a medley from his Italian works". The 
1787 libretto says : i 'The music entirely by Handel, 
and selected from various operas set by that incom- 
parble [sic] composer, under the direction of 
Dr. Arnold"; and "The original, however, 
offering a great number of incongruities, both in 
the language and the conduct, several material 
alterations have been thought absolutely neces- 
sary, to give the piece a dramatic consistency, and 
to suit it to the refinement of a modern audience". 

Outside London given at Brunswick August 
1725, 1727 and August 1733 (in Italian, as Giulio 
Cesare e Cleopatra) ; Hamburg 21 November 1725 
(in German, translated by T. Lediard, with addi- 
tions by J. G. Linike, who also composed the 
German recitatives; the airs were sung in Italian; 
given there until 1737); Vienna 1731 (in Italian; 
Haym's libretto reduced and altered). 

There seems to exist an edition of the libretto 
printed at Paris in 1724, similar to that of Handel's 
Ottone. See Catalogo della Libreria Floncel, Paris 
1774, nos.2717 and 7826. 

Modern revivals (German version by O. 
Hagen): Gottingen 5 July 1922; Berlin, V.O. 
4 June 1923; Copenhagen 5 March 1924 (by the 
Berlin company); Zurich 23 March 1924; Basle 
3 September 1924; Vienna, Academy of Music, 
29 May 1926 and O. 3 May 1928; and on many 
other German stages. 

Also Northampton, Mass., Smith College 14 
May 1927 (in English); London, Foundling Hos- 
pital 23 June 1927 (in English, in an abridged 



149 



150 



1724-25 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1725 



concert version) and Scala Th. 6 January 1930 in 
translation by Robert Stuart. New York, Juilliard 
School 21 January 193 1 (in English) ; Amsterdam 
1 December 1933 (by the Dutch Opera Studio); 
Strasbourg January 1935 (in French, translated by 
L. Mancini) ; Pozrian 1936 (in Polish). 

telemann: Der neu-modische 
Liebhaber Damon* 

June. Hamburg 
Text probably by the composer (Ein scherzhaftes 
Singespiel). Three acts. 

Presumably first produced between 3 June and 
3 July, as it is not recorded in Willers's repertory 
(see Archiv fur Musikwissenschaft, Vol. vi), where 
the performances between those two dates are. 
missing. 

caldara: Gianguir 

4 November. Vienna 
Text by A. Zeno (written for Caldara). Five acts. 
In German (translated by J. S. Miiller) Ham- 
burg 6 February 1728 (in a free adaptation as 
Pharao und Joseph; the airs were sung in Italian). 

handel: Tamerlano* 

11 November. London, Hm. 
Text by A. Piovene (first set to music by Gaspa- 
rini in 1710), adapted by N. F. Haym. Three acts. 

Revived in London 24 November 1731. 

In German (translated by J. P. Praetorius) Ham- 
burg 27 September 1725 (music adapted by Tele- 
mann; the airs were sung in Italian); between the 
acts intermezzi were performed, probably Tele- 
mann's Die ungleiche Heyrath, see 1725. 

Tamerlano was revived at Carlsruhe 7 Septem- 
ber 1924 (new translation and arrangement by 
A. Rudolph and H. Roth), Leipzig 7 June 1925, 
and Halle 1940. 

1725 

handel: Rodelinda* 

24 February. London, Hm. 
Text by A. Salvi, probably based on S. Ghigi's 
Flavio Bertarido and set by C. F. Pollaroli for 
Venice, 1706 (first set to music by Perti in 1710), 
altered by N. F. Haym. Three acts. 



Revived London 1725 with many alterations. 
15 May 1731. 

In German (translated by C. G. Wendt) Ham- 
burg 29 November 1734 (the airs were sung in 
Italian). 

Modern revivals: 
gottingen 26 June 1920 \ (new German 
Zurich 13 June 1923 J version by 

Berlin, v.o. 29 January 1924 J O. Hagen). 

NORTHAMPTON, MASS., SMITH COLLEGE 9 May I93I 

(in English). 
London, old vic 5 June 1939 (in English). 

The so-called "Handel Renaissance" move- 
ment in Germany started with Rodelinda; the 
following is a short list of revivals (for details see 
the entries under each year) : 

Rodelinda 1725 gottingen 1920 

Ottone 1 723 gottingen 1 92 1 

Orlando 1733 h alle i 922 

GiulioCesare 1724 gottingen 1922 

Serse 1738 gottingen 1924 

Tamerlano 1 724 carlsruhe 1924 

Admeto 1727 Brunswick 1925 

Shoe 1728 gera 1925 

Ariodante 1735 stuttgart 1926 

Ezio 1732 gottingen 1926 

Radamisto 1720 gottingen 1927 

Poro 1 73 1 Brunswick 1928 

Muzio Scaevola 1721 essen 1928 

Alcina 1735 Leipzig 1928 

Amadigi 1 7 1 5 osn abruck i 929 

Arminio 1737 Leipzig 1935 

Partenope 1730 gottingen 1935 

Scipione 1 726 gottingen 193 7 

Tolomeo 1728 gottingen 1938 

telemann: Die ungleiche Heyrath 

oder Das herrsch-siichtige 

Camer Mddgen* 

27 September. Hamburg 
Text by J. P. Praetorius (founded on an Italian 
libretto by P. Pariati, Pimpwone, set to music by 
Albinoni in 1708). Three parts. 

Early instance of German intermezzi after the 
Italian pattern, though there is some doubt 
whether Telemann did more than set the new 



151 



152 



1725-26 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1726 



German recitatives and add some German arias 
to Albinoni's Italian arias. Sung in a mixture of 
German and Italian. First produced at Hamburg 
probably between the acts of Handel's Tamerlano. 
The MS score has the title Pimpinone. 

Revived Erlangcn 29 September 1925 and 
Bamberg February 1929 (revised by G. Becking). 
Chicago, University of Chicago, 16 April 1939 
(in English and Italian). 

Score printed in 1936 (Reichsdenkmale, Vol. vi, 
edited by T. W. Werner). 

vinci : Astianatte 

2 December, Naples, S.B. 
Text by A. Salvi (first set to music by M. A. Bo- 
noncini in 1701). Three acts. 

The best of Vinci's serious operas. (Date of first 
performance indicated in the Mercure de France) 

porpora: Siface 

26 December. Milan, T.R.D. 
Metastases adaptation of David's text (stated by 
the author, many years later, to have been written 
expressly for Porpora; but see 1723). Three acts. 

Also given at Venice, Carnival 1726 and, with 
alterations, as Siface Re di Numidia Rome, Capr. 
7 February 1730. 

In German (translated by J. P. Praetorius), 
Hamburg Winter 1727 (the airs sung in Italian). 

1726 

leo: // Trionfo di Camilla Regina 
de y Volsci 

8 January. Rome, Capr. 
Text by S. Stampiglia (first set to music by M. A. 
Bononcini, see 1696). Three acts. 

One of Leo's most famous serious operas. 

vinci : Siroe, Re di Persia 

January. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Text by P. Metastasio. Three acts. 

The first setting of Metastasio *s second original 
libretto. "Questo Drama, universalmente gradito 
ha rcso immortale il Nome del suo celebre 
Autore" (Bonlini). 



Revived at the same theatre, Carnival 1731 
(text altered by G. Boldini, additional music by 
Galuppi and Pescetti); Prague 1734; Parma Car- 
nival 1753; Milan, T.R.D. 1759. 

schurmann: Ludovicus Pius oder 
Ludewig der Fromme 

February. Brunswick 
(German) text by C. E. Simonetti. Three acts. 

Repeated at Brunswick, August 1727 and Feb- 
ruary 1734. Also produced by a German company 
at Stockholm 19 November 1733. 

(Schurmann used for his opera some pieces by 
Campra, Destouches and Graun.) The score was 
printed in 1890 (as Vol. xvn of Eitner's Publika- 
tionen alterer Mustkwerke, edited by H. Sommcr). 

porsile: Spartaco 

21 February. Vienna 
Text by G. C. Pasquini (scenario by A. Zeno). 
Three acts. 

Faustina Bordoni sang in this opera before she 
came to London in May 1726. 

handel: Scipione* 

23 March. London, Hm. 
Text by P. A. Rolli. Three acts. 

Rolti says in the libretto : "The first Hint of this 
Drama, and some Lines in it, are borrowed; but 
what, otherwise, relates either to the Plot itself, 
or the Diction thro' the Whole, is entirely new". 

The symphony to Act 2 originally intended for 
Alessandro; the 1726 performing edition differs 
from Handel's manuscript. 

Revived and revised London 14 November 
1730; Gottingen 20 June 1937 (translated by E. 
Dahnk-Baroffio). 

hasse: IlSesostrate 

13 May. Naples, S.B. 
Text by A. Carasale. Three acts. 

Hasse's first greater success (though limited to 
Naples). 

Intermezzi, Miride e Damari, were sung between 
the acts. 



153 



154 



1726 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1726-27 



According to the original libretto, first per- 
formed on Maria Theresa's birthday, 13 May (not 
26 August, the date usually given). 

handel: Alessandro* 

16 May. London, Hm. 
Text by P. A. Rolli, based on O. Mauro's La 
Superbia d'Akssandro, set by Steffani, Hanover 
1690. Three acts. 

Faustina Bordoni's London debut (in the part 
of Rossane). Revived London 6 January 1728 and 
6 December 1732. Revived London 26 November 
1743 and 27 March 1748, on both occasions as 
Rossane, probably with additional music by 
Lampugnani. 

In German (translated by C. G. Wendt), Ham- 
burg 18 November 1726; Brunswick 17 August 
1728 (airs and final chorus sung in Italian; cf. the 
account in J. F. A. von Uffenbach's Tagebuch 
(1728), edited by Max Arnim, 1928 ; given as Der 
hochmuthige Alexander, perhaps not Wendt's 
translation). 

reiser: Der laecherliche Prinz Jodelet 

??. Hamburg 
Text by J. P. Praetorius (founded on P. Scarron's 
comedy, Jodelet ou Le Maitre Valet, 1645, and on 
an older Hamburg libretto, set to music by 
Franck in 1680). Five acts. 

One of Reiser's best comic operas. Exact date 
of first performance unknown. The opera appears 
in Willers's repertory list (see Archiv fur Musik- 
wissenschaft, Vol. vi, 1924) only on 25 February 
1727 as "not acted", and then (revived) 26 Jan- 
uary 1733. Probably also given at Vienna 21 Sep- 
tember 1738. The opera was printed in 1892 in 
Eitner's Publikationen altererMusikwerke , Vol. xvm 
(edited by F. Zelle) and revived at Hamburg in 
1930. 

ristori: Calandro 
2 September. Pillnitz, near Dresden 
Text by S. B. Pallavicino. Three acts. 

The first extant opera of Ristori, and one of the 
earliest Italian comic operas produced in Ger- 
many. Revived at Dresden Carnival 1728 (Fre- 
derick the Great, then Crown Prince, attended 
this revival); also produced at Moscow 11 De- 
cember 173 1 (in Italian). 



rebel and francoeur: 
Pirame et Thisbe 

17 October. Paris O. 
Text by J. L. I. de La Serre. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The first of 10 operas by the two French com- 
posers, who were inspectors of the Paris Opera 
from 1746-57, and directors from 1757-66; their 
names have become inseparable in the history of 
opera. 

Pirame et Thisbe was revived at Marly 1 March 
1734 and in Paris on 26 January 1740, 23 January 
1759 (without prologue) and 5 February 1771. 
Given at Lyons in January 1741; MontpeUier 
1755; Amiens 1766 (in concert-form). 

Score published 1726. 

Each Paris production was followed by paro- 
dies, viz. Pirame et Thisbi (by J. A. Romagnesi, 
F. Riccoboni and P. F. Dominique), C.I. 13 No- 
vember 1726; Pirame et Thisbi (by C. S. Favart), 
O.C. 3 March 1740; Le Qui pro quo ou Polichinelle 
Pirame (anonymous), by marionettes, Foire St. G., 
December 1740; Pirame et Thisbe* (by F. Ricco- 
boni, a revised version of the 1726 parody), C.L 
5 March 1759. 



1727 

graun: Sinilde 

3 February. Brunswick 
Text by J. U. Konig (founded on an Italian lib- 
retto by F. Silvani, II miglior d'ogni Amore per il 
peggiore d'ogni Odio, set to music by Gasparini in 
1703). Three acts. Full title: Die in ihrer Unschuld 
siegende Sinilde. 

Graun's first opera. Revived at Brunswick Au- 
gust 1729 and August 1736 (in both cases as Sancio 
oder die in ihrer Unschuld siegende Sinilde). 

The same text was set to music by Telemann 
later in the same year. 

caldara: Don Chisciotte in 
Corte delta Duchessa 

6 February. Vienna 
Text by G. C. Pasquini (Opera serioridicola), after 
Cervantes. Five acts. 



155 



156 



1727 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1727-28 



In German (adapted by G. C. Schurmann), 
Brunswick 9 February 1728 (revived n August 
1738). 

handel: Admeto, Re di Tessaglia* 
11 February, London, Hm. 
Text: an altered version (by Haym? or Rolli?), of 
an earlier Italian libretto by A. Aurcli, VAntigona 
delusa da Alceste, set to music by P. A. Ziani (sec 
1660). Three acts. 

Very successful in London ; it was given in 1 727 
for 19 nights running and revived 11 October 
1727; 5 June 1728; 18 December 173 1 (with altera- 
tions); and 12 March 1754 (last revival of any 
Handel opera in his lifetime). 

Also given at Brunswick, August 1729, Feb- 
ruary 1732 and August 1739 (with German 
recitatives, translated probably by G. C. Schiir- 
mann) and at Hamburg 23 January 1730 (in Ger- 
man, translated by C. G. Wendt, given there until 
1736). Modified for Hanover as V Alceste. 

Revived Brunswick 14 October 1925 (arrange- 
ment and new German version by H. Dtitschke; 
his translation had been printed as early as 1906). 

g. bononcini: Astianatte 

17 May. London, Hm. 
Text by N. F. Haym (altered from an earlier 
libretto by A. Salvi, first set to music by Bonon- 
cini's brother, Marc'Antonio Bononcini in 1701). 
Three acts. 

The last opera Bononcini wrote for London. 
The notorious battle on the stage between the 
two rival singers, Faustina Bordoni (Ermione) 
and Franccsca Cuzzoni (Andromaca), took place 
during the last performance of Astianatte (last 
night of the season, 6/17 June). 

mouret: Les Amours des Dieux 

14 September. Paris, O. 
Text by L. Fuzelier (balkt-he'roique). Prologue 
and 4 entrees (called Neptune et Amymone, Jupiter 
et Niobe, Apollon et Coronis, and Ariane et Bacchus). 
Successful in Paris. 

Revived 18 June 1737; 12 May 1746 [not 1747]; 
16 August 1757 (with two additional airs by 



Gossec, text by Marmontel, and without the 
second entree); 18 August 1767 (the third entree 
only). Given at Amiens 1735 (in concert form); 
Lyons 1739 (the second entree only); Brussels 
1741. 

vinci : La Caduta dei Decemviri 

1 October. Naples, S.B. 
Stampiglia's text (first set to music by Scarlatti, see 
1697). Three acts. 

One of Vinci's best works; written to celebrate 
the birthday of the Emperor Charles vi. 

ariosti: Teuzzone 

1 November. London, Hm. 
Text by A. Zcno (first set to music by Magni and 
Monari in 1706). Three acts. 

Ariosti's last opera. Given for three nights only. . 

handel: Riccardo I, Re d'lnghilterra* 

22 November. London, Hm. 
Text based on F. Briani's Isacio Tirrano, set by 
Lofti, Venice 1710, by P. A. Rolli. Three acts. 

In German (as Der misslungene Braut-Wechsel 
oder Richardus /, Koenig von England, translated 
by C. G. Wendt) Hamburg 3 February 1729 
(with additional German airs by Tclemann, while 
Handel's airs were sung in Italian); another Ger- 
man version by an unknown translator [Richardus 
genannt das Lb'wen-Herz, Kb'nig in Engelland) was 
given (with Italian airs) at Brunswick in the same 
month, February 1729 (revived February 1734). 



1728 

buini: II Malmocor 

Carnival. Bologna, T. Marsigli Rossi 
Text probably by the composer (tragichissimo 
drama per musica). Three acts. 

The title is Malmocor, not Malmosor as quoted 
by most authorities. The dedication in the lib- 
retto is dated 12 December 1727. 

At Bologna the opera was produced with in- 
termezzi, La Serva astuta, between the acts. Re- 
vived Venice Spring 173 1 as Artanaganamenone. 



157 



158 



1728 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1728 



See on this opera G. Rossi, Varieth Letterarie 
(1912), pp.165-186. 

On Buini see E.J. Dent's study in Sammelbdnde 
of the I.M.S., Vol. xm (1911-12). Dent says that 
"not a single note of his music appears to have 
survived anywhere". But at least one air, inserted 
into the Paris 1752 revival of Orlandini's Gioca- 
tore (see 171 8), has been discovered since (see L. 
de La Laurencie in Revue Musicale, June 19 12, 
p.26). 

[pepusch]: The Beggar's Opera* 

9 February. London, Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Text by J. Gay. Three acts. 

The music consists of 69 numbers adapted by 
Pepusch to popular airs; he also arranged and 
orchestrated the score and composed one of the 
songs and the overture (which is founded on the 
air One evening, having lost my way occurring in 
the third act). 

Notes on the sources of the tunes, by W. H. G. 
Flood, will be found in the appendix to L. Mel- 
ville's Life and Letters of John Gay (1921). It appears 
that of the 69 airs, 28 are Old English, 15 Old 
Irish, 5 Old Scottish, and 3 Old French songs. 
The rest of 18 songs can be attributed to individ- 
ual composers, namely Purcell (3), Barret, Clarke, 
Handel, Carey (2 each), and Bononcini, Eccles, 
Geminiani (?), Wilford, Pepusch, Frescobaldi and 
Ramondon (1 each). 

Given for 62 nights during the first season, 
which was the longest run of any play on the 
English stage before 1822. Very successful all over 
England and in all English-speaking countries. 
From a note in Pope*s The Dunciad we learn that 
The Beggar's Opera was acted even at Minorca, 
then a British possession. 

Pint given at Dublin, March 1728; Dover c. 
March 1728; Norwich April 1728; Bath May 
1728; Newcastle c.May 1728 (by two rival com- 
panies) ; Canterbury and Bristol June 1728 ; Sand- 
wich July 1728; Deal August 1728; Glasgow 
August 1728; Haddington 9 November 1728; 
Bury, Colchester and Ipswich November 1728; 
Edinburgh 1728; Drogheda June 1729; Rich- 
mond 25 June 1730. Given in Jamaica in 1733 
(see W. R. Chetwood, A General History of the 



Stage, 1749, p.40); New York 3 December 1750; 
Annapolis, Md. 22 June 1752; Philadelphia 24 
August 1759 and, according to W. E. Schultz 
(Gay 5 Beggars Opera, 1923) before 1800 in 
America also produced at Boston, Providence, 
Newport, Baltimore, Richmond, Williamsburg, 
Norfolk and Charleston. 

The Beggar's Opera Tragediz'd ("in Roman 
Shapes") Hm. 14 June 1734. 

The London performances up to 1749 are re- 
corded in A. Nicoll's A History of Early 18th 
Century Drama, p.331, and the London revivals 
up to 1876 in W. D. Adams's A Dictionary of the 
Drama, p. 13 5. 

Different versions were produced at: 
Dublin 2 January 1765 (additional music by 

Giordani). 
c.G. 17 October 1777 (altered by E. Thompson). 
d.l. 8 November 1777 (new accompaniments 

by Linley). 
C.G. 14 December 1813 (in an abridged 2-act 

version). 

A version with additions by T. A. Arne was 
published (perhaps the C. G. version 1777). 

Later revivals in London were at C.G. 9 De- 
cember 1878 (Macheath: Sims Reeves); Avenue 
Th. 3 November 1886 (orchestrated by G. Fox); 
Lyric, H'smith 5 June 1920 (arranged and or- 
chestrated by F. Austin). This production had a 
run of 1,463 nights (until 15 December 1923; the 
longest run an opera ever had) and was revived 
at the. same theatre on 23 June 1925 ; 22 May 1926 ; 
14 February 1928; 11 March 1929; 13 May 1930; 
and at the Criterion 6 March 193 5. Again Brighton 
16 January 1940; London, Hm. 5 March 1940 
and New Th. 21 February 1941. A modern 
adaptation by W. Garstang, The Students' Opera 
was produced by the Leeds University Dramatic 
Society 18 December 1924 (adapted to Austin's 
version of the music). 

American 19th and 20th century revivals were 
at New York 4 June 1849; 20 December 1854; 
31 October i860; 28 November 1870; Phila- 
delphia 15 November 1854; New Haven, Yale 
University 3 May 19 12. New York, Greenwich 
Village Th. 29 December 1920 (the Hammer- 
smith version) ; subsequently given at Montreal, 



159 



t6o 



1728 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1728-29 



Toronto, Ottawa, Indianopolis, and at Chicago 
20 March 1921; Los Angeles 7 November 1921; 
S. Francisco 21 November 1921. Again revived 
New York, 48th Street Th. 28 March 1928. 

First given in French (but by an English com- 
pany) London, Little Hm. 10 May 1749 and 27 
February 1750 (as L'Opera du Gueux, translated 
by A. Hallam); another French version, by C. P. 
Patu, was published in 1756; a third version, 
published in 1767, is attributed in Cat. Bibl. So- 
leinne to Mme Thiroux d'Arconville. There is no 
record of a French production in Paris. The Beg- 
gar** Opera was first given there in English at the 
Th. Caumartin 22 December 1921 (the Hammer- 
smith version). 

A German adaptation by E. E. Buschmann, 
Die Strassenrauber, was published in 1770, and in 
a new version as Die Schleichhdndler in 1775. It 
was written Zum Behuf des Hamburgischen Thea- 
ters, but it does not seem to have been acted. 

In a modern German version by K. HeifFert 
The Beggar's Opera was first produced at Cologne 
University in 1930 and at Aachen 8 February 
1931. etc. (For another German adaptation by 
B. Brecht, with new music by Weill, see 1928.) 

Polly, the sequel to the Beggar's Opera, although 
written and ready to be performed in 1729, was 
not acted until 48 years later (see 1777). An imita- 
tion, Macheath Turnd Pirate or Polly in India, was 
however acted at London, Hm. 10 June 1737. 

handel: Siroe, Re di Persia* 

28 February. London, Hm. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Vinci, see 
1726), altered by N. F. Haym. Three acts. 

18 performances in first season but not revived 
in London. 

Also given at Brunswick August 1730 and 9 
February 1735. 

Revived Gera 25 December 1925 (in German, 
adapted by R. Meyer). 

handel: Tolomeo, Re diEgitto* 

11 May. London, Hm. 

Text by N. F. Haym, based on C. S. Capece's 

Tolotneo ed Alessandro, set by D. Scarlatti, Rome 

1711. Three acts. 



Revived in London 30 May 1730 and 13 January 
1733. Revived Gottingen I9june 1938 (in German, 
translatedbyE.Dahnk-Baronio);Wuppertali940. 

telemann: Miriways 

26 May. Hamburg 
Text by J. S. Miiller. Three acts. 

Repeated there in 1730 {not revived there 31 
May 1745, as claimed by E. H. Miiller, Angeto u. 
Pietro Mingotti, 1917, p.x, from a Hamburg play- 
bill, without year). 

1729 

The Gentle Shepherd 
p February. Edinburgh, Taylor's Hall 
Text by A. Ramsay (A Scots pastoral comedy). Five 
acts. 

The music consists of 21 ballad airs. 

First published in 1725 as a pastoral comedy 
(containing 4 songs only). Changed into a ballad 
opera in 1728 after The Beggar's Opera had been 
produced at Haddington. First performed in 1729 
probably by pupils of the Haddington Grammar 
School, where it was repeated 7 September 1729. 
First given in London, D.L., 1 May 1730 as Patie 
and Peggy, or The Fair Foundling, reduced to one 
act (with prologue and epilogue) and adapted by 
T. Cibber. His preface is dated 20 April (1 May) 
1730, and the newspapers show that the first pro- 
duction took place on that night (different dates 
are given by some authorities). 

The first professional production of the origi- 
nal was at Edinburgh, Canongate Th. 29 April 
1758. Frequently revived in Scotland both by 
amateurs and professionals. Dublin 1758. 

Given in a new English adaptation by R. 
Tickell, with additional music by Linley, London, 
D.L. 29 October 1781. 

There are other versions by C. Vanderstop 
(published 1777), W. Ward (1785), M. Turner 
(1790), A. Allan (1798), A. Maclaren (1811). The 
latest revival in London was at C.G. 27 June 1817 
(revised by G. Bethune, with Linley 's music and 
new additions by Bishop). 

Given at Montego Bay, Jamaica 20 March 
1784; New York 7 June 1786 (a libretto had been 



161 



162 



1729 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1729-30 



published already in 1750), and Philadelphia 4Feb- 
ruary 1791 (in TickelFs 1781 version) ; New York 
5 June 1795 (orchestrated by B. Carr). 

The Gentle Shepherd was revived at Glasgow 
13 November 1876 (at the Gaiety Th.) and once 
more Glasgow 3 September 1923 and Edinburgh 
10 September 1923 (adapted and arranged by W. 
Eaton, music selected and composed by W. 
Robins). 

hasse: Tigrane 

4 November. Naples, S.B. 
Text by F. Silvani (originally called La Virtu 
trionfante dell* Amore e dell* Odio and set to music 
by M. A. Ziani in 1691). Three acts. 

Between the acts, Hasse's first intermezzi, La 
Serva scaltra ovvero La Moglie a Forza, were 
produced. 

Revived at Naples, S.C. 4 November 1745 
(with additional music by A. Palella). 

Erroneously considered to be the first opera 
Hasse wrote in Italy, owing to a mistake by 
Florimo, who gave the date of production as 
1723. The cast he gives, however, is identical with 
that in the libretto of 1729, while quite different 
singers were engaged at Naples in 1723. 

telemann: Flavins Bertaridus 
Koenig der Longobarden 

23 November. Hamburg 
Text by the composer and C. G. Wendt 
(translated from an Italian libretto by S. Ghigi, 
set to music by Pollarolo in 1706). Three acts. 
Telemanns last extant opera. 

handel: Lotario* 

13 December. London, Hm. 
Text altered from A. Salvi's Adelaide (first set to 
music by P. Torri, Munich 1722 and then 
Orlandini for Venice earlier in 1729), not from 
M. Noris's Berengario as Burney says. Three acts. 

Three airs from this opera were used at the 
Hamburg 1732 production of CheMen slnnocenza 
giustificata (see 1711). 



carey: The Contrivances 

16 August London, D.L. 
Text by the composer. One act. 

Given 14 years previously (20 August 171 5) at 
the same theatre as The Contrivances; or, More 
Ways than One. Genest calls it "a very good ballad 
Farce" and it appears in G. Tufts 's chronological 
list of ballad operas (in The Musical Antiquary, 
January 1913) under 1715. But the first edition of 
the play shows that there was practically no 
music in it then. The 13 songs, etc., were added 
only in 1729, viz. one year after, not fourteen 
years before The Beggar's Opera. 

The Contrivances is no ballad opera, in the ac- 
cepted sense of the word, either, as it is expressly 
stated in the title of the score (published by the 
author in 1729) that both words and music were 
by Carey. It is called "A comi-farcial Opera" in 
a Dublin 173 1 edition and "Ballad Opera" in 
the 1743 edition of Carey's Dramatick Works. 
(Neither the 1715 nor the 1729 editions contain 
any description as to the genre of the piece.) 

Given at Dublin 173 1 and 26 February 1733; 
Philadelphia 20 April 1767 (libretto published 
already in 1762); New York 11 January 1768; 
Montego Bay, Jamaica 10 May 1777. 

Frequendy revived in London until 1750, and 
C.G. 25 March and D.L. 3 April 1761; C.G. 23 
April 1773; C.G. 6 May 1785. The latest revival 
seems to have been at Bath on 16 June 1819. 

1730 

vinci: Artaserse 

4 February. Rome, T. delle Dame 
Text by P. Metastasio. Three acts. 

The first setting of this famous libretto. Vinci's 
last opera (he died 28 May 1730). Given at Naples 
later in the same year and revived there 20 Jan- 
uary 1738 (libretto altered by L. S. Stampiglia, 
who added a prologue which was set to music by 
Leo) and 5 November 1743 ; Vienna 28 August 
1730; Leghorn Carnival 173 1; Ferrara Autumn 
173 1 ; Camerino Carnival 1733 ; London 16 Jan- 
uary 1734 (as Arbace); Florence Carnival 1740; 



163 



164 



1730 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



173 1 



Ferrara Carnival 1745 (music by Vinci and Hasse) ; 
Dresden 23 August 1746; Parma Carnival 1754. 

hasse: Artaserse 

February. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
Metastasio's text (see above). Three acts. 

Hasse set the libretto at the same time as 
Vinci. His setting was produced at the T.S. 
Giovanni Grisostomo as the last opera of the Car- 
nival season. The opera exists in several different 
versions (as Mennicke and Sonneck pointed out). 

The following productions are to be recorded: 
Genoa Spring 1730 (probably Hasse's setting); 
Lucca Autumn 1730; London 10 February 1734 
(music chiefly by Hasse and by R. Broschi) ; Graz 
Spring 1738 (German translation in the libretto 
by F.J. Pircker); Madrid 25 October 1738 (prob- 
ably Hasse's setting); Modena Carnival 1739; 
Ljubljana Carnival 1740; Dresden 9 September 
1740 (second version); Bolognai745; Brunswick 
February 175 1 (probably Hasse's setting) ; Liibeck 
6 November 1752; London 29 January 1754 (re- 
vived with alterations) ; Naples, S.C. 20 January 
1760 (third version) and Summer 1762; Warsaw 
3 August 1760 (libretto Bodleian Library, Ox- 
ford); Ferrara 26 December 1764; Lodi 1765; 
London 20 February 1766 (for the third time 
there; third version). 

For an analysis of the different versions see 
O.G.T. Sonneck in Sammelbdnde of the I.M.S., 
Vol. xiv (1912-13). 

handel: Partenope* 

7 March. London, Hm. 
Text by S. Stampiglia (first set to music by Manzo 
in 1699), then modified for Venice and set by 
Caldara, 1708. Three acts. 

Revived London, Hm. 23 December 1730, 
C.G. 9 February 1737. Also given at Brunswick 
February 1731 (in Italian; revived 12 September 
1731; February 1732; 1 October 1732; 1 August 
1733); Hamburg 28 October 1733 (in German, 
translated by C. G.Wendt; with recitatives by 
Keiser; the airs were sung in Italian; given there 
until 1736). 

Revived Gottingen July 1935 (new German 
version by E. Dahnk-Baroffto). 



1731 

caldara and reutter: 

La Pazienza di Socrate con 

due Moglie 

1 j January. Vienna 
Text by N. Minato {Scherzo dramatico f first set to 
music by Draghi, see 1680). Three acts. 

Caldara wrote the beginning of the first and 
the third act, Reutter the rest of the opera. 

handel: Poro, Re deW Indie* 

J j February. London, Hm. 
Text: an altered version of Metastasio's Alessandro 
nelV Indte (first set to music by Vinci in 1729). 
Three acts. 

Revived London, Hm. 4 December 173 1, 
C.G. 19 December 1736, including 4 arias not by 
Handel. Also given at Hamburg 25 February 1732 
(in German, translated by C. G. Wendt, as Triumph 
der Grossmuth und Treue, oder Cleofida, Koenigin 
von Indien ; recitatives by Telemann ; the airs were 
sung in Italian; given there until 1736); Bruns- 
wick August 1732 (in Italian, widi a prologue, 
Apollo festeggiante). 

Revived Brunswick 21 April 1928 (new Ger- 
man version by H. Dutschke) and, by the Bruns- 
wick company, also given at Copenhagen. 

porta: Parnate 

Spring. Bologna, T. Malvezzi 
Text by A. M. Lucchini (first set to music by Vinci 
in 1724). Three acts. 

Porta's setting was revived at Munich Car- , 
nival 1740 (where he had become court con- 
ductor in 1738). 

The Devil to Pay; or The Wives 
Metamorphos'd 

1 7 August. London, D.L. 
Text by C. Coffey (in collaboration with J. 
Mottley, founded on a farce, The Devil of a Wife, 
or A Comical Transformation, 1686, attributed to 
T. Jevon, but perhaps written by T. Shadwell; 
see A. E. Richards in Publications of the Modem 



165 



166 



173 1 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



I73I-32 



Language Association of America, Vol. xxi, 1906, 
pp.808-830). Ballad opera, originally in 3 acts, 
reduced to one act by T. Cibber in 1732. 1 The 
music consists of 16 songs, of which one is marked 
as having been composed by Seedo. 

Very successful on English stages. Given at 
Dublin 6 March 1732; Edinburgh 18 January 
1734; Charleston, S.C. 16 March 1736; New 
York 8 January 175 1; Annapolis, Md. 31 July 
1752; Glasgow 1761; Philadelphia 19 December 
1766; Kingston, Jamaica 30 October 1779; Cape 
Town 1802. Frequently revived; the latest revival 
in London was at C.G. 9 May 1828. 

Given in German (translated by C. W. von 
Borcke) by Schonemann's troupe, probably with 
the English original music, at Berlin 24 January 
1743 ; Hamburg 29 June 1747; Leipzig 26 January 
1750. (Borcke was Prussian Ambassador to 
London and the firsjt German translator of Shake- 
speare's Julius CaesaK Of his translation of The 
Devil To Pay only some fragments are extant.) 

A French translation by C. P. Patu was pub- 
lished in 1756. 

A sequel, called The Merry Cooler, also by 
Coffey, was produced at D.L., London 17 May 
1735 (unsuccessful). 

The Devil To Pay plays an important part in 
the history of comic opera. The German Sing- 
spiel movement originates from it and there were 
also successful French and Italian imitations. See 
the settings by Standfuss 1752 and 1759; Philidor 
1756; Hiller 1766; Portugal 1797; Paer 1800; 
Solie* 1809. The latest version probably was 
Balfe's The Devil's In It, see 1852. 



hasse: Cleofide 

13 November, Dresden 
Metastasio's text (Alessandro nell 9 Indie, see above), 
altered by M. A. Boccardi. Three acts. 

Also given (mostly as Alessandro nelV Indie) at 
Milan Carnival 1732 ; Munich 173 5 ; Venice Car- 
nival 1736; revived Carnival 1738 and Carnival 
1743; Graz Carnival 1738; Verona Carnival 

1 First produced in one act at Goodman's Fields The- 
atre, London 19 December 1731. 



1740; Pressburg Summer 1741; Vienna, Ka\ 8 
December 1746; Lucca Autumn 1759; Berlin 
January 1777. 

caldara: II Demetrio 

4 November. Vienna 
Text by P. Metastasio (written for Caldara). 
Three acts. 

In Italian also given at Brunswick February 
1734 (as II Demetrio Re della Sina) ; Bologna Car- 
nival 1742 (Caldara's setting?). 



1732 

broschi: Merope 

Carnival Turin, T.R. 
Zeno's text (first set to music by Gasparini in 
1 71 2). Three acts. 

The most successful opera of Broschi (the 
brother of the famous singer Farinelli). 

Also given at Lucca Autumn 1733, etc.; 
London 19 January 1737; Jaromeriz, Moravia 
Autumn 1737. 

hasse: Cajo Fahricio 

12 January. Rome, Capr. 
Zeno's text (first set to music by Caldara in 173 1). 
Three acts. 

Given, with the usual alterations, at Naples, 
S.B. Winter 1733 (with intermezzi La Conta- 
dina); Dresden 8 July 1734; Jaromeriz, Moravia 
Autumn 1734 (as Pirro); Venice Carnival 1735; 
Salzburg 1737; Leghorn Carnival 1740; Lucca 
Carnival 1740; Bologna 1743 (probably Hasse's 
setting); Graz Carnival 1743 (probably Hasse 's 
setting); Frankfort 7 April 1755; Berlin Septem- 
ber 1766. 

Hasse's setting, with recitatives by Handel, 
probably also London 15 December 1733. 

hasse: II Demetrio 

January. Venice, S.G.Gr. 
The second setting of Metastasio's text (see 173 1). 
Three acts. 



167 



168 



1732 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1732 



Given in an altered version as Cleonke, Vienna 
February 1734 and Venice, S. Angclo Carnival 
1740; as Demetrto repeated at Venice, S. Cass. 
Carnival 1737 and S.G.Gr. Carnival 1747. 

Also given at Parma 1736; Madrid 16 February 
1738 (at the inauguration of the first Italian opera- 
house in Spain, the Teatro de los Carlos del Pe- 
ral); Reggio Summer 1739; Dresden 8 February 
1740 (altered); Lucca Carnival 1741; Hamburg 
4 November 1744 (pasticcio, the greater part of 
the music by Scalabrini); Gorizia Carnival 1745; 
Fcrrara Carnival 1746; Turin Carnival 1748; 
Frankfort 7 April 1755 (probably Hasse's setting). 

There was a revival at Mantua as late as in 
Carnival 1770 (Mozart attended the performance 
of 10 January, on his first Italian journey). 

HANDEL: EztO* 
26 January. London, Hm. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Auletta in 
1729). Three acts. 

The libretto mentions neither Handel nor Me- 
tastasio; it does mention Mr. Humphreys, who 
provided the printed translation. Unsuccessful 
(given for 5 nights only). 

Revived (in a German version by F. Nothold) 
at Gottingen 30 June 1926; Miinster 2 December 
1926 (first festival of the German Handel Society) ; 
Berlin, D.O. 31 January 1928. 

F. conti: L'Issipile 

February. Vienna 
Text by P. Metastasio (written for Conti). Three 
acts. 

Conti's last opera. In Italian also given atBruns- 
wick February 1733 and August 1736 (probably 
Conn's setting); Jaromcriz, Moravia 4 October 

1733. 

In German (translated by C. G. Wcndt, as Sieg 
der kindlichen Liebe oder Issipile) Hamburg 20 Feb- 
ruary 1737 (airs sung in Italian). 

handel: Sosarme Re di Media* 

26 February. London, Hm. 
Text: P. A. Rolli (?) of A. Salvi's Dionisio, Re di 
Portogallo, set by G. A. Perti for Villa Medici, 
Pratolino, 1707. Three acts. Revived London 8 
May 1734. 



MONTECLAIR:Je;?/ite' 
28 February. Paris, O. 
Text by S. J. de Pellegrin (. . . tiree de VEcriture 
Sainte). Prologue and 5 acts. 

Montcclair's chief work. The first opera on a 
biblical subject produced at the Paris Academic 
Royale de Musique; it was temporarily banned 
by the Archbishop of Paris. Successful and fre- 
quently revived until 1740 and again 3 March 
1744 and 6 February 1761. Marseilles 1735; Ver- 
sailles 9 September 1750 (in concert form). 

Jcphte contains, as a concession, the usual bal- 
lets, and a prologue with characters from Greek 
mythology. (See for details J. Carlez, Un Opira 
biblique au xvm e Steele, 1879.) Les Amusements a la 
Mode, by F. Riccoboni and J. A. Romagnesi, C.I. 
21 April 1732, includes a parody on Jephthe. 

Date of first performance according to the 
printed score; the original libretto has 4 March. 
The Mercure de France, exceptionally, does not 
give the date. 

handel: Acis and Galatea* 

28 May. London, Little Hm. 
Text by J. Gay {An English Pastoral Opera). Three 
acts. 

Originally written as a masque, probably in 
1719, and performed so, at Cannons, probably in 
1721. 1 Lincoln's Inn Fields Th. 6 April 1731. 
Produced in its entirety at the Little Hm. Th. on 
the above date (unauthorized) and a few weeks 
later (21 June 1732) by Handel himself at the Hm. 

Given at Dublin 1 May 1734, and subsequently 
in many different theatres. 1735 (at Aungier 
Street Th.) and 3 1 January 1742 (in concert form, 
at Fishamble Street Th., conducted by the com- 
poser); Dublin again 17 December 1742. The 
original seems to have been given in Swedish at 
Stockholm as early as 19 January 1734, in concert 
form; at Stockholm also 10 May 1773 (in Swedish, 
translated by L. S. Lalin, with additions by H. F. 
Johnsen and others) ; a Swedish parody by C. I. 
Hallman, music by C. Stenborg, called Casper 
och Dorothea, was produced at Stockholm 3 1 Au- 
gust 1775 and Gothenburg 9 February 1776. 

1 In 1718 a letter from Cannons says "Handel is com- 
posing a little opera". 



169 



170 



1732 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1733 



Frequently revived in London, viz. Little Hm. 
2 April 1753 (in English, for Sra. Frasi's benefit); 
Ranclagh House 9 June 1757; Marylcbonc Gdns. 
27 May 1773; Queen's, Tottenham Street 3 Feb- 
ruary 1 83 1 (additional accompaniments by Cip- 
riani Poctcr);O.L.20junc 1838; D.L. 5 February 
1842 (with a prologue by T. S. Cooke); Crystal 
Palace 21 October 1865 (in concert form); Prin- 
cess's 2 August 1899; Great Queen Street Th. 10 
March 1902 (produced by Gordon Craig, with 
Mozart's accompaniments 1 ); Bishopsgatc Inst. 
2 December 1926 (in concert form). 

Outside London revived at Durham 17 Oc- 
tober 1792; New York 14 February 1839 (in 
concert form), and 21 November 1842 (on the 
stage); Edinburgh 1 May 1840; Dublin 6 June 
1853; Carlsruhc 8 March 1888 (in German, 
translated and arranged by F. Mottl); Cologne 
25 October 1898 (in a concert version by F. 
Chrysander); Munich May 1903 (by the Or- 
chesterverein); Munich 7 June 1922 (stage produc- 
tion) ; Copenhagen 13 December 1935 (in Danish, 
translated by M. Dam); Florence, C, 14 May 
1940, Falmouth 23 June 1941. 

A Spanish translation by R. Benedito was 
published in 1935. 

pergolesi:Lo Frate 'nnamorato** 

23 September. Naples, Fior. 
Text by G. A. Federico {Commeddcja pe mmusica), 
written in Neapolitan dialect. Three acts. 

Repeated, with alterations, at the same theatre 
Carnival 1734 and revived T.N. Winter 1748. 

pescetti: Demetrio 

26 December. Florence, P. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara, see 
1731). Three acts. 

Revived London 23 February 173 7 as the first 
and most successful of several operas Pescetti 
produced in London, where he was composer to 
the King's Th. from 1737 to 1740. Galuppi 
became his successor (see 1741)- 

1 Originally written for private performances at 
Vienna in November and December 1788. 

2 Sometimes known as It Fratello Innamorato. 



1733 

cI'almeida: La Pazicnza di Socrate 

Carnival. Lisbon 
Minato's text {first set to music by Draghi, see 
1680, and again by Caldara and Reutter, see 173 1). 
Three acts. 

The first (Italian) opera by a Portuguese com- 
poser which is partly extant (the third act only). 
Libretto printed. Produced at the Paco da Ribcira. 

caldara: Sancio Panza, Govematore 
deW Isola Barattaria 

2 j January. Vienna, B. 
Text by G. C. Pasquini (comedia per musica), after 
Cervantes). Three acts. 

(Thus the island of Barattaria occurs in the title 
of an opera 156 years before Sullivan's Gondoliers, 
sec 1889.) 

handel: Orlando* 

7 February. London, Hm. 
Text based on C. S. Capechi's Orlando. Set by 
D. Scarlatti, Rome 171 1. Three acts. 

Revived as Orlandos Liebeswahn (German ver- 
sion by H. J. Moser), Halle 28 May 1922 and 
Krefeld 1934. 

t. A. arne: Rosamond 

18 March. London, Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Addison's text (first set to music by Clayton, see 
1707). Three acts. 

Arne's first opera. Of the music only six songs 
and one duet have been preserved. Successful on 
English stages. 

Revived in London, D.L. 19 March 1740, 11 
February 1745 and 22 April 1765; at C.G.26 April 
1754. Given at Dublin 18 May 1743 (reduced to 
2 acts) and revived there 31 December 1755. 

hasse: Siroe Re di Persia 

2 May. Bologna, T. Malvezzi 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Vinci, see 
1726). Three acts. 



171 



172 



1733 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



m3 



Given at Florence 1736; London 4 December 
1736 (see Burney, iv, p.400); Padua June 1737; 
Madrid [24 March] 1739; Parma Carnival 1742; 
Rimini 1743; Naples, S.C. 5 November 1747; 
Lucca Autumn 1748. In a revised version: War- 
saw Carnival 1763 ; Vienna 1763 ; Dresden 3 Au- 
gust 1763; Siena 1765. 

PERGOLESi:Ld Serva Padrona* 

28 August. Naples, S.B. 

Text by G. A. Federico. (The text has often 
wrongly been attributed to J. A. Nelli, whose 
3-act comedy of the same title, published 173 1, 
has nothing to do with the libretto.) Two parts. 
Intermezzi, first performed between the acts of 
Pergolesi's serious opera, ll Prigionier supcrbo (lib- 
rettist unknown). The original text as contained 
in the libretto of ll Prigionier supcrbo has been 
reprinted by B. Croce in the second edition of 
his I Teatri di Napoli, 1916. 

Pergolesi's most famous work. It soon (not so 
very soon though) became known in Italy 
(Rome, T. Valle February 1738; Parma 1738; 
San Giovanni in Persiceto, September 1739 and 
Bologna later in the same year; Lucca 1740; 
Venice 1740, 1741, 1742, 1745; Florence 1742; 
Padua Spring 1747; Rcggio Carnival 1748, etc.) 
and made its way across the Alps, with travelling 
companies, within six years. In Italian given at: 
graz Easter 1739 (the German translation in the 

printed libretto by J. L. von Ghclen). 
Dresden 8 February 1740 (as intermezzi in Hassc's 

Demetrio). 
gorizia Carnival 1742. 
Hamburg 31 October 1743; revived 1744; 1745; 

1746. 

PRAGUE I744. 

paris, c.i. 4 October 1746 (with an overture by 

Paganelli). 
Vienna, ka. 15 October 1746 (as intermezzi in 

Wagcnscil's La Clcmenza di Tito). 
augsburg 1746. 
potsdam 15 March 1748. 
Leipzig 21 May 1748. 



Copenhagen 1749, November 1752; 11 Decem- 
ber 1754; 14 November 1755; 24 November 
1756; 7 December 1757. 

London, hm. 7 April 1750 (as intermezzi in 
Ciampi's Adriano in Siria). 

Barcelona Summer 1750. 

Nuremberg 19 July 1751. 

BERLIN 1752. 

schwetzingen Summer 1752. 

paris, O. 1 August 1752 (with ah overture by 

Telemann, on the same bill with Lully's Ads 

et Galatee). 
Liibeck 15 May 1753 ; Brunswick 30 April 1753 ; 
Frankfort 24 May 1753 ; Danzig July 1753 ; Han- 
over 3 September 1753; Liege Autumn 1754; 
Dijon 8 February 1756; Mayence 1758; Bamberg 
1760; Edinburgh 21 June 1763; York October 
1763; Dublin 28 April 1764; Maestricht 17 De- 
cember 1764; Gotha 30 January 1767; Krems- 
munster 1774; Riga 1777, etc. 

First given at paris, in Italian, in 1746 and 1752, 
as indicated above. The 1752 production at the 
Opera caused the famous Querelle des Bouffons, 
the struggle between the defenders of French tra- 
gedie-lyrique and the adherents of Italian opera 
buffa, fought out in some 60 pamphlets published 
between 1752 and 1754 (cf. note on Omphale, 
1700). A complete list of those pamphlets 
(Grimm, Holbach, Rousseau, Diderot are 
amongst the authors) will be found in L. Reichen- 
burg's Contribution a Fhistoire dc la Querelle des 
Bouffons (Philadelphia 1937). 

A French prose translation of La Serva Padrona 
is printed opposite the Italian text in the Paris 
libretti of 1746 and 1752, entitled La Soubrctte 
Mattresse. 

The first translation of La Serva Padrona 
intended for performance was the French version 
by P. Baurans ("que Ton m'a assure etre gouver- 
ncur des enfants de Mr. Delaporte, intendant de 
Grenoble", according to his contemporary, T. S. 
Gueullette), called La Servante Maitressc, and first 
produced at Paris, C.I. 14 August 1754 (given 
there f.150 times within one year). Also given 
at Versailles 4 December 1754; Brussels 12 July 
1755; Aachen 3 o August 1757; Vienna and Hague 



173 



174 



1733 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1733 



1758; Frankfort 19 April 1760; Amsterdam 1760; 
Dresden 1764; Smolna (Russia) c.November 
1773 ; Berlin 22 April 1776; St. Petersburg 21 De- 
cember 1776 (by amateurs; probably in French) ; 
Munich 17 March 1783; Gothenburg 22 April 
1783; Stockholm May 1783; Cassel 14 April 
1784; Baltimore 12 June 1790 (first opera in 
America that was sung in French); New York 
9 December 1790; Cologne 1795/6; Charleston, 
S.C. 15 May 1797; Philadelphia 25 May 1798; 
Kingston, Jamaica 20 December 1800. 

First given in london, in Italian, in 1750, as 
indicated above. The performance was on 27 
March (7 April, n.s.) and not on 27 April (o.s.) 
as some books of reference have it. In Italian, 
revived at the Hm. 24 March 1763 and 23 April 
1776. First given in English at Marylebone Gar- 
dens, London 8 June 1758, as The Servant Mistress, 
adapted by S. Storace the Elder and J. Trusler. 
Transported to the Little Hm. 29 March 1759, 
advertised as "with addition of a new act and a 
new character as originally performed at Naples*'. 
Frequently revived during the following years. 
It was a special favourite with summer audiences 
at Marylebone Gardens; given there on 16 June 
1770 with additional songs by S. Arnold, as 
counterpoise to a rival production at Ranelagh 
House, where a version by Dibdin was performed 
on 28 May 1770 (The Maid the Mistress, text by 
I. BickerstafFe, music by Dibdin; transported to 
D.L. 12 April 1771 under the new title of He 
woud if he coud; or, An old Fool worse than any); 
revived Royalty Th. 28 January 1788. 

An English version by D. E. Baker is printed 
in the libretto of the Italian production of La Serv a 
Padrona at Edinburgh, 1763. The last English 18th- 
century adaptation, by J. O'Keeffe, was produced 
at C.G. 14 February 1783 (with Arnold's addi- 
tions). 

There is much uncertainty and confusion about 
the early German versions of La Serva Padrona. 

According to J. H. F. Miiller (Genaue Nach- 
richten, . . . 1772) there was given at Vienna, Ka. 
6 January 1770, La serva padrona, nachgeahmt von 
Kurz (i.e. J. J. F. von Kurz, called Bernardon). 
The music of this version has been attributed to 



the composer L Gspan 1 . But a Nuremberg play- 
bill of 5 February 1778 (quoted by G. Dieke, Kin- 
dertheater, 1934) says: "La serva padrona, Die Die- 
nerin eine Frau, ubersetzt von Ignatius Gspan". 
Perhaps Kurz had Pergolesi's opera in his re- 
pertory, translated by himself and adapted to the 
German words by Gspan (who may have added 
some music of his own). But it is not quite clear 
whether Kurz's version originally had any music 
at all, or was "imitated as a comedy". 

Next we find Lachet wer lachen kann oder die 
Dienerin eine Frau, translated by one Pauli, pro- 
duced at Munich 26 February 1783 (recorded by 
P. Legband). As a matter of fact, Piccinni (who 
did not write an opera of such title) is mentioned 
as the composer; but that might easily be a slip, 
as often occurs in 18th-century bills. What was 
probably another German version of Pergolesi's 
opera was printed (and probably performed) at 
Schleswig in 1785 under the tide Wie siepfeifi, so 
muss er tanzen; see Bibliotheca Danica, Vol. iv 
(1902), col.420, entered under the "author's" 
name ofPadiona, Serva [sic]; the same misunder- 
standing occurs in the Index Vol. (1913), p.195. 
So far these German versions have not been 
mentioned in the Pergolesi bibliography. H. M. 
Schletterer stated (Waldersee's Sammlung Musi- 
kalischer Vortrdge, 1880) that La Serva Padrona was 
first produced in German at Bremen in 1803. But 
the Bremen historian, J. H. Behncken, had re- 
corded that performance as early as 1856, clearly 
stating that it was Paisiello's opera of the same 
tide. Schletterer's blunder, unfortunately, has 
been taken over by every later writer on Pergo- 
lesi, down to the latest edition of Radiciotti's 
standard biography (1935). Undoubtedly a Ger- 
man version of La Serva Padrona was Zofenherr- 
schaft, translated by C. A. Herklots, produced 
Berlin 19 March 18 10 (with an overture by P. C. 
Guglielmi) and Darmstadt 19 September 1810 
(as Die gebietrische Magd). 

An anonymous Dutch version, De Kamenier 
van Fortuin (translated from the French) was 
published in 1772 and performed at Amsterdam 

1 He joined Beruardon's troupe as musical director 
1 October 1770. 



175 



176 



1733 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1733 



1773; another one, by B. RulofFs, Pandotfus en 
Zerbina ofDe Meid Meesteres, in 1793. 

An anonymous Polish version (translated from 
the French) was produced at Warsaw in 1780 
(first recorded performance 11 March 1781). The 
Italian original was given there on 28 May 1781, 
Kurz's German version already in 1774. 

A Swedish version, by C. Envallsson (also 
translated from the French), was produced at 
Stockholm 3 October 1781 and Gothenburg 5 
August 1783. 

According to N. Findeizen, Pergolesi's opera 
was produced in Russian at Moscow in 1789; 
according to O. Chayanova's monograph on the 
Moscow Maddoks Theatre this again was Pai- 
siello's Serua Padrona (translated by Prince A. I. 
Golintsin). Pergolesi's opera, in Italian, had been 
given at Moscow on 26 June 1782. 

La Scrva Padrona is one of the oldest operas still 
in the reportery. After a short period of oblivion 
in the first half of the 19th century it has been 
frequently revived in many countries ever since. 
It was the first opera to be televised in its entirety 
by the B.B.C., on 23 December 1937. 

baden baden ii August 1862 (in French). 

paws, o.c. 13 August 1862 (in French, music re- 
vised by F. A. Gevaert) ; revived there 22 Feb- 
ruary 1900 ; 1 3 October 1910 ; Tr. L. 20 Novem- 
ber 1920 ; O.C. 2 April 1929 ; 23 December 1937. 

Brussels, m. 19 December 1862 (in French); 
revived Th. Moliere 16 November 1905; M. 
4 November 1921. 

Florence 20 June 1870 (in Italian); revived 24 
March 1893 and 25 April 1911. 

Naples 14 May 1 871 (in Italian); by the Societa 
Filarmonica. 

London, royalty 7 March 1 873 (in French); 
Lyric, H'smith 29 January 1919 (in English, 
translated by G. Crawford); Mercury 15 June 
1939 (in English, translated by G. Dunn). 

Hamburg 25 April 1880 (in German, translated 
byH.M. Schletterer). 

Leipzig 1 July 1880 (in German) ; revived 8 Octo- 
ber 1893. 

Stockholm 13 September 1881 (in Swedish, 
translated by E. A. Wallmark, already pub- 
lished 1864) ; revived 14 October 1939. 



weimar 15 January 1 888 (in German). 

milan 27 November 1892 (in Italian). 

carlsruhe 3 November 1893 (in German). 

hanover 19 April 1894 (in German). 

RIGA 1894 (in German). 

stuttgart 3 May 1898 (in German). 

Copenhagen I September 1900 (in Danish, trans- 
lated by J. Dam). 

Munich 28 December 1901 (in German) ; revised 
by F. Wullner. 

Venice April 1907 (in Italian) ; revised by E. Wolf- 
Ferrari. 

Vienna 29 May 1909 (in German) ; revised by R. 
Kleinmichel; revived 27 March 1927 and 14 
May 1930. 

lauchstedt 29 May 1910 (in German) ; revised 
by H. Abert. 

jesi 2 October 1910 (in Italian), at the Pergolesi 
bicentenary festival. 

Rio de Janeiro 5 August 1912 (in Italian). 

basle 7 May 1914 (in German, Abert's version). 

new york, Lyceum 7 May 1917 (in English, 
translated by S. Rosenfeld); Juilliard School 
18 February 1932 (in English); M. 23 February 
1935 (in Italian); Little Th. n January 1938 
(in English, translated by G. Dunn). 

Barcelona 8 November 1922 (in Spanish), by 
the Asociaci6n de Musica de Camera. 

buenos aires 1924 (in Spanish). 

Budapest 26 May 1926 (in Hungarian, translated 
by V. Linyi). 

falmouth 13 December 1927 (in English, trans- 
lated by M. and E. Radford). 

Berlin, d.o. 23 March 1929 (in German). 

Zagreb 15 December 1930 (in Croatian). 

turin 20 November 193 1 (in ItaHan); San Remo 
5 March 1933, etc. 

Leningrad Spring 1933 (in Russian, translated 
by M. A. Kuzmin). 

Malta 6* January 1934 (in Italian). 

tel avtv 8 May 1934 (in Hebrew, translated by 
M. Freidmann). 

Lisbon Spring 1937 (in Portuguese, translated by 
M. Oliveira). 

hagub Spring 1938 (in Dutch). 

(For Paisiello's opera of the same title, see 1781) 



177 



178 



1733-34 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1734 



rameau: Hippolyte et Aricie* 

1 October. Paris, O. 

Text by S. J. de Pellegrin. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Rameau's first opera (an earlier Samson, text by 

Voltaire, was never performed; text published 

1745). 

Given at Lyons 1735 and again February 1743- 

Revived at the Opera 11 September 1742 (with 
alterations); 25 February 1757; 4 October 1758; 
and 24 March 1767 (with additions by P. M. 
Berton, Boyer and Gavinies). 

The first production and some of the revivals 
were followed by parodies, viz. Le Badinage, by 
L. de Boissy, C.Fr. 23 November 1733, and, at 
the C.I., Hippolyte et Aricie, by J. A. Romagnesi 
and F. Riccoboni, 30 November 1733, and Hipo- 
lyte et Aricie, by C. S. Favart and Parmentier, 
music by Blaise, 11 October 1742 (revived 16 
March 1757). 

Modern revivals : Geneva 28 March 1903 (under 
Jaques-Dalcroze) ; Paris, O. 13 May 1908 (music 
revised by V. d'Indy); Basle 20 May 193 1 (in 
German, translated by L. Jansen). 

1734 

vivaldi: L'Olimpiade* 

Carnival Venice, S. Angelo 
The second setting of Metastases text (first set to 
music by Caldara in 1733). Three acts. 

One of the many operas of Vivaldi, the scores 
of which were recovered by A. Gentili in the Foa 
Collection, Turin, in 1927. 

L'Olimpiade was, after 205 years, revived at the 
Vivaldi Festival, Siena 19 September 1939 (music 
arranged by V. Mortari). 

araja: La Forza dell'Amore e 
delVOdio 

Carnival Milan, T.R.D. 
Anonymous text by C. F. P. Three acts. 

Given at St. Petersburg 9 February 1736 as the 
first Italian opera seria there (precisely 100 years 
before Glinka's Life for the Czar). Score preserved 
at Vienna; dated 1739. 

It has been stated that Araja wrote this opera 



expressly for the Russian court theatre. But the 
fact that he brought it with him from Milan is 
proved by the 1734 libretto, which is extant 
(Paris, Bibliotheque de l'Opera). The opera is 
mentioned in some books of reference under the 
title of Abiazare (which is the female chief char- 
acter in La Forza delVAmore e deWOdio). 

The Russian translation, by V. K. Tredya- 
kovsky, as printed in the St. Petersburg libretto, 
is entitled Sila Lyubi i Nenavisti. The first opera 
Araja composed expressly for St. Petersburg was 
Metastasio's Semiramide riconosciuta, produced 
there (as Ilfinto Nino overo Semiramide riconosciuta) 
one year after La Forza, viz. 9 February 1737. 
J. von Stahlin published German translations of 
both La Forza and Semiramide in 1736. 

Araja was the first of the great number of 
famous Italian composers at the Russian court in 
the 1 8th century; his successors include Man- 
fredini (1759-66); Galuppi (1765-68); Traetta 
(1768-76); Paisiello (1776-83); Sarti (1784-86 
and again 1792-96); Cimarosa (1787-91); Martin 
y Soler (1788-94) and Cavos (1797-98, when 
Italian opera was prohibited by Paul 1). 

handel: Arianna in Creta* 

6 February. London, Hm. 
Text attributed to F. Colman, but seems rather 
to be a thorough revision, or rc-writing, by Col- 
man or another, of Pariati's Arianna e Teseo (Rome 
1729). Three acts. Revived London, C.G., 8 
December 1734 with ballet. 

An Arianna in Creta given at Brunswick in Au- 
gust 1737 and February 1738 may have been 
Handel's opera. 

On F. Colman, the father of George Colman 
the Elder, see the latter's biography by E. R. Page 
( I0 35)» pp-i-8. To Francis Colman is attributed 
the handwritten Opera Register in the British 
Museum which closes after the entry of Ariadne, 
for which he is said to have written the text. As 
Colman died at Pisa, 20 April 1733, he did not 
live to see the production of the opera, nor can he 
have written the last section of the Opera Register 
(if he wrote it at all). The unknown author who 
wrote, or at least finished, the manuscript enters 



179 



180 



1734 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1734 



Ariadne in Crete under a wrong date (confounding 
it with the rival opera at Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
Porpora's Ariadne in Naxus) : Janry pmo Ariadne 
in Crete a new Opera & very good & performed 
very often — Sigr Carcstino sung surprisingly well: 
a new Eunuch — many times perform 'd. 

The libretto of Ariadne in Crete is attributed to 
Francis Colman by all writers on Handel since 
Chrysandcr. The earliest authority for this attrib- 
ution seems to be Richard Brinslcy Pcakc (Me- 
moirs of the Colman Family, 1841, Vol. 1, p.14) and 
his evidence docs not seem too convincing as he 
mixes up Handel's and Porpora's Ariadne operas. 
The characters in Handel's opera arc exactly the 
same as in Pictro Pariati's libretto Arianna e Tesco 
(first Vienna 17T4; later Florence 1729, where 
Colman may have got hold of the text and may 
have sent it to Handel). The texts of some of the 
arias arc identical. 

keiser: Circe 

1 March, Hamburg 
Text by J. P. Praetorius (translation from a lib- 
retto written in Dutch and French by J. J. Mau- 
ricius, Dutch minister at Hamburg). Five acts. 

Keiser's last opera; contains 21 German and 23 
Italian airs, the latter partly by Vinci, Handel, and 
Hassc. 

PERGOLESi:La Contadina astuta* 

2$ October. Naples, S.B. 
Text by T. Mariani. Two intermezzi, sung be- 
tween the acts of Pergolcsi's Adriano in Siria (Me- 
tastases text). 

The serious opera was unsuccessful; but the 
intermezzi enjoyed a long vogue after the com- 
poser's death, under many different titles and with 
the usual alterations and additions, according to 
the requirements and abilities of the different 
buffo troupes. The following productions arc »-o 
be recorded : 
ROME 1737 (asLivietta e Tracollo) and [2 February] 

1748 (as Lafinta Polacca). 
milan, t.r.d. 1739 (as il Ladro finto Pazzo). 
Venice, s.sam. Spring, 1741 (as II finto Pazzo, airs 

by other composers added, libretto altered by 



Goldoni); S. Moisc, Autumn 1744 (as // Tra- 
collo)', S. Moisc, Carnival 1746 (as Livietta). 

bologna 1746 (as // Tracollo). 

Dresden 5 August 1747 (as II finto Pazzo). 

Prague 1747/48 (as II finto Pazzo). 

Madrid January 1748 (as La Contadina astuta). 

Vienna 1748 (as II Tracollo) and 6 January 1759 
(as II finto Pazzo). 

Leipzig 15 May 1748 (as J] finto Pazzo). 

potsdam 1748 (as II finto Pazzo). 

hamburc 29 January 1749 (as // finto Pazzo). 

Brunswick 1749 (as // finto Pazzo). 

Copenhagen 1749 (as 7/ Tracollo) and 16 February 
1757 (same title). 

Venice, s.cass. Carnival 1750 (as 1 1 Ladro conver- 
ting per Atnore). 

ST. PETERSBURG, PETERHOF 2 AllgUSt I75O (as 

Tracollo). 
paris, o. 1 May 1753 (as Tracollo, Medico iguo- 

rante). 
Barcelona [27 January] 1754 (as Tracollo). 
schwetzingen Summer 1754 (as Tracollo). 
Edinburgh ii July 1763 (as Tracollo). 
YORK October 1763 (as The amorous Robber, by 

Italian singers). 

One wonders whether an English burlctta, La 
Strattagemma [sic] or The Stratagem, produced in 
London, Marylcbone Gardens 26 July 1759, was 
not a version of La Contadina astuta. Unfortu- 
nately, not more than the title and the attribution 
to Pcrgolcsi appear from the advertisement, and 
no libretto seems to have been printed. Two 
years later, the same title recurs for a "tragicomic 
burlctta," produced at the Little Haymarket Th. 
23 June 1761; but this time, however, the music 
of The Stratagem is attributed to Hasse. 

A French parody on Pergolcsi's intermezzi (as 
produced at the Paris Opera in 1753), Tracollo 
Charlatan, was given at the C.I., Paris, 17 No- 
vember 1756 (text by J. Lacombe, music by Sodi). 

La Contadina astuta was revived in the original 
Italian at Treviso 24 April 1917; Trieste 11 June 
1925; Rome, T. Quirinetta 20 April 1927, etc. 
In an English version by M. and E. Radford at 
the Duke's Th., London 16 March 1933 (by the 
R.A.M.). 



181 



182 



1735 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1735 



1735 



pergolesi: Olimpiade* 

8 January, Rome, T. Tordinona 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

The best of Pergolesi's serious operas. Unsuc- 
cessful in Rome; also given at Venice November 
1738; Munich 1738; Siena Summer 1741; Lon- 
don 1 May 1742 (as Meraspe overo V Olimpiade), 
text altered by P. A. Rolli; more or less a pastic- 
cio, no composer's name mentioned in the 
libretto. 

"Our fifth Opera was the Olimpiade, in which 
they retain'd most of Pergolesi' s Songs & yet 'tis 
gone already, as if it had been a poor thing of 
Galuppi's. Two nights did I enjoy it all alone, 
snugg in a Nook in the Gallery, but found no one 
in those regions had ever heard of Pergolesi, nay, 
I heard several affirm it was a Composition of 
Pescetti's: now there is a 6th sprung up by the 
name of Cefalo & Procri." (Thomas Gray's letter 
to John Chute, 24 May, 1742). 

Olimpiade was revived at the T. della Fortuna, 
Fano, in March 1937 (under R. Falk). 

(Date of first production, 8 [or 9] January, ac- 
cording to A. Cametti, not 31 January as usually 
given). 

Gi A c o melli : Cesare in Egitto 

January. Milan, T,R.D. 
Text by G. F. Bussani (first set to music by Sar- 
torio in 1677). Three acts. 

Also given at Venice in Autumn of the same 
year, and Naples, S.B. May 1736. 

ThebestofGiacomelli's c.13 operas produced 
between 1724 and 1 73 9. 

handel: Ariodanie* 

lgjanuary. London,C.G. 
Text by A. Salvi (originally called Ginevra Prin- 
cipessa di Scozia and first set to music by Perti in 
1708), from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. Three acts. 

Revived C.G. 16 May 1736 with ballet. 

Revived Stuttgart 28 September 1926 (German 
version by A. Rudolph). 



leo: Demofoonte 

20 January. Naples, S.B. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
I733)' Three acts. 

The most successful of Leo's serious operas. 
Revived Naples, S.C. 19 December 1741. 

handel: Alcina* 

27 April London, C.G. 

Text based on A. Fanzaglia's L'Isola della Alcina, 

set by R. Broschi for Rome, 1728, from Ariosto's 

Orldndo Furioso. Three acts. 

Given in London 24 times until 1737. In Italian 
also Brunswick February 1738 (some airs sung 
in German) and August 1738 (wholly in Italian). 

Revived Leipzig 14 June 1928 (German version 
by H. Roth). 

Alcina was the first of Handel's operas published 
in the German Handel Gesamtausgabe (1869). 

duni: Nerone 

21 May. Rome, T. Tordinona 
Text by F. Silvani, with alterations. Three acts. 
Of the music only some airs are extant. Duni's 
first opera, chiefly remembered for the fact that 
the Romans preferred it very much to Pergolesi's 
Olimpiade (see above) and received it enthusiast- 
ically. Duni is reported to have told Pergolesi at 
the rehearsals of Olimpiade: "Vi sono troppe 
finezze al di sopra dell' intelligenza del volgo 
nella vostra opera. Queste bellezze passeranno in- 
comprese, e voi non riescirete punto. La mia 
opera, ve lo confesso, non sara paragonabile alia 
vostra; ma piu semplice, sara piu felice". 

rameau : Les Indes galantes* 

23 August. Paris, O. 
Text by L. Fuzelier (ballet heroique). Prologue and 
3 entrees, called Le Turc genereux, Les Incas du 
PiroUy and Les Fleurs, Feste pcrsane. A fourth 
entree, Les Sauvages, was added on 10 March 
1736. 

With modifications, Les lndes galantes was re- 
vived at Paris 10 March 1736; 28 May 1743; 8 
June 1751 ; and 14 July 1761. Les Incas du Pirou at 



183 



184 



1735 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



i73S-3<5 



Versailles 30 January 1765; Paris 5 December 
!J7i.LesSauvages at Versailles 16. February 1765; 
Choisy 10 October 1769; Paris 16 July 1773. 

Les Fleurs had a modern revival at die O.C. 
30 May 1925. 

The second entree was given at Parma on 18 
December 1757 (in Italian, as GVlnca del Peru, 
translated by C. I. Frugoni). 

Favart wrote a parody, L'Ambigu de la Folic, ou 
Le Ballet des Dindons, produced at the O.C. 3 1 Au- 
gust 1743; reduced to 3 entrees, this was revived 
at the C.L 26 July 1751 and again 8 August 1761 
under the title of Les hides dansantes. A new 
parody on the fourth entree (Les Sauvagcs) was 
added on 2 September 175 1 (C.L) under the title 
of Les Amours champestres; it was also given at 
Vienna in 1755 and, with new music by P. van 
Maldcre, at Schonbrunn 5 October 1758. Its text 
was used for the modern Gluck pasticcio, Die 
MaienkiSnigin, music partly from Gluck's Vlsle 
de Merlin (see 1758). 

Another parody, Les Indes chfotantes, by J. A. 
Romagnesi and F. Riccoboni, with music by 
Mourct, was produced at the C.L 17 September 
1735 (revived there 12 August 1743)- The same 
day a parody by D. Carolet was produced at the 
O.C. : Les Amours des hides, consisting of Le bon 
Turc and Le jaloux Poltron ; one week later, 24 
September 1735, a parody on the third entree 
followed: Le Diguisemeut postiche. 

hasse: Tito Vespasiano ovvero 
La Clemenza di Tito 

24 September. Pcsaro 
Metastases text (partly founded on Corncille's 
Cinna and first set to music by Caldara in 1734)- 
Three acts. 

Hassc's setting was written for the inauguration 
of the Tcatro Publico, Pcsaro. 

Also given at Dresden I7january 1738 (revived 
11 January 1740 and 26 July 1746); Naples, S.C., 
4 November 1738 (with additional music by An- 
tonio Palclla); Madrid [14 May] 1739 (Spanish 
translation in libretto by P. F. Quazza); Moscow 
9 June T742; Berlin 11 January 1743 and 22 July 
1744; Brunswick August 1743 (with recitatives 



and two choruses in German, translated probably 
by Schurmann; repeated there February 1744); 
Hamburg, with a prologue by Paolo Scalabrini, 
8 December 1745 (revived 14 October 17^8); 
St. Petersburg 1 January 1747; Copenhagen 18 
December 1748; Palermo Carnival 1764; Cre- 
mona Carnival 1770 (Mozart attended a per- 
formance on his first Italian journey). 

At Moscow the opera was given at the coro- 
nation of the Empress Elizabeth, with a prologue, 
La Russia afflitta e ricotisolata, text by J. von Stahlin, 
music by D. dall' Oglio. See on this production 
J. von Stahlin's Beylagen zum neuveranderten Russ- 
land (1770), which is the earliest account of the 
history of opera in Russia. A short paragraph on 
the Moscow production appeared in the July 1742 
issue of die Mercure de Trance — quite a remarkable 
achievement of early journalism. 

predieri: 1/ Sogno di Scipione 

1 October. Laxenburg, near Vienna 

Text by P. Mctastasio (Azione teatrale, allusiua 

alle sfortunate campagnc delle armi Austriache in 

Italia). One act. 

Revived Vienna 4 November 1739. 
(Mozart set the same text in 1772.) 

pergolesi: IlFlaminio* 

Autumn. Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. A. Fcderico. Three acts. 

Pergolesi's last work for the stage; as it docs 
not appear from the title, it should be mentioned 
that it is a comic opera. 

Successful at Naples, revived there Winter 
1737, 1739 and Winter 1749. Also given at Siena 
Carnival 1742. 

1736 

caldara: Achille in Sciro 

13 February. Vienna, B. 
Text by P. Metastasio. Three acts. 

Written to celebrate the wedding of Maria 
Theresa (then Archduchess) with Stephen Francis, 
Duke of Lorraine. 



l8 5 



186 



1736-37 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1737 



handel: Atalanta* 

23 May. London, C.G. 
Librettist B. Valeriani, based on his La Caccia il 
Etolia set by Bonacossi, Ferrara, 171 5. Three acts. 

"As it is Perform' d . . . on Occasion of an Illus- 
trious Wedding", namely that of Frederick 
Prince of Wales, son of George 11, to Princess 
Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. Ten performances. 

ristoiu: Le Fate 

1 August. Dresden 
Text by S. B. Pallavicino. One act. 1 

Written to celebrate the return of the Elector 
Frederick Augustus 11 from Warsaw where he 
was crowned King of Poland. Ristori was com- 
missioned to write the coronation opera because 
Hasse was on leave in Italy at that time. 

1737 

auletta: Orazio 

Carnival. Naples, T.N. 
Text by Antonio Palomba (his first libretto), 
partly in Neapolitan dialect. Three acts. 

This work had a truly extraordinary career. 
Revived at Florence in 1740 and 1742 (without 
Aulctta's name and with music by other com- 
posers); Venice, S. Moisc Autumn 1743 (with 
additions by Alcssandro Maccari and others, but 
misattributed in the libretto to Latilla and Pergo- 
lesi) ; Genoa Carnival 1744; Graz Carnival 1745; 
Leipzig Spring 1745; Hamburg 17 June 1745 
(at Graz, Leipzig and Hamburg misattributed to 
Latilla and Pcrgolcsi) ; Milan 1746 (without com- 
poser's name); Bologna 25 August 1747 (under 
Aulctta's name); Vienna 20 August 1748; Venice 
Spring 1748 (under Auletta' s name); Reggio 
1748 (under Aulctta's name); London 10 De- 
cember 1748 (under Aulctta's name); Copen- 
hagen 1749; Brussels 20 September 1749 (attrib- 
uted on one page of the libretto to Auletta and on 

1 The libretto (Washington, Library of Congress) is 
in one act; the ms score (according to Ristori's bio- 
grapher, K. R. Mengeiberg) has three acts. 



another to Galuppi); Parma 1749; Lucca 1752 
(without composer's name); Leiden 1752; Paris, 
0. 19 September 1752 (in a much condensed ver- 
sion, as II Maestro di Muska; the libretto docs not 
name the composer, the Mcrcurc de France says the 
airs are by different authors ; the score was publish- 
ed in the following year under Pergolesi's name) ; 
Ravenna 1754; Trieste Carnival 1756 (attributed 
to "varii celebri Auton"); Munich 1758; Flo- 
rence Carnival 1760 (reduced to intermezzo 
dimensions, as La Scolara alia moda, and attributed 
to "diversi celebri Autori"). 

A proportion of Aulctta's music survived 
throughout, but after the opera had been in 
circulation a few years most of the airs were by 
other composers — it had become a pasticcio. This 
was probably what happened to most other such 
opere burfe. 

The Paris version, which includes four numbers 
by Auletta, one by G. M. Capelli and others by 
unidentified composers, had a career of its own 
as // Maestro di Muska, misattributed to Pergo- 
lesi. 

Translated into French by P. Baurans, it was 
given as Le Mattre de Musiquc at Paris, C.I. 31 
May 1755 and, in a revised version, 7 March 
1757; revived Versailles 14 March 1764 and Paris, 
C.I. April 1776. 

In French also given at Brussels 1755; Hague 
1758 and 1 February 1774. 

After an interval of more than 150 years, Il 
Maestro di Muska was revived (in German, as 
Der getreue Musihmeister, translated and or- 
chestrated by A. Schering) at Lauchstedt 6 July 
1924; Prague May 1929; Frankfort 1 February 
1930; Basle 17 April 1931 ; also Vienna 8 February 
1938 (at the "Inset" Theatre; Schering's version, 
partly re- written by H. F. Koenigsgarten). 

An Italian reconstruction by F. Caffarelli, (who 
edited a new vocal-score in 1935) at Rome, Pa- 
lazzo Doria Pamfilj 27 April 1935, Jesi (Pergo- 
lesi's native town) 22 March 1936 (by the Amici 
della Musica da Camera); Buenos Aires August 
1936. 

Revived in English by Columbia University 
students, New York 17 April 1936. 



187 



1737 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1737 



handel: Anninio* 



2 j January. London, C.G. 
Text by A. Salvi (first set to music by A. Scarlatti 
for Pratellino in 1703), with alterations. (Burney's 
statement as to the origin of the libretto is not 
correct.) Three acts. 

Performed six times only. 

Revived Leipzig 23 February 1935 (German 
version and arrangement by H.J. Moscr and M. 
Sciffcrt). 

handel: Giustino* 

27 February. London, C.G. 
Text: an altered version of N. Bcregani's libretto, 
first set to music by G. Legrenzi (see 1683) for 
Venice. Altered by Pariati for Vivaldi, Rome 
1724. Three acts. Performed nine times. 

Given at Brunswick August 1741 (with Italian 
airs and German recitatives and choruses; trans- 
lated by C. E. Simonetti and G. C. Schurmann; 
the latter also contributed some additional music). 

lampe: The Dragon of Wantlcy* 

27 May. London, Hm. 
Text by H. Carey (A burlesque opera). Three acts. 

A satire on Italian opera seria, directed parti- 
cularly against Handel's Giustino (see above) ; but 
the opera is said to have been a favourite with 
Handel all the same. 

Concerning the date of first performance see 
Notes and Queries, Vol. 171 (1936), p.41, and 
Emmett L. Avery, Fielding s Last Season with the 
Haymarhct Theatre, in Modern Philology (Chicago), 
Vol. 36, 1938/39. 

Very successful in London ; C.G. 6 November 
1737 and given there 67 times during the first 
season and frequently revived. First given at 
Dublin 6 February 1738. The latest revival at 
C.G. was on 18 March 1782. Of the libretto no 
less than 14 editions' were. published within one 
year. In a dedicatory letter to Lampe (inserted 
in later editions) Carey says: "It is a Burlesque 
Opera: And Burlesque cannot be too low. Low- 
ness (figuratively speaking) is the Sublimity of 
Burlesque: If so, this opera is, consequently, the 
tip-top Sublime of its Kind. Your Musick, on the 



other hand, is as grand and as pompous as pos- 
sible by which Means the Contrast is the stronger, 
and has succeeded accordingly". A sequel called 
Margery, or A worse Plague than the Dragon, by the 
same authors, was produced at C.G. on 20 De- 
cember 1738 and at Dublin 5 February 1739. It 
was later altered and reprinted as The Dragoness f 
and was revived as Lady Moore or The Dragoness 
at C.G. 28 April 1755. 

A parody by an unknown author, called The 
Pigeon-Pye, or A Kings Coronation : proper materials 
for forming an Oratorio, Opera or Play according to 
the Modern Taste, to be represented in opposition to 
the Dragon of Wantley, was published in 1738. 

handel: Berenice 

29 May. London, C.G. 
Text by A. Salvi (first set to music by Perti in 
1709) for Pratellino. Three acts. 

Unsuccessful, given for four nights only. 
Brunswick February 1743 (with Italian airs and 
German recitatives and opening chorus, music 
arranged by G. C. Schurmann). 

latilla: Gismondo 

Summer. Naples, Fior. 
Text in "Neapolitan dialect by G. A. Federico. 
Three acts. 

Very successful in a Tuscan version as Lafinta 
Cameriera. Mostly under that title, given at 
Rome, Valle 1738, Florence 1738 (revived Spring 
1742); Modena and Faenza 1741 ; Genova Spring 
1742; Vicenza Carnival 1743 ; Venice, S. Angelo 
Spring 1743; Bologna Carnival 1743 (revived 
1749); Vienna, Ka. 1744; Hamburg 20 August 
1744 (in condensed form, as intermezzi, La Giar- 
diniera Contessa, 2 parts) and 21 November 1745 
(as La finta Cameriera)', Graz Carnival 1745; 
Leipzig Spring 1745; Naples and Milan, T.R.D. 
1745; Turin, T. Carignano Carnival 1747; Reg- 
gio and Mantua 1747; Parma and Munich 1749; 
London 1 February 1749 (as Don Calascione; La- 
tilla not mentioned); Brussels August 1749 (by 
the same company and under the same title as in 
London); Copenhagen 1749 (revived 1 October 
1755 as La Giar'diniera, no composer mentioned; 



189 



190 



1737 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1737-38 



and 12 November 1756); Barcelona 1750; Bruns- 
wick 2 August 1751; Paris, O. 30 November 
1752; Leiden 1752; Pavia 1753; Trieste Autumn 
1754; Dresden August 1762 and Gotha 2 No- 
vember 1765 (as La Giardiniera fatta Contessa per 
le Stravaganze di Don Calassione). 

rameau: Castor et Pollux* 

24 October. Paris, O. 
Text by P. J. J. Bernard. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Rameau's chief work. Frequently revived at 
the Paris Opera; given there 254 times until 1785. 
When, in 1791, Candeille set the same libretto 
again, he kept parts of the original music. Given 
also on many French provincial stages and (in 
French) at Parma 6 December 1758 (Italian trans- 
lation in the libretto by J. A. Sanvitale) and Cassel 
1776. 

Parodies: Castor et Pollux, by J. A. Romagnesi 
and F. Rkcoboni, C.I. 14 or 24 December 1737; 
Les Jumeaux, by J. N. Guerin de Fremicourt and 
others, C.I. 9 March 1754; Castor et Pollux, by 
P. T. Gondot, Brussels 14 January 1754 and as 
Les Gimeaux, Paris, C.I. 10 May 1777; Le hon 
Frere, by P. J. B. Nougaret, published 1779; 
Christophe et Pierre-Luc, by J. E. Despreaux, 
Trianon May 1780. 

Castor et Pollux has been revived several times 
in the 20th century. First in concert form by the 
Schola Cantorum, Paris 29 January 1903. On the 
stage: Montpellier 23 January 1908; Paris, O. 
21 March 191 8 (recitatives and dances orches- 
trated by A. Bachelet) and 20 October 1930; 
Glasgow 27 April 1927 (by amateurs, for the first 
time in English, translated by G. F. MacCrone); 
Geneva 28 September 1930 (by the Paris Opera 
company); Oxford 22 November 1934 (in 
English, translated by D. Arundell and T. W. 
J. Taylor); Florence 27 April 1935 (at the Maggio 
Musicale Fiorentino, by the Paris Ope*ra com- 
pany); Buenos Aires 30 July 1936 (in French). 

sarro: Achille in Sciro 

4 November. Naples, S.C. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1736), adapted by L. S. Stampiglia. Three acts. 



Written for the inauguration of the Teatro 
San Carlo, Naples. (The theatre was burnt down 
on 13 February 1816 and reopened on 12 January 
1817.) 

leo: L'Olimpiade 
ig December. Naples, S.C. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
I733). adapted by L. S. Stampiglio. Three acts. 
Given at Lisbon later in the same month. Re- 
vived Naples 19 December 1743. 

1738 
galuppi: Alessandro neW Indie 

Carnival. Mantua 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1729). Three acts. 

Galuppi's first greater success (in the list of his 
operas this is no.15). Given in many Italian towns 
(until 1762) and at Stuttgart 30 August 1752 and 
Munich 12 October 1755. 

handel: Faramondo* 

18 January. London, Hm. 
Zeno's text as modified for Gasparini, Rome 1720 
(first set to music by Pollarolo in 1699), with 
alterations. Three acts. 
Unsuccessful (8 nights only). 

l at ill a: Madama Ciana 

February. Rome, T. Pallacorda 
Text by G. Barlocci (according to Schatz origin- 
ally called Donna Marzia). Three acts. 

Given, under many different titles, and with 
alterations at Lisbon Carnival 1740; Venice, S. 
Cass. Autumn 1744 (with some new airs by Ga- 
luppi); Milan June 1745; Turin Carnival 1747 
(as L'Ambizione delusa) and 1748 (as Ciana); 
Vienna 15 July 1748 (as La Nobilta immaginaria); 
Leghorn Autumn 1748; Bologna January 1749; 
Ferrara Spring 1749, and Munich 13 July 1749 
(as Ciana); London 24 January 1750; Paris, O. 
23 September 1753 (as Gli Artigiani arrichiti, re- 
duced to 2 acts). 



191 



192 



1738-39 

handel: Serse* 

26 April London, Hm. 
Text altered from an earlier libretto by N. Mi- 
nato (first set to musicfby Cavalli, see 1654). Three 
acts. 

Handel's only opera with a comic plot (if not 
a comic opera in the strict sense of the word). The 
famous Largo {Ombra maifu . . .) occurs in Serse. 
Performed 5 times only. Many revivals include: 
gottingen 5 July 1924 (in German, translated by 

O. Hagen). 
Vienna, schonbrunn 30 May 1925 (in German, 

translated by O. Hagen). 
Budapest 12 May 1928 (in Hungarian, translated 

by P. Ottlik). 
Northampton, mass. 12 May 1928 (in English, 

translated by T. N. Wilder). 
new York, julliard school 15 December 1932 

(in English, translated by T. N. Wilder). 
Chicago, university 16 February 1935 (in 

English, translated by T. N. Wilder). 
loughton, essex 1 5 June 1935 (in English, trans- 
lated by G. Dunn). 
London, duke's 28 November 1935 (in English, 

translated by G. Dunn, by the R.A.M.). 
Munich 1936. 
breslau 1940. 

corselli: Alessandro nelV Indie 

p May. Madrid, Buen Retiro 
Metastases text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1729). Three acts. 

Corselli's setting was written for the celebra- 
tion of the wedding of Charles iv, King of Naples 
(later King of Spain) and Princess Maria Amalia 
of Saxony. Produced at the Palacio Real Buen 
Retiro (first Italian opera there). 

1739 

rinaldo di capua: Vologeso, 
Re dei Parti 

Carnival. Rome, Arg. 
Text: an altered version of Zeno's Lucio Vero. 
Three acts. 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1739 



The earliest of Rinaldo di Capua's serious 
operas. Also given at Malta in 1740. Of the music 
only some airs have been preserved. 

cTalmeida: La Spinalba o vero 
II Vecchio matto* 

Carnival. Lisbon 
Librettist unknown (Dramma comico). Three 
acts. 

The first (Italian) opera of a Portuguese com- 
poser which has been preserved as a whole (score 
at the Bibliotheca da Ajuda, Lisbon). The opera 
was produced at the Paco da Ribeira. 

rameau: Les Fetes d'Hebe ou 
Les Talents lyriques* 

21 May. Paris, O. 
Text by A. G. de Montdorge. Prologue and 3 
entrees, called La Poesie, La Musique, and La Danse 
(or sometimes referred to, after their principal 
characters, as Sapho, Tirtie, and AegU). 

Very successful opera-ballet, revived in Paris 
27 July 1747; 18 May 1756; 5 June 1764; 6 July 
1770 (the third entree only); 27 October 1772 
and 3 November 1775 (the second entree only). 
The third entree also revived Fontainebleau 6 No- 
vember 1753; Versailles 18 January 1764. The 
second entree also revived Versailles 22 February 

1764. 

Also given at Lyons 1740; Brussels 1741. 

Revived Brussels 21 March 1910 (the first 
entree only); Monte Carlo 24 January 1914; 
Dijon 2 March 1939. 

Favart wrote parodies on all three entrees; the 
first two, called Les Amours de Gogo and Sansonnct 
et Tonton were forbidden by the police; the third, 
L* Amour impromptu, was produced at the O.C. 
10 July 1756. Other parodies include: Les Talents 
comiques, by C. F. Panard, O.C. 8 July 1739; Les 
Talents comiques, by A.J. de Valoisd'Orville, O.C. 
10 August 1747; and Le Prix de YAmonr y by J. L. 
Araignon, music by C. F. Clement, C.I. 27 Sep- 
tember 1756. 



193 



194 



1739 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1740-41 



leo: Amor vuol Sofferenza 

Autumn, Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. A. Federico. Three acts. 

The best of Leo's comic operas. Successful in 
Italy. Given at Florence 1742; Palermo Autumn 
1746; Bologna 3 February 1748 (as Lafinta Fras- 
catana); Padua 1748 and London 11 January 1749 
(as Lafinta Frascatana), 

Revived (as La finta Frascatana) Naples, T.N. 
Autumn 1744 (with additional music by M. Cap- 
ranica) and once more Carnival 1750 (with ad- 
ditional music by Logroscino and G. Ferradini; 
libretto British Museum). 

Known also as // Cioe, "Cioe" being the con- 
stantly repeated favourite word of Fazio, a po- 
pular comic character (cf. Cocchi's Li Matti per 
Amore y 1754). See on this opera E.J. Dent's study 
in Sammelbande of the LM.S., Vol. vffl (1906-07). 

The President De Brosses wrote in one of his 
famous letters from Italy (dated Naples, 14 No- 
vember 1739) to M. de Neuilly: "Quelle inven- 
tion! quelle harmonie! quelle excellente plai- 
santerie musicale ! je porterai cet opera en 
France. ..." 

rameau: Dardanus* 

ig November, Paris, O. 
Text by C. A. Leclerc de La Bruere. Prologue and 
5 acts. 

A parody by C. S. Favart, C. F. Panard, and 
Parmentier, called Arlequin Dardanus was pro- 
duced at the C.I., Paris 14 January 1740. In the 
1 8th century Dardanus was revived at the Opera 
on 23 April 1744 (new version; two acts re- 
written); 15 April 1760 (with new alterations); 
20 April 1762; and 4 February 1768 (without 
prologue) (more than 100 times until 1770); at 
Fontainebleau 8 October 1763 and 9 November 
1769. 

Modern revivals: Paris 26 April 1907 (in con- 
cert form, by the Schola Cantorum) ; Dijon 1907; 
Algiers February 1934 (on the stage). 

Sacchmi used a reduced version of the same 
libretto for his opera of the same title (see 
1784). 



1740 

bernasconi: Temistock 

Carnival Salzburg 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1736). Three acts. 

Bernasconi's setting was also given at Padua 
6 June 1740 and Venice, S.G. Gr. Carnival 1744 
and revived at Munich (where Bernasconi be- 
came Porta's successor as court conductor in 
1755), February 1754. 

jommelli: Ricimero, Re dei Goti 

16 January, Rome, Arg. 
Text: an altered version of A. Zeno's and P. Pa- 
riati's Flavto Anicio Olibrio (first performed with 
music by Gasparini in 1707). Three acts. 

See on the Ricimero libretto M. Fehr's study in 
Zeitschrift fur Musikwissenschaft, Vol. 1 (191 8-19). 
Jommelli's first extant opera. 

perez: Siroe 
4 November, Naples, S.C. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1726). Three acts. 

Perez's first extant opera seria. Revived at 
Lisbon Autumn 1752 and once more 1756. 

1741 

handel: Deidamia* 

21 January. London, Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Text by P. Rolli, based on I. Bentivoglio's Achille 
in Sciro set by Legrenzi for Ferrara, 1663 and 
modified for Venice, 1664. Three acts. 

Handel's last opera. Unsuccessful; given for 
three nights only and never revived in 18 th or 
19th centuries. 

La Chercheuse d'Esprit 

20 February, Paris, O.C. 
Text by C. S. Favart and A. R. de Voyer d' Argen- 
son, Marquis de Paulmy (founded on Lafontaine's 
tale Comment VEsprit vient aux Filles), One act. 

Composer unknown. The score has been at- 
tributed to Duni (who came to Paris only in 



195 



196 



1 741 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1741-42 



1757). Very successful (ran for 200 nights), and 
frequently revived in Paris. 

In French also given at Brussels 14 May 1743; 
Munich 1749; London, Little Hm. 28 November 
1749 and 23 December 1786; Turin Spring 1753; 
Casscl 1 78 1. 

Anonymous German versions were published 
in 1749 and 1750; a Dutch translation by H. van 
Elvervclt was published at Amsterdam in 1758. 
Revived at Paris at the 
varietes 15 February 1822 (text altered by T. M. 

Dumersan and W. Lafontainc). 
vaudeville 1 3 March 1S22 (in a rival version by 

N. Gcrsin and J. J. Gabriel, with some new airs 

by J. D. Doche). 2 June 1863 (text altered by 

C. Herald, music arranged by J. F. Pillevesse). 
opera comique 22 February 1900 (arranged and 

orchestrated by J. B. T. Weckcrlin). 

jommelli: Ezio 

29 April. Bologna, T. Malvezzi 
Metastases text (first set to music by Auletta in 
1728). Three acts. 

Jommelli's first greater success. Given in dif- 
ferent versions at Naples 4 November 1748; 
Vienna, Schonbrunn 4 October 1749; Stuttgart 
11 February 1751 and 11 February 1758. Revived 
Bologna, T.C. 31 January 1768; Lisbon 6 June 
1771 (according to the score at Naples) and/or 
31 March 1772 (according to the libretto). 

perez: Demetrio 

13 June. Palermo 
Mctastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1 731). Three acts. 

Revived Venice, S. Sam. Spring 1751. Very 
successful at Lisbon; first given there in 1753 and 
revived Carnival 1765 and Autumn 1768. 

GRAUN: Rodelinda, Regina 
de y Longobardi 

13 December. Berlin, Schloss 
Text by G. G. Bottarelli (altered from an earlier 
libretto by A. Salvi, the same utilized by Haym 
for Handel's Rodelinda, sec 1725). Three acts. 



The first of 27 operas Graun wrote for the 
Prussian court from 1741-56. Revived Berlin, O. 

24 July 1744 and 19 December 1777. 

galuppi: Penelope 

23 December. London, Hm. 
Text by P. A. Rolli. Three acts. 

The first of four operas Galuppi wrote for 
London, where he spent two seasons. Revived 
London 17 December 1754 (probably as pasticcio 
as the libretto does not mention Galuppi's name 
any more). 

jommelli: Merope 
26 December. Venice, S.G. Gr. 
Zeno's text (first set to music by Gasparini in 1 7 1 1 ). 
Three acts. 

Also given at Bologna December 1744; 
Vienna njuly 1749; Barcelona 4 December 1751, 
Pesaro Carnival 1753; Stuttgart 11 February 
1756. 

gluck: Artaserse 

26 December. Milan, T.R.D. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Vinci, see 
1730). Three acts. 

Gluck's first opera. (Thus in the same year 1741 
there was in January the first production of 
Handel's last, and in December the first produc- 
tion of Gluck's first opera.) 

Of the music only small parts have been pre- 
served. 

1742 

h A s s e : Lucio Papirio 

1$ January. Dresden 
Zeno's text (first set to music by Caldara, see 1 719). 
Three acts. 

Frederick the Great was present at the second 
night on 19 January. Also given at Brunswick 
August 1744 (with German recitatives, translated 
and probably composed by Schurmann); Naples, 
S.C., 4 November 1746; Berlin 24 January 1766 
and January 1784. 



197 



1742-43 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1743 



gluck: Demetrio 

2 May. Venice, S. Sam. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara, see 
173 1). Three acts. 

Gluck's second opera. Only 6 airs are extant. 
(The opera is sometimes quoted as Cleonke.) 

hasse: Didone ahbandonata 
7 October. Hubertusburg, near Dresden 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Sarro, see 
1724). Three acts. 

Naples, S.C. 20 January 1744; London 6 April 
1748 (chiefly by Hasse) ; Berlin 29 December 1752 
and December 1769; an intended further revival 
at Berlin in January 1780 was cancelled on ac- 
count of the death of Princess Louisa Amalia; 
Versailles 1753. 

graun: Cleopatra e Cesare 

7 December. Berlin, O. 
Text by G. G. Bottarelli (founded on P. Cor- 
neille's La Mori de Pompe*e). Three acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the Berlin 
opera-house (which was burnt down, after 
exactly 100 years of existence, 18 August 1842, 
and was rebuilt and reopened 7 December 1844, 
with Meyerbeer's Ein Feldlager in Schlesien). 

gluck: Demofoonte 

26 December. Milan, T.R.D. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

Gluck's first greater success. Also given at 
Reggio May 1743 (with additional airs by F. 
Maggiore) ; Florence 1743 ; Bologna 26 December 
1743 ; Vienna 6 October 1744 (Gluck's setting?); 
Ferrara Carnival 1745. Revived Milan 13 May 
1747; Florence 1749. Airs preserved; overture 
and recitatives lost. 

1743 

terradellas: Metope 

Carnival Rome, T. delle Dame 
Zeno's text (first set tomusicbyGaspariniini7ii). 
Three acts. 



Given at Florence, P. in the same Carnival and 
revived there 26 December 1749; also Leghorn 
Carnival 1744 and Ancona Carnival 1746. 

jommelli: Demofoonte 

13 June. Padua. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

One of Jommelli's most successful works; 
given at Parma Spring 1749; Milan T.R.D. 
January 1753; Lodi Carnival 1754; London9De- 
cember 1755; Stuttgart 11 February 1764 (re- 
peated at Ludwigsburg 11 February 1765 and 
1769; last revived at Stuttgart 10 January 1778); 
Naples, S.C. 4 November 1770 (with alterations; 
Mozart was present at the first night); Lisbon 
6 June 1775. 

gluck: IlTigrane 

p September. Crema 
Text: Goldoni's version of F. Silvani's La Virtu 
trionfante delVAmore e delVOdio (1691), as first 
set by G. Arena in 1741. Three acts. 

Only parts of the music are extant. 

Discovery and reconstruction of this opera are 
due to F. Piovano ; see his admirable paper "Un 
Opera inconnu de Gluck" in Sammelbdnde of the 
J.M.5., Vol. rx (1907-08). See on the origin of 
the libretto also G. Ortolani in the City of Venice 
edition of Goldoni's Works, Vol. xxxm (1934), 
pp.3 1 1-3 H- 

hasse: Antigono 

1 October. Hubertusburg, near Dresden 
Text by P. Metastasio (written for Hasse). Three 
acts. 

Given at the Dresden Court Theatre 20 January 
1744 and at Hamburg 10 September 1744 (Hasse's 
setting, according to Mattheson; according to 
the libretto the greater part of the music was by 
Scalabrini); Naples, S.C. 19 December 1744 
(music adapted by A. Palella); Brunswick 31 
January 1746 (sung pardy in German, translated 
by Schurmann?); Milan, T.R.D. Carnival 1747; 
Parma Carnival 1753 (as Alessandro Re d'Epiro). 



199 



200 



1743-44 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1744-45 



graun: Artaserse 



2 December. Berlin, O. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Vinci, see 
1730). Three acts. 

Also given at Brunswick, August 1745 (zsArta- 
banus, with German recitatives, translated by 
Schiirmann, and additional airs) and 23 August 
1747; and Stuttgart 30 August 1750 (at the in- 
auguration of the new opera-house there). 



1744 

terradellas: Artaserse 

Carnival Venice, S.G. Gr. 
Metastasio' stext (first set to music by Vinci, see 
1730). Three acts. 

Terradellas's chief work, given on several 
Italian stages. 

gluck: La Sofonisba 

[13 January] Milan, T.R.D. 
Silvani's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1708), with most of the airs' taken from different 
librettos of Metastases. Three acts. 

gluck: Ipermestra 

21 November. Venice, S.G. Gr. 
Text by P. Metastasio (written for Hasse earlier 
in the same year). Three acts. 

The first of Gluck's operas of which all the airs 
and recitatives are extant in full score. 1 Also given 
at Prague Autumn 1750; Munich 1751 (accord- 
ing to Piovano probably Gluck's setting) ; St. Pe- 
tersburg 3 March 1760 (according to some 
authors; according to R. A. Mooser extremement 
douteux). 

hasse: Semir amide riconosciuta 

26 December. Venice, S.G. Gr. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1729). Three acts. 

1 British Museum, Add. mss 16014. 



Also given at S. Giovanni in Persiceto 1745; 
Graz Carnival 1746; Leipzig 6 May 1746; Prague 
Summer 1746 (revived 1760); Dresden 11 Jan- 
uary 1747; London 18 May 1748; Brunswick 
August 1748 (recitatives and some airs in German, 
translated by Schiirmann?); Warsaw 7 October 
1760. 

1745 

rebel and francoeur: 

Zelindor Roi des Silphes 

17 March. Versailles 
Text by F. A. P. de Moncrif. Prologue and 1 act. 

First produced at the Paris Opera 10 August 
1745 and frequently revived there until 1752 and 
again 17 June 1766; Versailles 18 December 1752; 
Belle vue 4 March 1753; Fontainebleau 19 Oc- 
tober 1769; Paris 11 May 1773. 

Given in an Italian version by C. I. Frugoni 
at Parma Autumn 1757. 

A parody, Ziphire et Fleurette (text by P. Laujon 
and C. F. Panard, revised by Favart), was pro- 
duced at the C.I., Paris 23 March 1754. 

rameau: Platee* 

31 March. Versailles 
Text by J. Autreau and A.J. de Valois d'Orville 
(baUet-bouffon). Prologue and 3 acts. 

Given at the Paris Opera only four years later, 
4 February 1749 (text altered by Ballot de Sovot 
and revived there 9 February 1750 and 21 Feb- 
ruary 1754. Known also with the sub- title Junon 
jalonse. Modern revivals: 
Munich, kaim-saal, 26 January 1901 (by the 

Munich "Orchesterverein"). 
monte carlo 5 April 1917 (in French). 
como 29 January 1921 (by the "Amici della Mu- 

sica", Italian version by A. Finzi and P. Clau- 

setti). 
milan, t. carcano 3 1 January 1921 (by the 

"Amici della Musica", Italian version by A. 

Finzi and P. Clausetti). 

"Cct ouvragc de carnaval est trcs-curieux a 
ctudier. C'etait la premiere incursion de l'Ecole 



201 



202 



1745 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1746 



francaise dans le genre de musique bouffonne, ou 
excellaient les vieux maitres italiens" (Lajarte). 
The 1754 revival struck the final blow at the 
Italian artists who had been producing their inter- 
mezzi at the Paris Opera for 18 months. They 
gave their last performance on 7 March 1754. 

fiojullo: L'Olimpiade 

May. Venice, S. Sam. 

Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

Revived in August 1749 at Brunswick, where 
Horillo became court conductor in 1754 (as 
Schurmann's successor). 

hasse: Arminio 

7 October. Dresden 

Text by G. C. Pasquini. Three acts and licenza. 

The second Dresden performance took place 
at the request of Frederick n, after the battle of 
Kesselsdorf, 19 December 1745. Revived at Dres- 
den 8 January 1753. Also given at Berlin 18 Jan- 
uary 1747 (revived 24 December 1773) ; Vienna 
13 May 1747 (with ballet music by Holzbauer); 
Brunswick 22 August 1747 (with German reci- 
tatives, translated by Schurmann?); Warsaw 3 
August 1 76 1. 

An earlier Arminio opera by Hasse, produced 
at Milan 28 August 1730, is a different work 
altogether (text by A. Salvi). 

perez: Alessandro neW Indie 

26 December, Genoa, S. Agostino 

Metastasio's text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1729). Three acts. 

Revived Naples, S.C. 4 November 1749. 
Given at Lisbon 31 March 1755 (at the inaugu- 
ration of the Royal Opera di Tejo) and revived 
there at the S. Carlos theatre as late as Carnival 
1806. Also given at Cadiz [17 December] 
1764. 



1746 

jommelli: Don Trastullo* 

Carnival. Rome, T. della Pace 
Librettist unknown. Two parts. 

Successful intermezzi, given on many Italian 
stages (at Rome, Tord. 7 February 1756 as La 
Cantata e Disfida di Don Trastullo) and at Madrid, 
Buen Retiro 23 September 1757; Munich 1758 
and Carnival 1763; Warsaw c.1766; London 9 
April 1767 (for one night only; not recorded by 
Burney or by Nicoll). 

graun: Demofoonte, Re di Tracia 

17 January. Berlin, O. 
Metastasio's text (first composed by Caldara in 
I733)' Three acts. 

Revived Berlin Carnival 1774 (with altera- 
tions). Three airs in this opera were composed by 
King Frederick n. 

gluck: La Caduta de' Giganti 
18 January. London, Hm. 
Text by F. Vanneschi. Two parts. 

The first of the two operas Gluck wrote for 
London. It was when hearing La Caduta de Gi- 
ganti that Handel is said to have made the well- 
known remark "He knaws no more of contra- 
punto as mein cook, Waltz". 

Six airs from the opera were published by 
Walsh. 

jommelli: Cajo Mario 

6 February. Rome, Arg. 
Text by G. Roccaforte. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy; Florence, P. Autumn 1747; 
Bologna Carnival 1751 and Carnival 1758; Mo- 
dena December 1751; Leghorn Carnival 1754; 
Verona Carnival 1762; Cesena Carnival 1770. 

Revived Prague 1772 as II Cajo Mario Console 
e Patricio. 

gluck: Artamene 

13 March. London, Hm. 
Text by B. Vitturi (first set to music by Albinoni 
in 1740), altered by F. Vanneschi. Three acts. 



203 



204 



1746-47 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1747 



Like La Caduia dc Giganti (sec above), Arta- 
tuaic was more or less a pasticcio from earlier 
operas, chiefly from Tioratie, Sofonisbe, and Ipcr- 
mestra (1743 and 1744). Sec on Gluck's two 
London operas W. B. Squire in The Musical 
Quarterly, Vol. r (1915). 

Six airs from Artamctic were published by 
Walsh. 

le clair: Scylla et Glaucus 

4 October, Paris, O. 
Text by d'Albarct. Prologue and 5 acts. 

The only opera of the famous violinist. Un- 
successful. Extracts were revived in concert form 
at Lyons (Lcclair's native town) on 21 March 
1909. 

schurer: La Galatea 

8 November. Dresden 
Text by P. Metastasio (written in 1722, first com- 
poser unknown). Two acts. 

Repeated at Pillnitz 28 June 1747 (at the Ba- 
varian-Saxon double wedding; sec note on 
Gluck's Lc Nozze d'Ercole c d'Ebc, 1747). 



1747 

logroscino:// Govematore* 

Carnival Naples, T.N. 
Text by D. Canica. Three acts. 

The best-known of Logroscino's comic operas. 
The score was discovered by E.J. Dent at Miinstcr 
about 1904. The finale of the first act was pub- 
lished by H. Kretzschmar (JaJirbuch der Musik- 
hibliothek Peters, 1908, reprinted in Krctzschmar's 
Gesammclte Aufsatze, Vol. n, appendix). 

jOMMELLi:La Didone abhandonata 

28 January. Rome, Arg. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Sarro in 
1724). Three acts. 

One of Jommelli's most important works. 
Vienna 8 December 1749; Stuttgart April 175 1 
and revived there in a new version 11 February 



1763 and again J o January 1 777 and 25 September 
1782. An analysis of the opera is given in W. 
Hcinsc's novel, Hildegard von Hohenthal (1795- 
96). 

schurer: Doris 

jj February. Dresden 
Librettist unknown. Ein musikalisches Schaefer- 
spiel. Two acts. 

An isolated instance of a German pastoral opera 
in the very period when Italian opera was the 
fashion all over Germany, several vcars before 
the introduction of German Singspicl. 

terradellas: Belkrofonte 

4 April. London, Hm. 
Text by F. Vanncschi. Three acts. 

"... crescendo is used in this opera, seemingly 
for the first time; and new effects are frequently 
produced by pianos and fortes" (Burncy, iv, 
p.456). 

c o c chi : La Maestra 

Spring. Naples, T.N. 
Text by A. Palomba. Three acts. 

Cocchi's most successful comic opera. Given 
at Bologna Scptcmbrc 1747; Turin 1748; Mo- 
dena 1748; Venice, S. Moise Autumn 1748 as La 
Scttola moderna, sia La Maestra di buou Gusto; text 
altered by C. Goldoni, probably with new music 
by Ciampi, who is mentioned in a 1749 Verona 
libretto (La Maestra di Scuola). Cocchi's setting 
was revived at Naples, Fior. Carnival 1751 (with 
additional music by Latilla and Cordelia) ; Venice 
Carnival 1754; Sinigaglia July 1754; Bologna 
8 January 1757; Milan, T.R.D. Autumn 1757; 
Rome, Capr. Carnival 1760. 

Outside Italy given at London 11 March 1749; 
Potsdam Summer 1749 (anonymous); Paris, O. 
25 January 1753 (zsLaScaltra Governatrice); Bar- 
celona [13 August] 1753 (anonymous); Brussels 
Winter 1753; Trieste Carnival 1755; Prague 
1756; Dresden 4 August 1756; St. Petersburg 
5 November 1759 (anonymous); Nuremberg 8 
January 1763; Berlin 23 December 1763 (as La 
Maestra di Scuola). 



205 



206 



1747 ANNALS OF OPERA 

gluck: Le Nozze d'Ercole e d'Ebe 

2gjune. Pillnitz, near Dresden 
Librettist unknown (the text was first set to music 
by Porpora, Venice 18 February 1744). Two acts. 
The production of this screnata was part of the 
wedding festivities in honour of the double mar- 
riage of Max Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, with 
Maria Anna, Princess of Saxony, and of Frederick 
Christian, Prince of Saxony, with Maria Antonia 
Walpurgis, Princess of Bavaria (the composer, 
see 1754 and 1760). Hasse, Scalabrini, and Schurer 
contributed the rest of the wedding operas. The 
score was published in 19 14 (Vol. xiv of Denk- 
maler der Tonkunst in Bay em y edited by H. Abert). 

porpora: Filandro 

18 July, Dresden 
Text by V. Cassani (dramma comico-pastorale), 
originally called L' Incostanza schernita and first 
set to music by Albinoni in 1727. Three acts. 

The first opera produced at Dresden under 
Hasse's direction which was not composed by 
Hasse (but by his former teacher and now rival, 
Porpora). There were a sinking and a rising star 
in the cast too : Faustina Hasse as** Orsinda "and 
Porpora' s pupil, Regina Mingotti, as "Corina". 

boismortier: Daphnis et Chloe 

28 September. Paris, O. 
Text by P. Laujon (pastorale). Prologue and 3 acts. 
The last and best of Boismortier's three operas. 
Revived Paris, 0. 4 May 1752. A parody by P. T. 
Gondot, Les Bergers de Quality was produced at 
the C.I. 5 June 1752. 

hasse: Leucippo 
y October. Hubertusburg, near Dresden 
Text by G. C. Pasquini (favola pastorale). Three 
acts. 

Also given at Brunswick 1747 (revived Feb- 
ruary 1765); Salzthal 28 August 1748 (as Dafne e 
Leucippo); Vienna 28 August 1748; Venice May 
1749; Dresden 7 January 1751 (revived 1761); 
Prague Spring 1752; Frankfort 19 September 
1754; Mannheim 1757; Pressburg 1759; Berlin 
7 January 1765. 



1747.48 

galuppi: UOlitnpiade 
26 December. Milan, T.R.D. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

The most successful of Galuppi's serious operas. 
Given at Mannheim 17 January 1749 (revived 
19 November 1756); Naples, S.C. 18 December 
1749 (revived with alterations 30 May 1750); 
Prague Spring 1750; London 10 February 1756 
(text altered by F. Vanneschi, additional airs by 
F. Giardini); Cadiz [24 December] 1762; Siena 
24 July 1763. 

1748 

logroscino: GiunioBruto 

January. Rome, Arg. 
Librettist unknown (of this title only a 17th cen- » 
tury text is recorded by Allacci). Three acts. 

No copy of the libretto is known. Date and 
place of first (?) performance are given in the ms 
score at Munster. Il Governatore (see 1747), Giunio 
Bruto and OHmpiade (Rome, 1753; recently dis- 
covered in a private collection at Cambridge) are 
the only extant operas of Logroscino, out of a 
total of more than 25 which are known by 
title. 

hasse: Demofoonte 
p February. Dresden 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

One of Hasse's greatest successes. Venice Car- 
nival 1749; Mannheim January 1750; Naples 
S.C.January 1750; Vicenza Carnival 1754. With 
alterations: Naples 4 November 1758; Warsaw 
7 October 1759; Malta Autumn 1765. 

gluck: Semir amide riconosciuta 

14 May. Vienna, B. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1729). Three acts. 

Gluck wrote this opera to celebrate the birth- 
day of the Empress Maria Theresa. Revived Ham- 



207 



208 



1748 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1748-49 



burg 19 October 1936 (translated by H. Swed- 
lund, with additional music from Gluck's Poro, 
1744). 

graun: Ifioenia in Aulide 

13 December. Berlin, O. 
Text by L. de Villati (probably written in colla- 
boration with Frederick 11, founded on Racine's 
tragedy). Three acts. 

Successful in Berlin where it was last revived 
in January 1768. Also performed at Brunswick 
August 1749 (recitatives and some airs in German, 
translated by Schiirmann?). 

An earlier, German, opera by Graun on the 
same subject (text by G. C. Schiirmann) had been 
produced at Brunswick 16 August 1728 (revived 
5 February 173 1 and 16 August 1734) and Ham- 
burg 3 December 173 1. 

ci am pi: Bertoldo, Bertoldino 
e Cacasenno 
27 December. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by C. Goldoni (founded on Italian i6di cen- 
tury legends). Three acts. 

Frequently given with slightly different titles, 
as Bertoldo, Bertoldo in Corte, Bertoldo alia Corte; 
in London as Bertoldo, Bertoldino e Cacasenno alia 
Corte del Re Alboino (1754) and as Bertoldo (1762). 
The complicated history of this famous comic 
opera has been fully investigated by O. G. T. 
Sonneck (Sammelbande of the I.M.S., Vol. xn, 
1910-11). More recent contributions to its prob- 
lems are to be found in the City of Venice edition 
of Goldoni's Works (Vol. xxvii, pp.291-297) and 
in A. Iacuzzi's European Vogue of Fauart (1932). 

The following productions are to be recorded: 
Verona Carnival 1750; Padua 11 June 1750; 
Milan, T.R.D. Spring 1750; Brunswick c.1750; 
Bologna Summer 1751; Strasbourg 1751; Paris, 
O. 9 November 1753 ; Potsdam 30 March 1754; 
Amsterdam 1754; London, C.G. 9 December 
1754 (revived n January 1762); Fcrrara and 
Pesaro Carnival 1755; Genoa Summer 1755; 
Piacenza Spring 1758; Trieste Carnival 1760; 
Prague 1760; St. Petersburg 4 May 1761. Re- 
vived as a pasticcio, Treviso Autumn 1791. 



When, in 1753, Ciampi's opera was produced 
in Paris by Bambini's buffo troupe and proved a 
great success, the minor Paris theatres, after their 
custom, soon followed suit with French parodies. 
One of them, Favart's Le Caprice amoureux, is 
recorded here as an independent work (see 1755) 
because it was in Favart's rather than in Goldoni's 
version that the opera was imitated during the 
second half of the century. 

The other parody was called Bertholde a la Ville 
and produced at the O.C. Paris 9 March 1754, 
Brussels 28 June 1755 and Hague 1760. Its author 
was L. Anseaume (perhaps in collaboration with 
G. C. de Lattaignant, or with J. J. Vade and Farin 
de Hautemer), and A. N. La Salle d'OfFemont 
arranged the music from the Italian original and 
from French popular airs. There is also a Dutch 
version ofBcrthotde a la Ville by J. T. Neyts (n.d.). 

1749 

jommelli: Artaserse 

4 February. Rome, Arg. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Vinci, see 
1730). Three acts. 

Also given at Mannheim Carnival 175 1 and 
Stuttgart 30 August 1756 (in Italian). 

gluck: La Contesa dei Numi 

p April. Copenhagen 
Text by P. Metastasio (written in 1729 to cele- 
brate the birth of the Dauphin, son of Louis xv, 
and produced at Cardinal Polignac's, Rome 26 
November 1729 with music by Vinci); the 
Danish translation in the libretto by T. Clitau. 
One act. 

Gluck chose the same text when the birth of 
the Danish Prince Christian, later King Christian 
vn, was to be celebrated. Parts of the opera were 
revived at Copenhagen, in concert form, 1 April 
1 871 and February 1902. 

jommelli: Demetrio 

Spring. Parma 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara, see 
173 1). Three acts. 



209 



210 



1749 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1749 



Also given at Madrid, Bucn Retiro 23 Sep- 
tember 1751; Mannheim 4 November 1753; 
Prcssburg 1760. 

G A l u p pi : L } Arcadia in Brenta 

14 May. Venice, S. Angclo 
Text by C. Goldoni (the first comic libretto he 
wrote for Galuppi. An earlier setting by Ciampi, 
produced at Piaccnza 1746 or at Bassano Autumn 
1747 is very doubtful. No libretto earlier than 
1749 has come to light yet). Three acts. 

Galuppi's first great success as a composer of 
comic operas. Given on Italian stages until 1769; 
Rome Carnival 1759, reduced to 2 acts; Como 
1765, as La nuova Arcadia. 

In Italian also Barcelona 1751; Lcyden 1752; 
London, C.G. 18 November 1754; Hamburg 2 
April 1755; Dresden 23 May 1755; Cologne 21 
February 1757; St. Petersburg 9 February 1759; 
Prcssburg Spring 1759; Munich 1760. Last 
revived Bonn Carnival 1771. 

An undated Italian-French libretto is men- 
tioned in Cat. Bibl. Soleinnc (no.4744). 

ciampi : II Negligente 

Autumn. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy; given at Lodi Carnival 
1752 as II Trascurato; at Florence Autumn 1752 
as Lo Spensierato. In Italian also given at London 
as early as 1 December 1749; Frankfort 5 October 
1754 (German translation in libretto by M. So- 
ralli); Trieste Autumn 1756; Oporto 15 May 
1762 (first Italian opera there, produced at the 
Theatro do CorpodaGuarda; Portuguese libretto 
O Descuidado printed; music attributed to Per- 
golesi by T. Braga and by Vasconcellos). 

rameau: Zoroastre* 

5 December. Paris, O. 
Text by L. dc Cahusac. Prologue and 5 acts. 

Revived at the O. on 20. January 1756 (new 
version, 3 acts partly re-written) and (with alter- 
ations by Berton) 26 January 1770. Given at 
Dresden 7 February 1752 in an Italian version by 



G. Casanova (the famous adventurer) and in an 
almost completely new setting by J. A. Adam. 1 
A parody by T. G. Taconct, called Nostradamus, 
was produced at the O.C. in 1756. The original 
was once more revived, in concert form, by the 
Schola Cantorum, Paris 26 November 1903. 

boyce: TheChaplet 

13 December. London, D.L. 
Text by M. Mcndez (A musical entertainment). 
Two acts. 

Successful on English stages. Frequently re- 
vived in London in the 18th century; given at 
D.L. 129 times until 1773. Also given at Dublin 
1757; Philadelphia 4 June 1767; New York 14 
March 1768. As early as 1818 The Quarterly Mus- 
ical Magazine and Review wrote: "Dr. William 
Boyce wrote a musical entertainment called the 
Chapict which now lies amongst the tilings for- 
gotten; it is in one act. The dialogue is carried on 
in recitative, and there are airs, ducts, and one 
chorus. Some of them arc, we believe, transferred 
to the Burletta of Midas, Push about the brisk boud 
is one of these. There is nothing in the whole 
thing to save it from oblivion". Still, The Chaplet 
was revived again on 24 March 1936 by the Arts 
Theatre Club, London. 

galuppi: IlConte Caramella 

18 December. Verona 
Text by C. Goldoni (partly founded on Addi- 
son's comedy, The Drummer or The Haunted 
House, 1716). Three acts. 

Given on many Italian stages and at Barcelona 
[18 June] 1754; Prague 1755; Dresden 18 July 
1755; Trieste Carnival 1756; Moscow 27 June 
1759; St. Petersburg 21 September 1759; Nurem- 
berg 7 February 1763 and 5 November 1763 (as 
Lo Spettro con Tambmo) ; Grafeneck, near Stuttgart 
4 November 1765 (as // Tamburo notturno; Pots- 
dam 23 September 1766. 

(Date and place of first performance according 
to Schatz, Piovano, and all other authorities. The 

1 For an account of the Dresden production sec the 
Mercure de France, May 1752. 



211 



212 



1749-50 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



17505 1 



earliest libretto known, however, is that for the 
production at Venice, S. Sam. 13 November 
1751.) 

In this year, 1749, there was published an im- 
portant German opera libretto, Thusnelde, ein 
Singspiel in 4 Aufziigen, mil einem Vorberlcht von 
der Moglichkeit und Beschaffenheit guter Singspiek, 
by Johann Adolf Scheibe. His text was never set 
to music; but it maybe regarded as the literary 
starting point of the 18th century German na- 
tional opera movement, and as the prototype of 
works like Schweitzer's Akeste (see 1773) and 
Holzbauer's Gunther von Schwarzburg (sec 1777). 



1750 

glvck: Ezio 

Carnival. Prague 
Metastases text (first set to music by Auletta in 
1728). Three acts. 

Also given at Leipzig 1751 and revived at 
Vienna December 1763. 

German translation by J. A. von Ghelen pub- 
lished Vienna 1765. 

hasse: Audio Regolo 

12 January. Dresden 
Text by P. Metastasio (written in 1740 at Vienna 
but not performed there because of the death of 
the Emperor Charles vi). Three acts. 

Hasse's opera (which was the first setting of the 
libretto) was revived at Berlin December 1775. 

galuppi: IlMondo dellaLuna* 

2g January. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by C. Goldoni (the first setting of this 
famous libretto which was later composed by 
Piccinni, Haydn, Paisiello and many others). 
Three acts. 

Successful in Italy. In Italian also given at Bar- 
celona Spring 1 751; Brussels Winter 1753; 
Brunswick January 1753 ( revived February 
1760); Dresden 7 October 1754; Hamburg 23 



January 1755; Prague 1755; Moscow Summer 

1758; London 22 November 1760; Breslau 1796. 

In German produced at Ocls (undated libretto 

printed). 

galuppi: II Mortdo alia Roversa 
o sia Le Donne che comandano 

14 November. Venice, S. Cass. 
Text by C. Goldoni (Dramma bernesco). Three 
acts. 

In Italian also given at Trieste 1752; Barcelona 
1752; Brussels December 1753; Prague 1754; 
Leipzig 5 May 1754; Dresden 25 June 1754 (re- 
vived 1768); Hamburg 22 November 1754; Lai- 
bach 1757 (as Vhnpero delle Dotme); Munich 
1758; Moscow 1759. 

The only opera of Galuppi which was pub- 
lished in his lifetime (vocal score, Leipzig, Breit- 
kopf, 1758). For a recent account of the work sec 
G. G. Bernardi in Musica d'Oggi, June 1934. 

1751 

terradellas: Sesostri Re d'Egitto 

Carnival. Rome, T. delle Dame 
Text by A. Zeno and P. Pariati (first set to music 
by Gasparini in 1709). Three acts. 

Terradcllas's last opera. The story that Jom- 
melli was so jealous of the success of Sesostri as to 
poison his rival Terradellas (who died 20 May, 
1751) first occurs in A.M.Z., 1800, no. 24, and 
was taken over by very many books and maga- 
zines. It seems that Friedrich Rochlitz, editor of 
the Leipzig periodical, simply invented it as no 
trace of the legend is to be found in 18th century 
sources. 

hasse: // Ciro riconosduto 

20 January. Dresden 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1736). Three acts. 

Also given at Prague in the same Carnival; 
Stuttgart 11 February 1752; Warsaw Carnival 
1762. This was the last opera in which Faustina 
Hasse appeared in public. 



213 



214 



I75i 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1752 



j ommblli: L'lfigenia 

9 February. Rome, Arg. 
Text by M. Verazi. Three acts. 

Also given at Mannheim 4 November 1751; 
Naples 18 December 1753; Barcelona Spring 
1755; Prague 1762; Cassel August 1766. 

This is the Ifigenia in Aulide subject; an Ifigenia 
in Tauride by Jommclli (Naples 20 January 1771 
and Lisbon Carnival 1776) is also extant. 

abos: Tito Manlio 

30 May. Naples, S.C. 
Probably G. Roccaforte's text (first set to music 
by Manna in 1742). Three acts. 

Of Abos's serious operas the only one which 
is extant. Also given at Modena 26 December 
1753 ; London 10 April 1756; Florence, P. 26 De- 
cember 1759. 

In a contemporary letter quoted by B. Croce 
the libretto is called "un ben raccolto mazzetto 
di scelti fiori del Salvi"; Salvi, however, is not 
known to have written a "Tito Manlio" text. In 
the British Museum Catalogue the London li- 
bretto is attributed to Matteo Noris; but his Tito 
Manlio (first set to music by Pollarolo in 1696) is 
strikingly different from that used by Abos. 

traetta: IlFamace 

4 November, Naples, S.C. 
Text: an altered version of Zcno's Mitridate (first 
set to music by Caldara in 1728). Three acts. 
Tractta's first opera. 

b e r T o n I : Le Pescatrici 

26 December. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Bertonf s most successful comic opera. Given 
on many Italian stages and in Italian also at Brus- 
sels c. December 1753; Dresden 5 September 
1754; Prague 1757; Bonn May 1758; London 
28 April 1761 ; Barcelona [28 May] 1761 (revived 
1769); Logroiio, Spain 1764; Brunswick August 
1766 (as Le tre Pescatrici). 

In Spanish (translated by R. de la Cruz) Madrid 
26 October 1765. 



1752 

haydn: Der neue krumme Teufel 1 

Spring. Vienna, Ka. 
Text by J. J. F. von Kurz (founded on Lesage's Le 
Diable boiteux). Two acts. 

Haydn's first opera. The music unfortunately 
seems to be lost, astonishingly, as the work was 
rather successful; there must have been many 
copies and one or the other might emerge some 
day. 

Revived at the same theatre 24 November 1770 
as Asmodeus der krumme Teufel; at the Leop. Th. 
4 November 1782 (as Der krumme Teufel) and 
once more at the suburban Fasan Theatre 28 Sep- 
tember 1783. Also given at Pressburg 29 October 
1764; Nuremberg 12 August 1766; Frankfort 
1767; Prague 17 November 1771; Berlin 15 Feb- 
ruary 1774 (as Der hinkende Teufel); Warsaw 
1774; Donaueschingen 1778-9; Dresden June 
1782; Munich 7 January 1783, and on many 
minor stages until the end of the century. The 
opera is last mentioned in the Gothaer Taschen- 
buch fur die Schaubiihne, 1798, p.271. 

A comedy founded on Lesage's novel had been 
produced at Vienna on 16 July 173 8. See on the 
first period of Viennese German Singspiel, V. 
Helfcrt in Zeitschrift fur Musikwissenschaft, Vol. v 
(1922-23) and R. Haas in Studien zur Musikwis- 
senschafty Vol. xn (1925). 

b o n n o : L'Eroe Cinese 

13 May. Vienna, Schonbrunn 
Text by P. Metastasio. Three acts. 

Written for Bonno and first produced by gio- 
vani distinte dame e cavalieri. Also given at Barce- 
lona 23 September 1755 and Parma 1 May 1764. 
On Bonno, who in 1774 became Gassmann's 

1 Title from the earliest extant libretto (undated; 
copy Stadtbibliothek, Vienna); according to R. Haas 
(Studien zur Musikunssenschaft, Vol. xn [1925], p.55) 
this edition belongs probably to a revival in 1758, and 
the original title possibly was Der krumme Teufel. An 
Italian intermezzo II Vecchio ingannato is contained in 
the second act of Der neue krumme Teufel; at Pressburg 
1764 the intermezzo was called Le Avventure di Lesbina. 



215 



2l6 



1752 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1752 



successor as court conductor at Vienna, see E. 
Wellcsz's study in Sammclbande of the IMS., 
Vol. xi (1909-10). 

standfuss: Der Teufel ist los, 
oder Die verwandetten Weiber 

6 October. Leipzig 
Text by C. F. Wcissc (founded on C. Coffey's The 
Devil to Pay, sec 173 1). Two acts. 

Within a few months Haydn's Viennese ope- 
retta was followed by the first North German 
Sings picl — surely more than a mere coincidence. 
Standfuss's music has been preserved only in 
Hiller's revised version of the opera (see 1766). 
His setting was also heard at Hamburg and K6- 
nigsbcrg 1756; Frankfort 26 September 1757 (re- 
vived 20 November 1770); Berlin 31 January 
1 761; Nuremberg Winter 1764-5; and revived 
at Liibeck 27 September 1776. He also composed 
the music for a sequel Der lustige Schuster (see 
1759). 

j. j. rousseau: Le Devin du Village* 

18 October. Fontainebleau 
Text by the composer (intermede). One act. 

First produced at Fontainebleau with a pasticcio 
overture and recitatives by Jelyotte and Fran- 
coeur. Produced at the Opera, Paris 1 March 
1753 with Rousseau's original recitatives and 
with a newly composed overture. Given there 
more than 400 times until 1829 (20 April 1779 in 
an altered version, with 6 new airs). 

Some days after the production at the Paris 
Opdra, on 4 March 1753 given at the palace of 
Bellevue, at the private theatre of Mme de Pom- 
padour who played the part of Colin. 

Revived in Paris at the Comedie-Francaise 29 
May 1838; Th. du Vaudeville 30 August 1864 
(partly re-orchestrated by J. Cadaux) ; Galerie Vi- 
vienne 24 December 1896; O.C. 27 June 19 12 
(previously at Ermenonville 23 June 191 2; music 
revised by J. Tiersot); Petite Scene 5 May 1923. 

Outside Paris given (in French) at Brussels 
1753; Lyons 1754; The Hague 28 March 1754; 
Stockholm 9 February 1758; Frankfort Novem- 



ber 1759; Vienna Autumn 1760; Turin Spring 
1761; Liege ro January 1771; Warsaw May 
1778; Hamburg 2.8 June 1782 (on the same bill 
with Les Amours de Bastien et Bastienne, see below) ; 
Gothenburg 2 May 1783 ; Stockholm June 1783 ; 
Amsterdam 1787; New York 21 October 1790; 
Cologne 1795-6; St. Petersburg 1797; Berne 10 
June 1809; Casscl Spring 1811; Quebec 26 May 
1846 (by the Societe des Amateurs Canadicns); 
Algiers September 1901 (by the Petit Athenee). 

A Dutch version by J. F. Cammacrt was pub- 
lished at Brussels in 1758 (reprinted 1762). Pro- 
duced in Dutch at The Hague in 1769 (if not 
earlier). Revived Amsterdam December 1932 (by 
the Dutch Chamber Opera). 

An English version, by Charles Burney, The 
Cunning-Man (a musical entertainment, imitated and 
adapted to the original music) was produced in Lon- 
don, D. L. 21 November 1766 and Dublin 1767. 

Apart from Burney's adaptation, there was an 
anonymous English version, The Village Conjurer, 
published in 1767 (in Vol. 11 of Rousseau s Miscel- 
laneous Works). 

A German version by C. Dielitz was published 
in 1820. Produced in German only much later: 
Vienna 5 March 1909 (by amateurs); Leipzig 21 
March 1911 (Dielitz's translation revised by P. 
Prina, music arranged by R. Gound) ; Zurich 29 
June 1912. 

The great success of Le Devin du Village soon 
called forth a parody. It was written by C. S. 
Favart (in collaboration with his wife and Harny 
de Guerville and called Les Amours de Bastien et 
Bastienne). Produced at the C.I., Paris 4 August 
1753 (5 0tn performance as early as 19 December 
1753). In French also, Fontainebleau 3 November 
1753 ; Brussels November 1753 ; Laxenburg (near 
Vienna) 16 June 1755 ; Vienna 5 July 1755 ; Frank- 
fort 27 March 1764; Hamburg 28 June 1782; 
Gothenburg 4 May 1783 ; Sielce (Poland) 7 Sep- 
tember 1788; Lazienk (near Warsaw) Summer 
1 79 1 (music arranged by Gaetano). Revived Paris, 
Petite Scene 5 May 1923 (along with Le Devin 
du Village). 

Les Amours de Bastien et Bastienne was first given 
in German at Berlin, Donner'sches Haus 29 May 



217 



218 



1752 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1752-53 



1 763 (see M. Dubinski in Die Musik, August 1912, 
p.142). Another German version, by F. W. Weis- 
kern, was first produced at Vienna, Ka. 5 May 

1764 (according to J. H. F. Miiller, Genaue Nach- 
richten . . ., 1772; later authorities give 5 April 
1764) and subsequently at Briinn 1770; Prague 
n February 1772; Berlin 22 October 1773, etc. 
Revived Vienna, Jos. 29 May 1779 and Leop. 
29 October 1781; Munich 29 January 1784 (as 
Bastien und Bastienne, oder In derLiehe mussgezankt 
sein). 

For Mozart's new setting of Weiskern's adap- 
tation, see 1768. 

Abert (i, 141, note) quotes a 1764 edition of 
Weiskern's version. In the British Museum there 
is a copy of a 1774 edition with additions by 
J. H. F. Miiller (cf. Music andLetters, October 1942). 

Another parody on Le Devin du Village was 
J. J. Vade's La nouvelle Bastienne, produced at the 
O.C., Paris 17 September 1754; it was much less 
successful than Favart's work. 

gluck: La Clemenza di Tito 

4 November, Naples, S.C. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1734). Three acts. 

Gluck introduced the air Se mat send spirarti 
from this opera afterwards into Iphiginie en Tau- 
ride (see 1779) where it became Oh malheureuse 
Iphiginie. 

G. scarlatti: I portentosi Effetti 
della Madre Natura 

11 November. Venice, S. Sam. 

Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 
Outside Italy given at : 

Trieste 1754 (in Italian). 

Munich 1758 (in Italian). 

hague 1 March 1760 (in Italian; production re- 
corded by D. F. Scheuerleer and J. Fransen; an 
Italian-French libretto of 1754, translated by 
one Dampenet, is mentioned in Cat. Bibl. So- 
leinne vi, 406). 

Nuremberg 4 January 1763 (in Italian). 

Berlin 19 December 1763 (in Italian). 



frankfort 3 October 1764 (in German, as Die 

wunderbare Wirkung der Natur). 
Brunswick February 1765 (in Italian). 
Madrid 12 June 1766 (in Spanish, translated by 

R. de a Cruz, additional music by P. Esteve). 

blavet : Lejaloux corrige 

18 November. Berny 
Text by C. Colle. One act. 

First performed at the Comte de Clermont's 
palace. Paris, O. 1 March 1753 (on the same bill 
with Rousseau's Le Devin du Village, see above). 
In French also Mannheim 1754. The score consists 
chiefly of airs from the Italian intermezzi then 
being performed in Paris (La Serva Padrona, II 
Giocatore and II Maestro di Musica). Blavet com- 
posed the recitatives and the vaudeville finale. 
See on this early French comic opera L. de La 
Laurencie in V Annie Musicale, 1912. 

GALUPPi:La Calamita de Cuori 

26 December. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Given at Rome, Capr. February 1757 in a re- 
duced 2-act version (ridotta afarsetta) and at Bo- 
logna January 1759 in a still shorter one-act 
version (ridotta ad intermezzo as Gli quattro Amanti 
in un Amante solo). Revived Reggio 30 April 1768 
and Modena May 1768 (as La Straniera rico- 
nosciuta). 

Outside Italy given at Prague 1754; Leipzig 
15 May 1754; Dresden 18 July 1754; Hamburg 
13 November 1754; Moscow 9 February 1759 (in 
Italian; Russian translation by E. Bulatnitsky pub- 
lished in same year); London 3 February 1763 
(with an overture by J. C Bach); Bonn 16 De- 
cember 1764; Lisbon and Warsaw 1766; Aran- 
juez Spring 1769. 

1753 

jommelli: Attilio Regolo 

$ January. Rome, T. delle Dame 
Metastases text (first set to music by Hasse, see 
1750). Three acts. 



219 



220 



1753 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1753 



Also given in London 23 April (not n May) 
1754 (first Jommelli opera in London) and re- 
vived 15 May 1762; revived Naples, S.C. 23 
March 1761. 

mondonville: Titonetl'Aurore 

g January. Paris, O. 
Text by Abbe de La Marre, retouched by G. A. F. 
de Voisenon; the prologue by A. Houdar de La 
Motte (pastorale-he'roique). Prologue and 3 acts. 

Revived in Paris 22 February (not January) 
1763 and 12 January 1768; Fontainebleau 18 Oc- 
tober 1764; Marseilles 1777. 

In French also Brussels October 1754; Gothen- 
burg 24 January 1763; Cassel 1767. 

In Italian (translated by C. I. Frugoni) Parma 
Autumn 1758. 

Parodies: (1) Totinet, by L. Poinsinet and M. 
Portelance, O.C. 23 February 1753. (2) Raton et 
Rosette ou La Vengeance inutile, text by C. S. Fa- 
vart, music partly from Mondonville's opera, 
partly by Sodi, C.I. 28 March 1753. In French 
also Fontainebleau 27 October 1753; Vienna 14 
September 1755; Ulriksdal (Sweden) 1 Septem- 
ber 1756; Hague 1760. Revived Paris, C.I. 20 
June 1773. There is also a Dutch translation by 
J. T. Neyts (n.d.). In Swedish (translated by C. 
Envallsson), Stockholm 2 April 1799. (3) Le Rien f 
by J. J. Vade, O.C. 10 April 1753. (4) Titonet, by 
J. Bailly, published 1758, not performed. 

hasse: Solimano 

5 February. Dresden 
Text by G. A. Migliavacca. Three acts. 

One of Hasse' s most famous works, produced 
with the utmost splendour (see Ctiriosa Saxonica, 
I753» p.66). A revival at Pesaro 1772 is doubtful. 

GRAUN:5l7/fl 
27 March. Berlin, O. 
Text by King Frederick n of Prussia (written in 
French, founded on Duchess Scylla, see 1701), 
translated into Italian by G. P. Tagliazucchi. A 
German translation by F. W. Eichholz was pub- 
lished at Halberstadt in 1753. Three acts. 



Revived Berlin January 1783. 

An English translation by S. Derrick (Sylla) 
was published in London 1753. (It does not seem 
to have been intended for a production in Lon- 
don. None of Graun's operas was ever produced 
in England.) 

rinaldodi caw k: La Zingar a* 

igjune. Paris, O. 
Librettist unknown. Two acts. 

Rinaldo di Capua's most famous work and the 
only one which has been preserved as a whole. 
It is unlikely that the 1753 Paris performance of 
this popular intermezzo was the first production ; 
but it is the earliest of which we know. Accord- 
ing to Ortolani the work probably dates from 

1739. 

In Italian also given at Pesaro Carnival 1755; 
Mayence 1758; York October 1763 (IThe 
Fortune Teller, by Italian singers; see S. Rosenfeld, 
Strolling Players in the Provinces, 1939, p.160). 

It was, however, in its French version that La 
Zingara made headway; this was called La Bohi- 
mienne (adapted by C. S. Favart, additions from 
Pergolesi and others) and produced at Paris, C.I. 
28 July 1755. x In French also Brussels and Liege 
1756; Hague 1758; Vienna 1758 (as L'Egyp- 
tienne); Nuremberg 2 February 1763; Frankfort 
5 April 1764; Dresden 1 May 1764; Stockholm 
October 1768; Warsaw September 1778; Goth- 
enburg 27 April 1783. 

In Swedish (translation by C. H. Flintberg), 
Stockholm 28 September 1780; Gothenburg 12 
September 1783. 

In Russian perhaps Moscow 25 June 1788 (no 
composer mentioned). 

There are two Dutch versions of the libretto, 
by J. T. Neyts and by J. Nomsz (n.d.). 

Two English pieces, the one by an unknown 
author, with music by Barthelemon (La Zingara, 
or The Gipsey, London, Marylebone Gardens 25 
[not 21] August 1773), the other by C. Dibdin, 

1 There was an unsuccessful rival version by Mous- 
tou, also called La Bohemietme, produced at the O.C. 
Paris 14 July 1755 (music arranged by C. F. Clement). 



221 



222 



1753 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1753-54 



with music by Arnold (The Gipsy, London Hm. 
3 August 1778), have, according to Iacuzzi, 
nothing in common with Favart's version. 

La Zingara was revived, with a new German 
libretto, music arranged by R. von Mojsisovicz, 
at the Conservatoire, Graz 27 May 1927 and at 
Fiirth 12 November 1927 (as Die chinesischen 
Maichen). 

For details on the music of La Zingara and La 
Bohimienne see P. Spitta in Vierteljahrsschrift fur 
Musikwissenschaft, Vol. m (1887) and Sonneck's 
Catalogue, pp.1168, 1169. 

sellitti: II Cinese rimpatriato 
ip June, Paris, O. 
Librettist unknown. One act. 

Produced on the same bill with La Zingara, 
with an overture by Jommelli (which, accord- 
ing to La Laurencie, did its best to sound Chinese). 

There are two different French adaptations; 
Le Chinois poli en France, by L. Anseaume, pro- 
duced at Paris, O.C. 20 July 1754; Brussels 23 
August 1755; Vienna, Laxenburg 2 June 1756; 
and Les Chinois, by C. S. Favart and J. A. 
Naigeon, additional music from Pergolesi and 
Cocchi, Paris C.I. 18 March 1756 (revived 28 
February 1760); Brussels 17 July 1756; Hague 
1759; Amsterdam 1760. Dutch version by J. T. 
Neyts printed (n.d.). 

dauvergne: Les Troqueurs* 
30 July. Paris, O.C. 
Text by J. J. Vade* (after Lafontaine). One act 
Called by the Mercure de France "premier Inter- 
mede que nous ayons eu en France dans le gout 
purement Italien". 

In French also given at Brussels November 
1753; Stockholm 1754; Hague and Vienna 1758; 
Frankfort 20 May 1760; Nuremberg 15 January 
1763; St. Petersburg 1 May 1765; Dresden 1765. 
A parody by Farm de Hautemer, Le Troc, was 
published in 1756. 

There is a printed Dutch version by J. T. Neyts 
(n.d.). 



Revivals: Paris, Th. du Rire 25 March 1899; 
Brussels, Th. Moliere 14 December 1905 ; Paris, 
Petite Scene 30 January 1925. 

ferrandini: Catotte in Utica 
12 October, Munich 
Metastases text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1727). Three acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the new 
Munich opera-house "Teatro Nuovo presso la 
Residenza", afterwards known as the "Residenz- 
Theater"). 

dauvergne: La Coquette trompee* 

13 November. Fontainebleau 
Text by C. S. Favart (comidie en musique). One 
act. 

Revived Paris, O. 8 August 1758 (as the third 
act of a 4-act opera-ballet, called Les Festes 
d'Euterpe). 

agnesi: Ciro in Armenia 

26 December. Milan, T.R.D. 
Text probably by the composer. Three acts. 

The most important work of Maria Teresa 
d'Agnesi-Pinottini, one of the earliest Italian 
women composers of operas. 



1754 
MARIA ANTONIA WALPURGIS*. 

Il Trionfo della Fedelta 
Summer. Dresden 
Text by the composer (with alterations by 
Metastasio). Three acts. 

The first opera of the Saxon Princess; Hasse 
composed parts of the music. Revived Munich 
6 February 1761; Bonn 1769; Padua 14 June 
1772. 

The score was published in 1756. A German 
translation of the libretto (by J.C. Gottsched?) 
appeared in F. W. Marpurgs Historisch-Kritische 
Beytrdge, Vol m, pt.4 (1757); other German ver- 



223 



224 



1754 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1754 



sions appeared at Leipzig 1754 (Der Triumph der 
Treue) and Dresden 1767 (Der Sieg der Treue). 
The opera is not identical, as has been assumed, 
with a pasticcio of the same tide, produced at 
Charlottenburg August 1753. 

A French translation, by De Marolle, was pub- 
lished in 1765. 

gluck: Le Cinesi 
24 September. Schlosshof, near Vienna 
Text by P. Metastasio (trattenimento drammatico, 
originally set to music by Caldara — not by Reutter 
— in 1735 and in a revised form by Conforto in 
175 1). 1 One act. 

Produced at the Prince of Saxe-Hildburg- 
hausen's Palace of Schlosshof (between Vienna 
and Pressburg) and repeated at the Burgtheater, 
Vienna, on 17 April 1755. Also given in Italian 
at St. Petersburg 18 or 19 February 1761. 

galuppi: II Filosofo di Campagna* 
26 October. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Galuppi's most famous work and the most 
popular Italian comic opera between Pergolesi's 
La Serva Padrona (1733) and Piccinni's La buona 
Figliuola (1760). The Venice 1754 production is 
the first of which a libretto is extant. An earlier 
performance at Milan in the summer of 1750 is 
recorded by Paglicci-Brozzi (It Regie Ducal Teatro 
di Milano net Secolo xvm t p.120) and has been 
accepted by Schatz and Sonneck; but the first 
known Milan libretto dates from 1755. Another 
production which may have been Galuppi's opera 
is mentioned in the unpublished diary of D. M. 
Galeati (Bibl. Com., Bologna) under the date of 
19 August 1754: "... nel Teatro Formagliari si 

1 The editor of the standard edition of Metastases 
Opere (Paris, Herissant, 1780-82) is responsible for two 
wrong statements concerning Le Cinesi, namely that 
the little work had been first set by Reutter, and 
that the author altered it for Gluck. As a matter of fact, 
Caldara was the first composer, and the revised version 
(with four, instead of three, characters) was made for 
Niccold Conforto, whose setting, as La Festa Cinese, 
was heard at Aranjuez 30 May 1751, three years before 
Gluck. 



recitava . . . poi si recito . . . il Filosofo in Villa". 
But no Bolognr. 1754 libretto is extant either. 

Very successful all over Italy; given in a re- 
duced two-act version as La Serva astuta at Rome 
Carnival 1757 and Venice 18 November 1761; 
given at Bassano Carnival 1763 as La Campagna. 

Outside Italy given at Frankfort 21 April 1755 
(and 1 April 1764 as intermezzo); Dresden 13 
June 1755; Prague 1755; Mannheim 1756 (reviv- 
ed Schwetzingen March 1771); Munich 1758; 
Barcelona 1758; St. Petersburg 16 September 
1758; Pressburg 1759; Brussels June 1759 (as 1/ 
Tutore burlato). 

London 6 January 1761 (revived 21 April 1768, 
"but not heard with the same pleasure", accord- 
ing to Bumey, and again 16 January 1770 and 
8 February 1772). 

Dublin Carnival 1762 (presumably as 1/ Tu- 
tore burlato; this production is always quoted as 
The Guardian trick'd for the simple reason that 
the British Museum copy of the libretto lacks the 
first, Italian, title-page). 

Vienna 1763 and 1768; Bonn 3 January 1764; 
Zaragoza 1764; Carlsbad Summer 1765; Berlin 
18 July 1765; Warsaw 1766; Stralsund January 
1769; Salamanca c. 1769; Hermannstadt 1770 (as 
La Serva astuta; Galuppi's opera?) ; Moscow 1774; 
Reval and Riga 1777; Stockholm 9 November 
1780 (as II Filosofo ignorante di Campagna). 

In Spanish (translated by R. de la Cruz) Madrid 
26 January 1766 and Barcelona [20 June] 1769. 

A German adaptation (Der Philosoph auf dem 
Lande, nachgeahmt von Kurz) was given at 
Vienna, Ka\, on 12 May 1770 (according to J. H. 
F. Mtiller, Gcnaue Nachrichten . . ., 1772). 

An English adaptation The Wedding Ring, text 
and music by Charles Dibdin, was produced at 
D.L., London, on 1 February 1773. 

// Filosofo di Campagna was revived at the Liceo 
Benedetto Marcello, Venice 28 February 1907 
(at Goldoni's bicentenary festival, under the 
direction of Wolf-Ferrari) ; at Treviso 20 April 
1927 (in the reduced Serva astuta version, music 
arranged by G. G. Bernardi) ; and at Casa Rezzo- 
nico, Venice 26 July 1938 (music arranged by 
V. Mortari). 



225 



226 



1754-55 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1755 



mondonville: Daphnis et 
Alcimadure 

29 October, Fontainebleau 
Text by the composer (pastouralo Toulouzeno, in 
Languedoc dialect). Prologue in French, Lesjeux 
Jioraux, text by C. A. F. de Voisenon. Prologue 
and 3 acts. 

Given at the Paris Opera on 29 December 1754 
and revived there in French on 10 June 1768 and 
17 March 1773. The French version, according 
to Grimm (1768), is also by the composer. Given 
at Montpellier (in the patois of that town) on 
25 August 1758 (in concert form); Versailles 12 
and/or 19 December 1764* 

Parodies \ Jerosme et Fanchonette ou La Pastorale 
de la Grenouillere, by J. J. Vade, O.C. 18 February 
1755; Les Amours de Mathurine, by J. Lacombe, 
CI. 10 June 1756; Vheureuse Feinte (anonymous), 
published 1756. 

c o c c h i : Li Matti per Amore 

Autumn. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text: an altered version of G. A. Federico's 
Amor vuol Sofferenza (see 1739). Three acts. 

Given at Vicenza Spring 1755; at Modena, 
T. Rangoni Summer 1755 as ll Signor doe. In 
Italian also Munich 1761 ; Nuremberg 19 January 
1763; Berlin Carnival 1764, etc. 

(The libretto has often been attributed to Gol- 
doni who, perhaps, altered the original text for 
Venice.) 

1755 

v. pallavicino and fischietti: 
Lo Speziale 

Carnival. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Pallavicino composed the first act, Fischietti 
the rest of the opera. 

Given at Rome Carnival 1757 in a reduced 
farsetta version; revived at Mantua 21 January 
1764 with sub-title Lajinta Ammalata; at Treviso 
Spring 1770 as ll Bottanico Novellista. 



Outside Italy given at Dresden July 1755; 
Prague 1756; St. Petersburg Carnival 1758; 
Munich 1759 ; Copenhagen Autumn 1 759 
(Danish translation in the libretto by R. Soel- 
berg); Trieste 1760; Cadiz 1762; Sevilla 1764; 
London 6 May 1769. 

(For Haydn's setting of the same libretto see 
1768; for a German version see 1771.) 

graun: Montezuma* 

6 January. Berlin, O. 
(Original French) text by King Frederick 11, 
Italian version by G. P. Tagliazucchi. Three acts. 

Repeated Berlin Carnival 1771. Revived Saar- 
briicken 13 October 1936 (German version by 
F. Neumeyer.) 

The score was published as Vol. xv of Denk- 
maler deutscher Tonkunst in 1904 (edited by A. 
Mayer-Reinach). 

hasse: Ezio 

20 January. Dresden 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Auletta in 
1728). Three acts. 

Also given in London 12 April 1755. (Hasse is 
mentioned as the composer in the libretto; ac- 
cording to Burney the music was by Perez.) 

(An earlier setting by Hasse of the same li- 
bretto, produced Naples 1730, is lost.) 

smith: The Fairies 

j February. London, D.L. 
Text by the composer (from A Midsummer 
Night's Dream). Prologue and 3 acts. 

(The text has often been attributed to Garrick, 
who repudiated the authorship in a letter to 
James Murphy French, December 1756.) Also 
given at New York 29 May 1786 and Phila- 
delphia 29 June 1787. According to Pohl, this 
was the first attempt to introduce recitative into 
English opera. 

"Garrick has produced a detestable English 
opera, which is crowded by all true lovers of 
their country. To mark the opposition to Italian 



227 



228 



1755 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1755 



opera, it is sung by some cast singers, two Ital- 
ians, a French girl, and the chapel boys; and to 
regale with sense, it is Shakspeare's Midsummer 
Night's Dream, which is forty times more non- 
sensical than the worst translation of any Italian 
opera-books". (Horace Walpole, letter to Richard 
Bentley, 23 February 1755.) 

jommelli: Pelope 

1 1 February. Stuttgart 
Text by M. Verazi. Three acts. 

The first of Jommelli's Stuttgart operas which 
is extant. Revived Lisbon Carnival 1768. 

[duni] : Le Caprice amoureux ou 
Ninette a la Cour 

12 February. Paris, C.L 
Text by C. S. Favart (a French version or "par- 
ody" of Goldoni's Bertoldo, Bertoldino e Caca- 
senno, see 1749). Originally in 3 acts; reduced to 
2 acts 8 March 1756 (date according to the 
Mercure de France). 

From O. G. T. Sonneck's study in Sammel- 
bande of the I.M.S., Vol. xn (1910-11) it appears 
that Duni was not the composer of this opera 
which really was a pasticcio from Ciampi, Latilla, 
Cocchi, Sellitti, Jommelli, Vinci, etc. Duni cer- 
tainly arranged the score for Favart. He is, 
however, called the composer in most books of 
reference, and he was regarded as such as early 
as 1776 (on the title-page of the Copenhagen 
libretto of the same opera). 

Duni's autograph score, preserved at Vienna, 
bears the title Le Retour au Village. 

In French also given at Brussels 30 January 
1756; Liege and Hague 1759; Vienna 1760; 
Amsterdam 1761 ; Frankfort 24 May 1762; Press- 
burg 11 July 1764; Dresden 2 December 1765; 
St. Petersburg 26 December 1765; Copenhagen 
24 October 1767; Smolna 23 January 1776; 
Warsaw August 1778. 

In Danish, Copenhagen 12 March 1776 (as 
pasticcio; translated by N. K. Bredal). 

In Swedish, Stockholm 29 October 1793 and 
Lund 16 September 1795 (as pasticcio; translated 
by J. M. Lannerstjerna). 



A Dutch translation by J. F. Cammaert was 
published in 1757 (reprinted 1762) ; performed in 
Dutch Amsterdam 1773. 

A German translation by C. L. R[euling] was 
published at Prague in 1769; performed in 
German Mayence £.1765; Pressburg 1778; Agram 
29 August 1784; Budapest 26 July 1796. 

English adaptations were The Capricious Lovers 
(text by R. Lloyd, music by G. Rush), London, 
D.L. 28 November 1764; and Phillis at Court (an 
alteration of the same text, music by T. Gior- 
dani), Dublin 25 February 1767 (see W. J. 
Lawrence in The Musical Quarterly, Vol. vm, 
p.397). 

(For an Italian version of the libretto see 1765 ; 
for Weisse's German version of the libretto, see 
1767.) 

A new version of the original libretto by 
Creuze de Lesser (new music by Berton) was 
produced at the O.C., Paris 21 December 1811; 
another version, by F. V. A. d'Artois de Bour- 
nonville and E. T. M. Ourry at the Vaudeville 
28 October 1822; another one, by J. H. Dupin 
and T. M. F. Sauvage, at the Th. Porte St. 
Martin on 26 November 1822 (music arranged 
by A. Piccinni); and a fourth version, by N. 
Brazier, P. F. A. Carmouche and Joslin, at the 
Varietes 19 December 1822. 

ar A J A : Cephal i Prokris 
IJe(|)ajr& h IIpoKpHci. 

10 March. St. Petersburg 
Text by A. P. Sumarokov. Three acts. 

Excerpts from this very early Russian opera 
(the ms score of which has been preserved) were 
published by V. Morkov in 1862. 

A French translation by De Henninger was 
printed in 1755. 

uttini: II Re Pastore 

2 4j u h- Stockholm 
Metastases text (first composed by Bonno in 
175 1). Three acts. 

Produced at the palace of Drottningholm. The 
best of Uttini* s Italian operas and the only one of 



229 



230 



1755 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



i755-5<5 



which the score was printed. See on his activity 
in Sweden E. Sundstrom in Svensk Tidskrift fir 
Musikforskning, Vol. xm (193 1). 

jommelli: Enea nelLazio 

30 August. Stuttgart 
Text by M. Verazi. Three acts. 

Revived Ludwigsburg 6 January 1766; Lisbon 
Carnival 1767. 

galuppi: Le Nozze 

14 September. Bologna, T. Formagliari 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy: Milan, T.R.D. Autumn 
1756; Venice Carnival 1757, etc. Given at Peru- 
gia Carnival 1759 and on many other stages as 
Le Nozze di Dorina. 

Outside Italy given at Mannheim 1757; Prague 
1760; Barcelona [23 August] 1760; London 1 
February 1762; Bonn 13 May 1764; Vienna 1764; 
Lisbon 1766; Dresden 1766; Warsaw 1766. 

(The first production at Bologna was at the 
T. Formagliari, not at the T. Marsigli Rossi, ac- 
cording to a note in D. M. Galeatd's unpublished 
diary, 13 September 1755, and according to the 
original libretto.) This Goldoni text became fa- 
mous again when Sarti set it 27 years later 
under the new title of Fra due litiganti il terzo gode 
(see 1782). 

G L u c k : Ulnnocenza giustificata 

8 December. Vienna, B. 
Text by Count G. Durazzo (airs by Metastasio). 
One act (2 parts). 

Repeated in August 1756 and revived Summer 
1768 in a revised version as La Vestale. See on this 
opera A. Einstein's paper in The Monthly Musical 
Record, September 1936. ("Orfeo stands in much 
the same relation to L'Innocenza giustificata as 
Lohengrin does to Rienzi".) The score was pub- 
lished in 1937 (Vol. Lxxxn of Denkmaler der 
Tonkunst in Osterreich, edited by A. Einstein). 
According to L. T. Belgrano an opera called 
Vlnnocenza giustificata was also given at Genoa, 



T. Falcone Spring 1760. It may have been 
Gluck's as no other opera of that title is known. 

scolari: La Cascina 
27 December. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Scolari's most popular comic opera. Given at 
Bassano Carnival 1763, as La Campagna; in Italy 
until 1772. 

In Italian also produced at Dresden 30 June 
1756; Trieste Carnival 1757; St. Petersburg 
Autumn 1758; Barcelona [7 April] 1761 (with 
some airs by Brusa); Dublin 19 December 1761; 
Nuremberg 15 November 1762; London 8 Jan- 
uary 1763 (as pasticcio, text arranged by G. G. 
Bottarelli); Berlin December 1763; Pressburg 
26 December 1764; Warsaw 1765; Lisbon Car- 
nival 1766; Gotha 18 September 1767 (German 
translation in the libretto by A. S. Perrin); 
Vienna 1768 (as pasticcio). 



1756 

cafaro: La Disfatta di Dario 
20 January. Naples, S.C. 
Text by N. G. Morbilli, Duke of Sant'Angelo. 
Three acts. 

Cafaro's first opera and the first setting of this 
favourite libretto. 

Revived Florence, P. Autumn 1757, etc. 

fischietti: La Ritornata di Londra 

7 February. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy; given at Parma Autumn 
1757, as La Virtuosa ritornata da Londra; at Genoa 
[22 December] 1758 and Modena 12 January 
1760 as II Ritorno di Londra. Outside Italy given 
at Dresden 22 July 1756; Prague Carnival 1757; 
St. Petersburg 25 February 1758; Liibeck 24 July 
1758; Hague 1759; Barcelona [6 May] 1761; 
Munich 1761; Copenhagen Carnival 1762; 
Nuremberg 8 November 1762; Berlin October 
1764; C6rdoba 1769; Potsdam 26 July 1776. 



231 



232 



I75<5 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1756-57 



gluck: Antigono 

g February. Rome, Arg. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Hasse, see 
1743). Three acts. 

Gluck used in this opera parts from his earlier 
works. 

hasse: Olimpiade* 

16 February. Dresden 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

Revived Warsaw Carnival 1761; Turin 26 
December 1764. 

graun: Metope 

27 March, Berlin, O. 
(Original French) text by King Frederick n (after 
Voltaire), Italian version by G. P. Tagliazucchi. 
Three acts. 

Graun's last opera. It was also the last opera 
produced at Berlin before the Seven Years* War, 
and the first which was given there after the war 
(revived 19 March 1764 and once more Carnival 
1773). 

[philidor] : Le Diable a quatre 
ou La double Metamorphose 

19 August. Paris, O.C. 
Text by J. M. Scdaine (from Coffey's The Devil 
to Pay, see 173 1), adapted by Baurans. Three acts. 

Philidor arranged (and not composed) the mu- 
sic, which consists of popular airs. 

In French also given at Laxenburg (near 
Vienna) 28 May 1759 (with additional airs by 
Gluck); Liege 8 December 1759; Hague and 
Amsterdam 1760; Brussels 16 January 1762; 
Dresden 1765; Copenhagen 1768. Revived Ver- 
sailles 29 February 1764; Paris, C.I. 14 February 

1790. 

In German (adapted by F. W. Weiskern), 
Vienna, Ka. 29 April 1767. 

In Swedish (translated by C Envallsson), 
Stockholm 3 June 1787 (pasticcio). 

A Polish version by J. Baudouin, with new mu- 
sic by Gaetano, was produced at Warsaw 18 No- 
vember 1787. 



conforto: Nitteti 

23 September, Madrid, Buen Retiro 
Text by P. Metastasio. Three acts. 

The first setting of this famous libretto which 
was Metastasio's last great success, and written 
expressly for Madrid, where his friend, the singer 
Farinelli was then manager of the court theatres. 
Conforto *s setting was produced at the Buen 
Retiro palace, for the celebration of the birthday 
of King Ferdinand vi. 

The remark in the Herissant edition of Metas- 
tases Opere "... scritto dalT autore in Vienna, 
per la Real corte cattolica; ed ivi . . . rappre- 
sentato la prima volta ..." is somewhat mislead- 
ing. A. Delia Corte in his I primi musicisti di Me- 
tastasio (appendix to his biography of Paisiello, 
1922) makes no efforts to settle that point. 

gluck: II Re Pastore 

8 December. Vienna, B. 
Metastasio 's text (first set to music by Bonno in 
175 1). Three acts. 

Gl uck's setting was written for the birthday of 
the Emperor Francis 1. 

brusa: Le Statue 

27 December. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by G. B. Brusa (the son of the composer). 
Three acts. 

Repeated Rome, T. Valle Carnival I75 8 l 
Trieste Carnival 1758; Turin, T. Carignano Au- 
tumn 1763. In Italian also Nuremberg 26 January 
1763 and probably Potsdam 29 July 1768. 

The score of this dramma giocoso per musica by 
the rather unknown Venetian composer was dis- 
covered by A. Delia Corte and is analysed in his 
V Opera comicaitaliananeir '7O0,Vol.i,pp.i26-i35. 

1757 

perez: Solimano 
Carnival. Lisbon, Th. de Salvaterra 
Librettist unknown. Three acts. 

Perez's most important opera (cf. H. Kretzsch- 
mar, Geschichte der Oper, pp.188-189). Revived 
Lisbon 31 March 1768; Palermo 1779. 



233 



234 



1757 



ANNALS 



hamal: Voegge di Cli6foiitahw 

(The Trip to Chaudfontaine) 

23 January. Licgc 

Text by S. J. dc Harlcz, P. G. dc Vivario, P. R. 

dc Carticr, and J. J. Fabry. Opera bttrkss' es trcuz 

act. 

Comic opera written in the Licgc dialect; one 
of a scries of four Walloon operas (the others 
were Li Ligeoi egagy y Li Ficsse di Houte-si-Plou t 
and La Ypocontc). 

First produced in concert form at the Hotcl- 
de-Ville, the first act 23 January, the second act 
16 February, the third act 25 February 1757. The 
whole 19 September 1767, at the inauguration 
of the Liege Theatre, and again 15 June 1776. 
Music preserved. Vocal score published 1858 
(edited by L. Terry). 

The first act was revived at Liege on 13 April 
1867; the whole opera, in a French version by 
H. de Flcurigny, Brussels Th. Moliere 10 March 
1890 and Paris, Nouveautes 2 June 1890. 

(See on this opera C. Bellaigue's study in Revue 
des Deux Mondes, 15 September 192 1.) 

duni : Le Peintre amoureux de 
son Modek 
26 July. Paris, O.C. 
Text by L. Anseaume. Two acts. 

Successful on French stages. 

Outside Paris given at The Hague and Liege 
1759; Turin Spring 1761; Brussels 27 September 
1761; Stockholm 8 November 1764; Warsaw 8 
May 1765; Copenhagen 1767; CasscI 26 January 
1784. 

In German (translated by J. H. Fabcr), Frank- 
fort 1773. 

In Russian (translated by V. G. Voroblcvsky), 
Moscow 18 February 1779. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 31 August 1782. 

A "Parade ct parodie" on Duni's opera, called 
Gilles, Garcon Peintre, z'Amoureux-t-et-Rival, text 
by A. A..H. Poinsinct, music by J. B. de La 
Bordc, was produced at the O.C, Paris 2 March 
1758; and at Copenhagen 1772 (in French). 



OF OPERA 1757 

TRAETTA:Ltf Didone ahbandonata 

Autumn. Venice, S. Moisc 

Mctastasio's text (first set to music by Sarro, see 
1724). Three acts. 

Successful in Italy (Milan, T.R.D. January 
1763 ; Naples, S.C. January 1764, with prologue 
by Majo; Parma 1764, etc.). 

G. Scarlatti: Uhola disabitata 

20 November. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

The most successful opera of the younger 
Scarlatti. 

Given at Genoa T. Falcone, [14 August] 1760 
as La Chinese smarrita. In Italian also given at 
Vienna 1757 (revived 12 May 1763, reduced to 
1 act, and 9 December 1773); Trieste Carnival 
1759; Barcelona 4 November 1761; Klagenfurt 
1765; Prague Summer 1767; Dresden 10 No- 
vember 1767. 

fischietti: II Mercato di Malmantile 

26 December. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

It seems that the music originally was to be 
written by G. Scarlatti as his name occurs in the 
original libretto overpastcd with a slip bearing 
Fischietti's name. Very successful in Italy and 
abroad; given at Barcelona [8 April] 1760; Cadiz 
Spring 1762; Valenzia Autumn 1768. 

London 10 November 1761 and, with new 
songs (by Galuppi?), 14 April 1762; revived 28 
January 1769. 

Dublin Carnival 1762; Nuremberg 3 Novem- 
ber 1762; Lisbon Carnival 1763; Vienna 15 May 
1763 (according to Zinzcndorf's diary); Frank- 
fort 7 April 1764; Warsaw 1765; Dresden 6 Feb- 
ruary 1766 (revised by the composer); Hanover 
26 February 1770; Bonn 1772, etc. 

In Spanish, Madrid Carnival 1764 (as La 
Feria de Valdemoro, translation by J. Clavijo y 
Fajardo). 



235 



236 



1758 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1758 



1758 
majo: Ricimero, Re dei Goti 

Carnival. Parma 
Librettist unknown. Three acts. 

Majo's first opera. Successful in Italy; Rome 
Carnival 1759; Naples 1760, etc. 

holzbauer: Nitteti. 

Carnival Turin, T.R. 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Conforto, 
see 1756). Three acts. 

In Italian also, Mannheim 4 November 1758. 
One of the few Italian operas of Holzbauer which 
are extant. 

dauvergn£: Bnee etLavinie 

14 February* Paris, O. 

Text adapted by Paradis de Moncrif from an old 

libretto by B. de Fontenelle (first set to music by 

Cclasse in 1690). Five acts. 

The most successful of Dauvcrgne's serious 
operas; revived in Paris 6 December 1768 (rectify 
Lajarte who says that it was never revived). 

An anonymous parody VEmharras du Choix 
was produced at the O.C. on 13 March 1758. 

In French opera one of the earliest examples of 
re-setting an old libretto, a practice so common 
in Italy; see Mercure dc France, December 1765. 

gluck: Uhle de Merlin cm 
Le Monde renverse* 

5 October. Vienna, Schonbrimn 
Text by L. Anseaume (altered from a vaudeville 
by A. R. Lesage and d'Orncval, originally pro- 
duced at the Theatre dc la Foire St. Laurent, 
Paris, in 1718 under the title Le Mdnde renverse*, 
and with Anseaumc's alterations in 1753). One 
act. 

Large parts of the music of Uhle de Merlin 
were used for Die Maienkonigin, a modern Gluck 
pasticcio, text by M. Kalbeck (founded on Les 
Amours champetres, see 1735, note on Rameau's 
Les Indes gal antes), music arranged by J. N. Fuchs. 



First performed at Vienna 13 May 1888, and sub- 
sequently given at Stuttgart 12 January 1899; 
Weimar 1 3 December 1 899, etc. ; Dresden 3 1 Oc- 
tober 1902; Berlin 26 April 1912 ; Graz 8 October 
1914. 

In German also, Prague 7 January 1900; Riga 
23 January 1904; Zurich February 1909; Phila- 
delphia 1 December 1927. 

Translations from Kalbeck's version produced 
at: 

Stockholm 16 March 1896 (in Swedish). 
Budapest 19 March 1913 (in Hungarian, transh- 
iatal by D. Kosztolanyi). 
Kaunas 23 September 1922 (in Lithuanian),. 
copenhaczn 1 7 April 1 93 3 (in Danish, translated 
by H. H. SeedorffPedersen). 

traetta:L' Olimpiade 

Autumn. Verona 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733)* Three acts. 

Revived Florence 15 October 1767; St. Peters- 
burg 2 May 1769. 

fischietti: II Signor Doitore 

Autumn. Venice, S. Moisc 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy; last revived Pavia 1787. 

In Italian, also given at Trieste 26 December 
1759; Brunswick 1760 and February 1766; Mu- 
nich 1760; Barcelona [6 September] 1761 ; Prague 
1762; Lisbon Carnival 1763 (as II Dottore); 
Cadiz [23 January] 1764; Vienna, Laxenburg 6 
June 1764; Warsaw 1766; London 12 March 

1767 (revived 1 May 1770); Dresden Winter 

1768 (revised by the composer); Bonn 1772. 

TRAETf A: Buovo d'Antona 
27 December. Venice, S. Moisc 
Text by C. Goldoni (founded on the Anglo- 
Norman 13 th century romance of Bev is of Hamp- 
ton). Three acts. 
Traetta*s first extant comic opera. 
In Italian also given at Turin, T. Carignano 
1759; Bologna [11 October] 1759; Barcelona [22 



237 



238 



1758-59 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1759 



May] 1760; Sevilla 1764 (first Italian opera there) ; 
Verona Spring 1765; Palma, Mallorca [26 May] 
1767; Dresden 1772. 

In the Zatta edition of Goldoni's plays it is 
stated (Vol xli, 1794) that Buovo d'Antona was 
first produced at Florence in 1750 (without men- 
tioning a composer). Consequently, the date of 
1750 (sometimes misprinted as 1756) for the pro- 
duction of Traetta's opera has been taken over 
by Florimo, Wotquenne, Dent and many others. 
But as long as a (possibly misprinted) date, given 
so many years after the vogue of the opera was 
over, remains the only evidence for a production 
in 1750, it seems to be safer to adopt the date of 
the earliest extant libretto (which mentions 
Traetta as the composer). The year 1758 is also 
given in a biographical note on Traetta in For- 
ked Musikalischer Almanack, 1783, p. 109. See 
also G. Ortolani in Opere complete di Carlo Gol- 
doni, Vol. xxxi, p.552; *\ . . si tratta, come spesso, 
d'un errore evidente . . ."; and "Troppe volte le 
affermazioni dell* edizione Zatta risultano fan- 

tastiche". 

SCALABRINi: 

Den Bebnnede Kiaerlighed eller 
De Troe Elskende 
(Love rewarded or The faithful Lovers) 
2g December. Copenhagen 
Text by J. Windtmolle (translation from an anon- 
ymous Italian libretto II Amor premiato o Gli 
Amanti fedeli). Three acts. 

Scalabrini's first Danish opera (Comisk Synges- 
pil) and one of the earliest operas produced at the 
Danish National Theatre. Music lost. 

1759 

gas s mann: Gli Uccellatori 

Carnival Venice, S, Moise 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Gassmann s first great success; given on many 
other Italian stages. 

In Italian, also Trieste Carnival 1760; Barce- 
lona [6 August] 1760; Madrid 10 December 
1764; Prague Spring 1765 (with additional mu- 
sic by G. Rust); Carlsbad Summer 1765; Dres- 



den 29 October 1765; Warsaw Autumn 1765; 
Palma, Mallorca [6 August] 1767; Vienna Au- 
tumn 1768; London 18 December 1770. 

In Spanish (translated by R. de la Cruz), 
Madrid 20 January 1764. 

standfuss: Der lustige Schuster 

18 January. Lubeck 
Text by C. F. Weisse (founded on C. Coffey's 
The Merry Cobbler, 1735). Three acts. 

The second part of Der Teufel ist los by the 
same authors (see 1752). Also given at Frankfort 
1762; Dresden 9 February 1765 ; and, in a revised 
version by Hiller (cf. note on his Die verwandelten 
Weiber, 1766), Leipzig Summer 1766; Hamburg 
22 August 1769; Weimar 5 May 1771; Berlin 
20 July 1771; Budapest 1774; Altdorf 1777; Salz- 
burg 5 November 1780. On minor German 
stages revived even in the i*9th century (Hanover 
1809; Gorlitz 1820; Miinster 31 August 1873!). 
Given in Swedish (translator not mentioned) at 
Gothenburg 1 April 1783. 

An anonymous opera which, judging from the 
title, might have been a Russian version of Der 
lustige Schuster was produced at Moscow 12 Jan- 
uary 1789. 

m o n s i g n y : Les Aveux indiscrets 

7 February, Paris, O.C. 
Text by La Ribadiere (after Lafontaine). One act. 

In French, also given at Brussels May 1759, 
Frankfort 1760 and Copenhagen 1769. In Ger- 
man Frankfort c.1775. In Russian, Moscow 1787 
(translated by V. A. Levshin). 

A parody of the same title, by Toussaint Gas- 
pard Taconet, was produced at Versailles 19 Feb- 
ruary 1759 and Paris, Th. Nicolet 1764. 

laruette: Cendrillon 

21 February. Paris, O.C. 
Text by L. Anseaume. One act. 

According to the title-page of Duchesne's 

edition, the first performance was the previous 

night, 20 February at the Theatre de la Foire, St. 

Germain. 

The first of the many operas dealing with the 

_ Cinderella subject (see Isouard, 18 10; Steibelt, 



239 



240 



1759 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1759 



1 8 10; Rossini, 18 17; Rozkosny, 1885; Massenet, 
1899; Wolf-Ferrari, 1900). Date of first perform- 
ance according to the Mercure de France; the 
printed libretto has 20 February. Also given at 
Brussels 1766 or earlier. 

philidor: Blaise le Savetier* 

9 March. Paris, O.C. 
Text by J. M. Scdaine (after Lafontaine). One act. 

Philidor's first opera. Very successful in Paris. 
In French also given at Brussels January 1760; 
Hague 1760; Amsterdam 26 May 1762; Turin 
Spring 1765; Hanover 17 July 1769; Cassel 21 
July 1784. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Frank- 
fort 1772; revived Munich 19 May 1785. In 
Swedish (adapted by C. Envallsson), Stockholm 
21 April 1797. Dutch version by J. T. Neyts pub- 
lished (n.d.). A German adaptation Der Dorf- 
balbier by C. F. Weisse, music by Hiller, was 
produced at Leipzig in 177 1. An English version 
The Landlord outwitted or The Coblers Wife, S/s 
Wells 23 June 1783 and 10 May 1784; and as 
Who pays the Rent, or The Landlord outwitted, 8 
May 1797. An English adaptation The Cobter; or 
A Wife of Ten Thousand, text and music by C. 
Dibdin, was produced in London, D.L. 9 De- 
cember 1774. 

traetta: Ippolito ed Aricia 

g May. Parma 

Te: by C. I. Frugoni (an Italian version of Pelle- 

grin's French libretto, set by Rameau, see 1733). 

Five acts. 

Traetta made use of some of Rameau's original 
music (see M. Cooper, Cluck, 1935, p.26). Re- 
vived Parma Spring 1765. 

(Date of first performance indicated in the 
Mercure de France.) 

gluck: Cy there assiegee* 
Summer. Schwetzingen 
Text by C. S. Favart (from Longus's Daphnis et 
Chloe). One act. 



Originally the text had been written by Favart 
and C. B. Fagan as Le Pouvoir de V Amour, ou Le 
Siege de Cf there in 1743. In 1748 it was altered by 
Favart alone and performed as La Cythere assiigie 
at Brussels 7 July 1748; Paris, O.C. 12 August 
1754; and Vienna 1757. The composers of those 
earlier versions are not known. Gluck's setting 
was first produced at Schwetzingen, near Mann- 
heim (exact date unknown) and, according to A. 
Einstein, at Vienna in the same year, 1759, per- 
haps even earlier than at Schwetzingen. Zinzen- 
dorf in his diary mentions a performance at 
Vienna on 17 February 1762. Also given at Lyons 
17 March 1762 (in concert form). Remodelled 
as a 3-act opdra-bailet: Paris, O. 1 (not 11) Au- 
gust 1775 (with additional music by Bcrton, text 
by Moline). In German (translated by K. L. 
Gieseke), Vienna, W. 19 January 1796 (with 
additional music by F. A. Hoffmeistcr). 

Revived Magdeburg 24 January 1929 (new 
German version by L. K. Mayer). 

laruette: UYvrogne corrige 

24 July. Paris, O.C. 
Text by L. Anseaume and Lourdet de Santerre 
(founded on a fable by Lafontaine). Two acts. 

Gluck composed the same text some months 
later (see 1760). Date of first performance accord- 
ing to the Mercure de France. The printed libretto 
has 23 July 1759. Revived Hague 1760. 

gluck: L'Arbre enchante ou 
Le Tuteur dupe 
3 October. Vienna, Schonbrunn 
Text by L. H. Dancourt (altered from an earlier 
French vaudeville by J. J. Vade, called Le Poirier, 
itself based on Lafontaine* s tale La Gageure des 
trois Commeres, produced at Paris, O.C. 7 August 
1752). One act. 

In French, also Hague 31 January 1771. Re- 
modelled by Gluck (text altered by Moline), 
Versailles 27 February 1775 (given there in hon- 
our of a visit of Marie Antoinette's brother, the 
Archduke Maximilian) ; also performed at Rozana 
(Poland), at Prince Sapieha's, 12 September 1784. 



241 



242 



1759-60 



ANNALS OR OPERA 



1760 



In Danish (translated by A. G. Thoroup), 
Copenhagen 21 September 1792. 

In Russian, Moscow 30 June 1793. 

In German (translated by K. L, Gieseke), 
Vienna, W. 31 May 1794. 

Revived Paris, F.P. 27 April 1867 (text altered 
by C. Nuitter) and subsequently at: 
Prague 1868 (in German) according to Wot- 

quenne. 
Brussels, th. moliere 1 8 January 1906 (in 

French). 
frankfort 1 92 1 (in German). 
wiesbaden January 1926 (in German; music 

arranged by A. Rother). 
erlin 3 July 1936 (in German; at the Hoch- 

schule fur Musik). 
Amsterdam January 1937 (by the Dutch Cham- 
ber Opera). 

Vocal score edited by Max Arend, with Ger- 
man version by Kathe Arend-Andrasch, pub- 
lished 1914. 

I76O 

piccinni: La buona Figliuola* 
6 February. Rome, T. delle Dame 
Text by C. Goldoni (founded on Samuel 
Richardson's Pamela or Virtue Rewarded, 1740)- 
Three acts. 

Goldoni had treated the subject as a comedy 
in 1750 and re-wrote it as an opera libretto in 
1756 when it was first set by Duni (Parma 
26 December 1756 and, in French, Paris, C.I. 8 
June 1761). There is also a setting by Perillo, 
given at Venice ten days after the Rome produc- 
tion of Piccinni's opera. 

Piccinnfs 18th opera and his greatest success; 
given all over Italy; at Rome, Capr. February 
1762, as La buona Figliuola Zitella, reduced to a 
"farsetta"; at Reggio May 1763, Modena, T. di 
Corte 18 June 1763, and Florence Autumn 1763 
as La Baronessa riconosciutd ; at Naples, T.N. 
Summer 1778 with many alterations. 

Outside Italy: 
Barcelona [19 March] 1761 (in Italian); sub- 
sequently given at Sevilla 1764; S. Ildefonso 



Summer 1767 (with three additional airs by 
Marescalchi) ; Valencia [4 January] 1769; Aran- 
juez Summer 1769. In Spanish (translated by 
A. Bazo), Madrid 1765, with additional music 
by P. Esteve; Barcelona 1770; Valladolid 1772. 

Nuremberg 7 June 1762 (in Italian; according to 
an advertisement, quoted by F. E. Hysel), 
apparently for the first time in Germany. 

bonn 23 March 1764 (in Italian, revived 13 May 
1772). 

Vienna 19 May 1764 (in Italian, at the Palace of 
Laxenburg; at the Burgtheater, Summer 1768 
and 9 April 1777); in French, Ka. 22 January 
1776; in German, Ka. 5 December 1784. 

Warsaw 1765 (in Italian) and 22 January 1783 
(in Polish, translated by W. Boguslawski) ; in 
Polish also, Wilna 4 April 1799. 

Dresden 16 November 1765 (in Italian; given 
there until 1781). 

Innsbruck 1765. 

London, hm. 25 November 1766 (according to 
advertisement ; Burney gives 9 December 
1766), in Italian; revived there almost every 
season until 1785, and again, 28 May 1789; 5 
May 1796; and 21 June 18 10, for Catalani's 
benefit, "from the original score, with no 
alteration whatever". 

London, c.G. 3 December 1766 (in English, as 
The Accomplished Maid, translated by E. Toms, 
who calls his version the "first attempt of 
bringing an entire musical composition on the 
English stage"; another translation, by T. Hol- 
croft, The Maid of the Vale, was given at Dublin 
in 1775, with new music by Michael Arne; 
the Covent Garden libretto was reprinted at 
Philadelphia in 1777, apparently the first opera 
of Italian origin published in America; but 
there is no record of an American production. 

Berlin December 1768 (in Italian) and 8 Sep- 
tember 1777 (in German, translated by J. J. 
Eschenburg; this version was given on every 
German stage: Berlin 8 September 1777 at 
Dobbelin's Th. and 10 March 1787 at the 
National Th.; St. Petersburg 15 January 1778; 
Hamburg 14 January 1779; Vienna 5 Decem- 
ber 1784; Riga Autumn 1785, etc.). 



243 



244 



1760 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1760 



Copenhagen Autumn 1769 and 2 January 1777 
(in Italian, Danish translation in the libretto by 
F. A. Friis) and 1772 (in French). 

mannheim 4 November 1769 (in Italian) and 2 
May 1782 (in German). 

paris, c.i. 17 June 1771 (in French, translated by 
J. F. Cailhava d'Estandoux, music arranged by 
D. Baccclli; revived there 29 January 1777 
under Piccinni's supervision ; this version was 
also given at Brussels 1771; Maestricht and 
Copenhagen 1772; Vienna 22 January 1776; 
Liege 19 June 1779; Casscl 16 July 1784). In 
Italian: Paris, O. 7 December 1778 and Th. de 
M. 3 February 1790. 

ceuta (morocco) 6 July 1773 (in Italian; see R. 
Twiss, Trauch Through Portugal and Spain, 

1775, p.274). 
bastia (corsica) Carnival 1775 (in Italian). 
eszterhaza Autumn 1776 (in Italian). 
Dublin 17 May 1777 (in Italian; Michael Kelly's 

debut; see his Reminiscences, Vol. 1, p.17). 
RIGA 1777 (in Italian). 
ST. Petersburg 3 1 May 1779 (in Italian). 
kremsmunster 1 78 1 (in Italian). 
Stockholm 28 March 1781 (in Italian) and 10 

September 1788 (in Swedish, translated by C. 

Envallsson). 
kouskovo 13 June or 13 July 1782 (in Russian? 

Russian version by I. A. Dmitrevsky, publish- 
ed in that year). 

An undated Dutch adaptation by J. T. Neyts 
was published about 1770. 

P. L. Ginguene, Piccinni's first biographer 
(1800) reports, with some reserve, a production 
of La buona Figliuola, by Italian Jesuits, at the 
Chinese Court, Peking, before 1778 ! 

La buona Figliuola was revived, under the title 
of La Cecchina and with alterations, at Bari (the 
composer's native town) 7 February 1928 (cele- 
brating the bicentenary of Piccinni's birth, under 
the direction of La Rotella). 

MARIA ANTONIA WALPURGIS: 

Talestri, Regina delle Amazon! 
6 February. Nymphenburg, near Munich 
Text by the composer. Three acts and licenza. 



The second and last opera of the Saxon Prin- 
cess. Revived Dresden 24 August 1763 and 3 De- 
cember 1767 (debut of G. E. Mara). Score pub- 
lished 1765. 

A French translation, by De Marolle, was pub- 
lished in 1765. 

A German adaptation as a tragedy without 
music was published at Zwickau in 1766. 

traetta: / Tintaridi 

April. Parma 
Text by C. I. Frugoni (an Italian version of 
Bernard's Castor et Pollux, see 1737). Five acts. 

In Italian also given at Vienna 1760; revived 
Florence 3 January 1768. 

[Tintaridi is the correct form of the title, not 
Tantaridi or Tantiridi (Goldschmidt), nor Tinda- 
ridi (Riemann), nor Tindari (Schmidl). 

gluck: UYvrogne corrige* 

April Vienna, B. 
Text by L. Anseaume (first set to music by La- 
ruette, see 1759). Two acts. 

In German, Vienna, B. December 178 1 (as 
Der letzte Rausch, by a company of children; 
anonymous translation published Mannheim 
1780); Gotha 14 May 1784 (as Die Trunkenbolde 
in der Holle). 

Revived Paris, Petite Scene 7 June 1922 (in 
French); Nantes 13 March 1928; by the Petite 
Scene also produced at Barcelona Spring 1928 ; 
Amsterdam November 1928; Brussels 26 No- 
vember 1928; Swincmimde Summer 1928 (new 
German version by W. M. Treichlinger) ; Lon- 
don, Birkbeck College 12 March 193 1 (in Eng- 
lish, translated by G. Dunn). Kiel 7 May 1936 
(new German version by B. Engelke). 

durAn: Antigono 

10 July. Barcelona 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Hasse, see 
1743). Three acts. 

Duran's setting seems to be the first opera by 
a Catalan composer expressly written for the 
Barcelona stage. 



245 



246 



1760 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1760 



philidor: Le Soldat Magicien 

14 August. Paris, O.C. 
Text by L. Anseaume (founded on a story by A. 
Le Metel d'Ouville). One act. 

In French also given at Amsterdam 11 April 
1761; Brussels 13 May 1761; Hague 29 Decem- 
ber 1 761; Bonn March 1764; Copenhagen 1767; 
Hanover 17 July 1769. 

In Dutch, Amsterdam 1768 (translations by J. 
T. Neyts and J. F. Cammaert printed). 

In German (translated by J. J. Eschcnburg) : 
Brunswick and Hamburg 1770 (by Ackermann's 
company); Hanover 12 May 1773; Cologne 14 
July 1780; Berlin 25 April 1785, etc. 

Another German version, by *F. W. M/, pub- 
lished at Mannheim in 1 771, was probably used 
by Marchand's company at Frankfort. Sonneck 
attributes this translation to F. L. W. Meyer, but 
this can hardly be correct, as Meyer was born in 
1758. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 29 April 1783. 

In Polish (translated by L. Pierozyiiski), War- 
saw 11 March 1787 (some new music by Gae- 
tano) and Wilna 9 April 1799. 

Revived Paris, Tr. L. 17 January 1920. 

h A s s E : Alcide al Bivio 
8 October. Vienna 
Text by P. Metastasio. One act. 

Written for the wedding of the Archduke 
Joseph and the Princess Isabella of Bourbon and 
performed at the Rcdoutensaal of the Hof burg 
(together with Tetide, a serenata by Gluck which 
is not extant). 

In Italian also given at Copenhagen 2 February 
1 774 (Danish translation in the libretto by F. A. 
Friis); Leipzig 23 December 1777 (under J. A. 
Hiller) and Vienna 11 March 1781 (in concert 
form). 

Vocal score published 1763. 

Revived for the centenary of Hasse's death at 
Dresden 29 December 1883 (in German, as Die 
Wahl des Hcrkules, translated by K. F. Niese) on 
the same bill with one of Hasse's intermezzi, 



Rimario e Grilantea, the actual first production of 
which is not dateable. 

ga vinies: Le Pretendu 

6 November. Paris, C.L 
Text by F. Riccoboni. Three acts. 

The only opera by the famous French violinist. 

In French also given at Frankfort 28 February 
1761; Vienna 15 January 1763; Brussels 1767. 

lampugnani: Amor Contadino 

12 November. Venice, S. Angclo 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

Lampugnani's last traceable opera. Given on 
some Italian stages and (in Italian) also at Munich 
1761; Prague Summer 1763; Copenhagen Au- 
tumn 1763 (Danish translation in the libretto by 
R. Soelbcrg); Lisbon Carnival 1764. 

galuppi: VAmante di tutte* 
j 5 Novembet. Venice, S. Moisc 
Text by A. Galuppi (the son of the composer). 
Three acts. 

Very successful in Italy (Bologna, Verona, 
Turin 1762, Milan, Parma 1763, Florence 1764, 
etc.; given at Rome, Tord. 7 January 1762 as ll 
Matrimonio in Villa ossia VAmante di tutte) and 
abroad: Barcelona [4 May] 1762; Prague 1763; 
Copenhagen Autumn 1763 (as La Moglie bizarre, 
Danish translation in the libretto by R. Soelberg) ; 
Gorizia Carnival 1764; Dresden 1 May 1766 
(revived 30 September 1775); Ljubljana [22 No- 
vember] 1766; Cadiz 20 January 1767; Vienna 
1767 (as // Vecchio geloso); San lldcfonso (Spain) 
Summer 1768; Valencia Autumn 1768; Rostock 
November 1768; Stralsund January 1769; Mann- 
heim Carnival 1770; Lubcck 17 August 1773 (as 
// Vecchio geloso)\ Warsaw 17 January 1776; 
Stockholm 7 February 178 1; Lisbon as late as 
Autumn 1807. 

In German, Leipzig 27 June 1769 (see C. H. 
Schmid, Schreiben uber die Leipzigcr Biifme, 1770). 

In Polish, Warsaw 6 April 1783 (translator 
unknown). 



247 



248 



1760-61 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1 761 



(Date of first performance from Gradenigo's 
unpublished Notatorj.) 

T. A. arne: Thomas and Sally, 
or The Sailor's Return* 

28 November. London, C.G. 
Text by I. Bickcrstaffc. Two acts. 

Successful on English stages: given at Dublin 
27 April 1761 (not December 1759); York 
Spring 1764; Newcastle Summer 1764; Edin- 
burgh 19 January 1765; Philadelphia 14 Novem- 
ber 1766; New York 21 December 1767; Kings- 
ton, Jamaica 2 October 1779. 

In Thomas and Sally, clarinets were introduced 
into the English opera orchestra for the first time. 

Frequently revived in London; recent revivals 
were Lyric Th., Hammersmith, 10 April 1926; 
Arts Theatre Club 24 March 1936; Cambridge 
27 July 1937; New York, Little Th. 4 January 
1938 and London, Mercury Th. 15 June 1939 (by 
the "Intimate Opera Company"); London, New 
Th. 1 July 1941. 

d uni : Ulsle des Foux* 

29 December. Paris, CI. 
Text by L. Anseaume and P. A. Lefevre de Mar- 
couville (founded on Goldoni's Arcifanfano, Re 
dei Matti). Two acts. 

In French, also given at Vienna 4 July 1761; 
Brussels 14 February 1762; Copenhagen 1770; 
Moscow on or before 24 September 1775 (on 
which day Bourree de Corberon attended a per- 
formance); Liege 3 February 1784. 



I76I 

piccinni: Le Vicende della Sorte 

3 January. Rome, Valle 
Text by G. Petrosellini (founded on Goldoni's 
I portentosi Effetti della Madre Natura, see 1752). 
Three acts. 

Very successful in Italy and abroad: Lisbon 6 
June 1766; Dresden 2 December 1766; Bruns- 
wick 1768 (in 2 acts); London 6 November 



1770 (pasticcio; Giordani, Sacchini, Barthelemon 
are named as composers in the printed score). 

Revived Bologna Palazzo Felicini 21 August 
1769 (as Le Vicende del Caso); Rome Capr. 8 
January 1774. 

In German (translated by J. C Bock), Leipzig 
30 June 1780; another German title or version 
was Das Spiel des Zufalls, produced at Munich 
1 May 1785 (Piccinni mentioned as composer). 
Another German translation, by J. A. von 
Ghelen, was published at Vienna in 1761. 

TRAETTA:.4raw/d 

3 January. Vienna, B. 

Text by Count G. Durazzo (founded on Qui- 

nault's Armide, see 1686), versification by G. 

Migliavacca. One act. 

One of Traetta's most important works. Given 
also at Naples, S.C. Spring I763 ; revived Venice, 
S. Salv. 27 May 1767 (this latter production, ac- 
cording to Salvioli and Haas, with a new text 
by F. Sarego, a statement which is not borne out 
by the entries of both the 1761 and 1767 librettos 
in the Library of Congress Catalogue). 

galuppi: Li Tre Amanti ridicoli 

18 January. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by A. Galuppi (the son of the composer). 
Three acts. 

Successful in Italy; also given in Italian at Tri- 
este 1762; Prague Autumn 1763 ; Brunswick Feb- 
ruary 1765; Vienna and Minister 1765; Dresden 
27 November 1766; London 5 November 1768 
(with some new music by F. Alessandri; text 
altered by G. G. Bottarelli); Copenhagen Au- 
tumn 1771; Bonn 1774. 

(Date of first performance according to Gra- 
denigo's unpublished Notatorj.) 

monsigny: Le Cadi dupe* 

4 February. Paris, O.C 
Text by P. R. Lemonnier (set by Gluck later in 
the same year). One act. 

Monsigny's setting was also given at Amster- 
dam 12 December 1761 ; Dresden 1765 (revived 



249 



250 



1 76 1 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1761 



29 September 1767); Brussels 1766; Copenhagen 
January 1767; Hanover 31 July 1769; Liege 1 De- 
cember 1770; Turin Spring 1774; Cassel 21 No- 
vember 1783; Moscow 29 January 1785. 

In Swedish (translated by C, Envallsson and 
C. Stcnborg), Stockholm 19 April 1781; Gothen- 
burg 30 September 1783. 

In Russian, Moscow 25 May 1794. 

A Dutch version by J. T. Ncyts was published 
CA762 ; a German version by J. H. Fabcr in 1772; 
a Danish version by L. Knudscn in 1785. 

jommelli: UOlimpiade 

1 1 February. Stuttgart 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Prologue and 3 acts. 

Revived Lisbon 31 March 1774. The only 
opera of Jommelli of which the score was printed 
(in 1783): cf. Rudolf Krauss, Die Buck- und Noten- 
druckerei der Hohen Karlsschule, in Wiirttembergische 
Vierwljahrshefte t Vol. xx (1911). 

phi li dor: Lejardinier et son Seigneur* 

18 February. Paris, O.C. 
Text by J. M. Scdainc (after a fable by Lafon- 
tainc). One act, 

In French also, Brussels 1767, Copenhagen 
1772 and Cassel 15 September 1784. 

The existence of a new genre of dramatic 
music, namely French opcra-comique, different 
from the older type en vaudevilles and developing 
alongside of grand opera, had now become a fact 
well recognized in the public mind, as we may 
conclude from the remark in the Mercure de 
France (March 1761), a propos the production of 
Le Jarditiier et son Seigneur . . . "La Musiquc qui 
est devenue la partic intercssantc d'un Opdra- 
comique. . . ." 

piccinni: La buona Figliuolamaritata 

10 June. Bologna, T. Formagliari 
Text by C. Goldoni. Three acts. 

A sequel to La buona Figliuola (sec 1760), but 
not nearly as successful. Given at Rcggio 1762 
and Modena, T. di Corte, 12 July 1763 as La 



Baronessa maritata; at Florence Spring 1765 as La 
buona MogHc; at Naples, T.N. Summer 1765 as 
La Cecchina maritata (text revised by P. Mililotti). 
In Italian, also given at Barcelona [25 September] 
1763; Brunswick 1763; Vienna 1764; Warsaw 
1765; Dresden 5 December 1765; London 3 r Jan- 
uary 1767 (cf. Burncy, iv, p.492; revived 2 May 
1771); Valencia Carnival 1769; Madrid 1769; 
Paris, O. 15 April 1779. 

Yet another sequel, La buona Figliuola supposta 
Vedova (text by A. Bianchi, music by Latilla), 
was produced at Venice, S, Cass. Carnival 1766. 

p h I L i d o r : Le Marechal ferrant 

22 August, Paris, O.C. 
Text by A. F. Quctant (and* according to Des 
Boulmicrs, Scrvicrcs and Anscaume). One act. 

One of Philkjor's most popular works; given 
at Fontainebleau 3 November 1762 and all over 
France. In French, also given at Amsterdam 1762^ 
Vienna 36 June 1763; Frankfort 25 March 1764 
and probably earlier; St* Petersburg 7 October 
1764 (first French opera in Russia) ; Turin Spring 
1765; Dresden 1765; Geneva 1766; Copenhagen 
February 1767; Brussels 1767; Aachen 23 July 
1768; Ghent 19 March 1769; Hamburg 10 Feb- 
ruary 1769; Liege 30 October 1770; Warsaw 1 
February 1778; Munich 7 April 1783; Cassel 2 
October 1784; Cologne 1796-7; Kingston, Ja- 
maica 15 February 1802. 

In German (translated by J. Andre), Frankfort 
Autumn 1771; Munich 12 April 1776; Vienna 
Spring 1776; Prcssburg 1 March 1779, etc. In a 
new German version by H. A. O. Rcichard, 
Gotha 7 October 1776; Bonn 21 March 1779; 
Hamburg 1779; Carlsruhc 1781; Hanover 28 
June 1787; Cologne n June 1880; Pyrmont 7 
July 1781; Riga 16 November 1785; Bremen 19 
December 1785; Berlin 3 September 1787, etc. 
In German also Amsterdam 2 June 1796. 

In Danish (translated by J. H. Wesscl), Copen- 
hagen 15 December 1778. 

In Russian, Moscow 1780. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson, music 
adapted by C. Stenborg), Stockholm 11 July 
1781 and, with alterations, 23 September 1786. 



251 



252 



1761 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1 76*1 



In Polish (translated by J. Baudouin), Warsaw 
15 December 1781. 

In English, Boston 25 March 1793. 

A Spanish version (El Borrado burlado, text and 
music by Conde de Penaflorida) was produced 
at Vergara 11 September 1764. 

Dutch translations by J. N. Neyts and by J. 
Menkema were published in 1769 and 1784 
respectively. 

There was a contemporary parody on Le Ma- 
rechal ferrant, called Le Forgeron, by G. Delautel, 
part of the music by the author, produced at the 
Th. Nicolet, Paris, in April 1762. 

Philidor's opera was revived in Paris, Tr. L. 
20 November 1920. 

monsigny: On ne s'avise jamais 
de tout* 

14 September. Paris, O.C. 

Text by J. M. Sedaine (after Lafontaine's tale of 
the same title). One act. 

Performed at Fontainebleau 2 December 
1761. 

In French also given at Brussels 25 February 
1762; Hague 12 May 1762; Vienna 17 August 
1762; Amsterdam 1762; St. Petersburg 9 Decem- 
ber 1764; Geneva 1766; Dresden 18 July 1766; 
Turin Spring 1774. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Frank- 
fort 1772; Augsburg 31 August 1779; Warsaw 
11 October 1782. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson) , 
Stockholm 28 May 1790. 

A Dutch version by J. F. Cammaert was pub- 
lished in 1763. 

Revived Brussels, Th. Moliere 15 February 
1906; Paris, "Th. de Monsieur" (Th. des Mathu- 
rins), December 1910; Paris, Petite Scene 26 Feb- 
ruary 1928. In German, as Das Lebenselixier, new 
German text by L. Metzl, music arranged by H. 
Gal, Baden (near Vienna), June 1936. 

Vocal score (edited by C. Lecocq) re-issued in 
1910. 



[audinot] :Le Tonnelier 

28 September. Paris, O.C. 
Text by the composer (after Lafontaine). One act. 
Audinot was rather the compiler than the com- 
poser of the first version; see the account in 
Charles Maurice's Histoire anecdotique du Theatre 
et de la Litterature, 1, p.373 ; according to a note 
by Weckerlin in the Paris Conservatoire copy of 
the score, J. C. Trial, Philidor, Gossec, Audinot 
and Schobert all contributed to Le Tonnelier. 

This comic opera only became a great success 
four years later, in a new version (text revised by 
F. A. Quetant, music re-arranged by Gossec). 
First produced Paris, C.I. 16 March 1765; in 
French also, Geneva 1766; Copenhagen March 
1767; Brussels 20 April 1767; Liibeck 17 May 
1769; Vienna 15 January 1776; Warsaw 12 Feb- 
ruary 1778; St. Petersburg 2 January 1779; Lon- 
don 6 June 1783 (privately, 40 Great Marlborough 
St., in concert form) ; Gothenburg 26 April 1784; 
Moscow 25 November 1784; New York 7 Oc- 
tober 1790 (first opera which was sung in French 
there); Aachen 17 August 1794; Hamburg 29 
December 1794; Cologne 1795-6. 

In German, Hamburg Summer 1771; (trans- 
lated by C. F. Schwan); Weimar 3 August 1772; 
Gotha 12 July 1774; Leipzig 30 September 1774; 
Hague 1774; Altenburg 19 August i775» etc.; 
(translated by J. H. Faber), Frankfort 1775; Dres- 
den 9 November 1775; Vienna, Fasan Th. 12 
May 1776 and B. 29 June 1780; Troppau 1781; 
Berlin 2 November 1781; Riga 13 December 
1782; Cassel 1783; Stockholm June 1783; Ams- 
terdam c. 1793. 

In Polish (translated by J. Baudouin), Warsaw 
7 September 1779; Cracow 24 June 1790. 

In Danish (translated by H. Gram), Copen- 
hagen 27 October 1780; revived 7 March 1858. 
In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 17 January 1781. 

In Russian (translated by F. V. Gensh), Mos- 
cow 17 August 1783; (perhaps earlier at Kous- 
kovo 1780; a Russian translation by V. G. Voro- 
blevsky was published, n.d.). 

There are four different Dutch translations, by 



253 



254 



1761 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1762 



J. F. Cammaert (1768); J. T. Neyts (n.d.); A. 
Soulage (1786); and B. Ruloffs (1792). Burney 
attended a Flemish production at Brussels in July 
1772. In Flemish also Oudenarde 1796-7. 

An English adaptation, The Cooper, text and 
music by T. A. Arne, was produced in London, 
Hm. 10 June 1772; also Boston 3 April 1793. 

Gossec's version was frequently revived in 
France; at Lyons as late as 23 February 1927 (re- 
scored by M. Reuchsel). 

G l u c k : Le Cadi dupe* 

December. Vienna, B. 
Text by P. R. Lcmormier (set by Monsigny 
about the same time, see above). One act. 

Exact date of first performance unknown ; from 
a letter written by Count Durazzo to Favart we 
know that it must have been before 12 Decem- 
ber. In Zinzcndorf's diary a performance on 13 
December is recorded. 

In German (translated by J. Andre) Berlin 1 
December 1783; Hamburg, December 1783. 

After an interval of nearly a century, Gluck's 
opera was revived in a new arrangement by J. N. 
Fuchs, at Hamburg 14 January 1878 (text revised 
by W. Hock) and Vienna 9 March 1881 (text 
revised by F. Krastel); subsequently given on 
many other German stages, viz. Mannheim 19 
April 1S82; Cassel 6 May 1882; Berlin 31 May 
1882; Munich 6 October 1882; Graz 25 April 
1883; in German, also Prague 3 April 1887; 
Rotterdam 1887; Manchester 22 April 1893 (by 
amateurs); Strasbourg 15 February 1900; again 
revived, Lauchstcdt 29 May 1909; Vienna 
(Schonbrunn) 14 May 1930. 

In Hungarian (translated by E. Abranyi), 
Budapest 4 October 1881. 

In the original French, Paris, Petite Scene 14 
March 1926; Nantes 13 March 1928. 

In Dutch, Amsterdam, July 1930 (at the Con- 
servatoire). 

In English, Rochester, N.Y., Eastman School 
of Music 16 May 1932. 

In Hebrew (translated by Z. Israel), Jerusalem 
I935- 



1762 

j. c. bach: Alessandro neW Indie 

20 January. Naples, S.C. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1729). Three acts. 

The last opera Bach wrote for the Italian stage 
before he settled in London in Autumn 1762. 

Midas 

22 January. Dublin 
Text by K. O'Hara (An English hurletta). Three 
acts. 

The music of this famous parody on Italian 
opera seria consists of popular tunes, selected by 
the author, but "in its frequent resort to concert- 
ed music bridged the gap between ballad opera 
and comic opera" (W.J. Lawrence). 

According to O'Keeffe (Recollections 1826 1, 
p. 5 3), William Brownlow "a musical amateur 
and fine player on the harpsichord helped settling 
the music for Midas". It was written on the 
instance of Lord Mornington, father of the Duke 
of Wellington, and first produced at Crow Street 
Th., Dublin, as a counter-attraction to Scolari's 
La Cascina (see 1755), produced at the rival 
theatre in Smock Alley on 19 December 1761 
(cf. R. Hitchcock, An historical View of the Irish 
Stage, Vol. 11, 1794, p.93). First given in London, 
C.G. 22 February 1764 (reduced to 2 acts 5 Feb- 
ruary 1766; reduced to one-act interlude, Rich- 
mond 8 September 1766) and frequently revived 
since, viz. D.L. 25 October 1802; C.G. 17 Sep- 
tember 1 812; Ly. 4 August 1 8 17; Surrey Th. 16 
July 1 851; Brighton 30 July 1859; and as late as 
4 June 1923 at Trinity College Hall, Cambridge. 

Given at Philadelphia on 24 November 1769 
(revived 1 May 1840); New York 3 May 1773 
(frequently revived); Montego Bay, Jamaica 12 
April 1777; Boston 25 April 1794. 

Given by an English company also at St. Peters- 
burg 11 January 1772 (according to Findeizen it 
was G retry 's Le Jugcment de Midas, which, con- 
sidering the rest of the repertory of that troupe, 
seems very unlikely). 



255 



256 



1762 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1762 



t. a. arne: Artaxerxes* 



2 February, London, C.G. 
Text: an English translation, by the composer, 
of Metastases Artaserse (1729). Three acts. 

Arne's most famous opera, very successful on 
English stages. Last revived at C.G. 30 Septem- 
ber 1 8 14 (with additional music by Bishop) and 
16 October 1839. John Braham added a quartet to 
the words "Mild as the Moonbeams". First given 
at Dublin 18 February 1765; Edinburgh 1769 
(with the addition of three favourite Scots airs, 
text by Robert Ferguson; revived 1 July 1830); 
New York 31 January 1828 (re-orchestrated by 
C.E.Horn). 

gal up pi: II Marchese Villano 

2 February. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by P. Chiari. Three acts. 

In Italy given under several different titles, viz. 
Il Marchese Giorgino (Turin, T. Carignano Au- 
tumn 1763); II Marchese Tulipano (Sinigaglia 9 
February 1764 and Milan, T.R.D. Autumn 
1764); La Lavandara (Autumn 1770); La Lavan- 
dara astuta (Mantua Autumn 177 1). 

Outside Italy given at Prague 1766; Dresden 
22 July 1766; Warsaw 1766; Vienna, Schon- 
brunn 12 September 1767 (celebrating the en- 
gagement of Ferdinand iv of Naples to Maria 
Josepha of Austria; German translation by J. A. 
von Ghelen published) and Ka. 29 May 1776 
(Italian-German libretto published; additions by 
other composers); Ludwigsburg Spring 1770; 
Corfu Autumn 1771 (as II Matrimonio per In- 
ganno) ; Potsdam 9 July 1773 ; Graz Carnival 1778. 

In German (as Der Landjunker und sein Sohn, 
translated by J. H. Burmann), Frankfort 18 Sep- 
tember 1784. Another German adaptation, pos- 
sibly, was Kaspar der bauerische Landedelmann, 
Vienna, Leop. 13 January 1782 (no composer 
mentioned, but the original title was II Marchese 
Villano). 

blaise: Annette etLubin 

ij February. Paris, C.L 
Text by M. J. B. Favart, her husband C. S. 
Favart, and J. B. Lourdet de Santerre (founded 



on one of MarmonteFs Contes Moraux). One act. 
This little work had previously been perform- 
ed in January 1762 at the wedding of one M. de 
Mailly. Blaise pardy compiled and partly com- 
posed the music. Very successful in France; first 
performed at Fontainebleau 27 October 1762. 
Revived in Paris as late as October 1910 at the 
Th. des Mathurins and 1 February 1930 at the 
Th. de F Avenue. Vocal score reprinted in 1910 
(edited by R. Montford). 

In French, also performed at Amsterdam and 
The Hague 1762; Frankfort 23 March 1764; St. 
Petersburg 14 January 1765; Dresden 5 February 
1765; Turin Spring 1765; Geneva, Copenhagen 
and Brussels 1766; Rheinsberg 27 August 1766; 
Hamburg 2 December 1 766 ; Vienna 1 76* 8 ; 
Regensburg c.1773 (with additional music by J. 
Touchemoulin) ; Warsaw 25 July 1778; Gothen- 
burg 6 May 1784; Moscow 9 December 1784; 
Charleston, S.C. 16 July 1794. 

In Dutch (translated by P. F. Lynslager), Ams- 
terdam 1779; another translation, by J. T. Neyts, 
already published Rotterdam 1764 and Amster- 
dam 1768. 

In Swedish (translated by N. Ohrwall), Go- 
thenburg 7 May 1782 and Stockholm 2 May 
1786. 

In Polish (translator unknown), Warsaw 20 
October 1787. 

In some other countries the original music was 
replaced: 

Lucas und Hannchen, text by J. J. Eschenburg, 
music by J. F. G. Beckmann : Brunswick 
1768; Cologne Spring 1772; Hanover 28 
April 1777. 
Nanetta e Lubino, text by C. F. Badini, mu- 
sic by G. Pugnani, London 8 April 1769; 
Warsaw 19^ February 1781; and (accord- 
ing to Regli and others); Turin, T. Cari- 
gnano 1784 (but this production seems 
doubtful). 
Annette and Lubin, text and musk by C. 
Dibdin: London, C.G. 2 October 1778. 
The libretto of Fuller's Die Liebe auf dem 
Lande (see 1768) is partly founded on 
Annette et Lubin. 



257 



258 



1762 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1762 



Marmontel himself turned his story into an 
opera which was performed, with music by J. B. 
de Laborde, at Marcchal dc Richelieu's private 
theatre on 30 March 1762 and at Brussels 18 Oc- 
tober 1767 (as La nouvelle Annette et Luhin); also 
at Casscl 26 November 1783. More than a quar- 
ter of a century after its first production Annette 
et Luhin was still popular enough to inspire two 
sequels: (i)La VieilJesse a" Annette et Luhin (text by 
L. A. Bertin d'Antilly, music by P. D. A. Cha- 
pelle), Paris, C.I. 1 August 1789 and Brussels 18 
January 1796. (2) La Vengeance du Bailli (text by 
C. S. Favart and his son C. N. J. Favart, music 
by L. E. Jadin), Paris, Th. dc M. 30 April 1791. 

About the same time, J. P. E. Martini (to 
whom Font incorrectly attributes the 1762 mu- 
sic) set the original libretto again; his opera was 
produced at Fontaincblcau 6 February 1789; 
publicly at the O.C., Paris 18 April 1800 and at 
the French theatre, St. Petersburg 29 June 1800. 

Annette et Luhin was the first new work pro- 
duced at the Comcdie-Italienne, Paris, after its 
amalgamation with the Opera-Comique (which 
hitherto had been performing at the fairs of St. 
Laurent and St. Germain). The new company 
started on 3 February 1762, with a double-bill 
consisting of Monsigny's On ne s'avise jamais de 
tout and Philidor's Blaise le Savetier at the old 
home of the Comedie-Italienne at the Hotel dc 
Bourgogne. They moved to the Salle Favart 
(Hotel Choiseul, Place des Italiens) in 1783. 

H A s s e : II Trionfo di Cklia 

27 April Vienna, B. 
Text by P. Metastasio (written for Hasse). Three 
acts. 

Written and produced to celebrate the confine- 
ment of the Archduchess Isabella of Bourbon. 

Also given at Warsaw 3 August 1762 and 
Naples, S.C.January 1763. 

philidor: Sancho Panga dans son Isle 

8 July. Paris, C.I. 
Text by A. A. H. Poinsinet (after Cervantes). 
One act. 



Performed at Fontainebleau 27 October 1762. 
In French also: Copenhagen and Brussels 1767; 
Liibeck n December 1769; Lidge 13 November 
1770; Cassel 28 January 1784; Cologne 1796-7. 

In German (translated by J. J. Eschenburg), 
Brunswick 19 December 1769; Hamburg Au- 
tumn 1770; Hanover 10 May 1773 ; Berlin 2 July 
1773; Mannheim 1 August 1779, etc. Another 
German translation by F. W. Eichholz was pub- 
lished at Halberstadt in 1776. 

In Russian (translated by V. A. Levshin), Mos- 
cow 3 October 1785. 

The opera was revived by the Petite Scene, 
Paris 7 June 1922; and at Madrid Summer 1929 
(in Spanish). 

gluck: Orfco, edEuridice* 

5 Octoher. Vienna, B. 
Text by R. de* Calzabigi (Azione teatrale per 
Musica). Three acts. 

Notwithstanding Alceste (see 1767) and the two 
Iphigenie settings (see 1774 and 1779) Orfeo re- 
mains the composer's meilleur tttre de gloire as his 
first reform opera. Calzabigi claimed his share in 
the famous letter to the Mercure de France (pub- 
lished 21 August 1784): "J'cspere que vous con- 
viendrez, Monsieur, d'aprcs cet expose, que si M. 
Gluck a etc le crcateur de la Musique dramatique, 
il ne Ta pas crece de rien. Je lui ai fourni la ma- 
nure ou le chaos si vous voulez; Thonneur de 
cette creation nous est done commun". 

First produced Vienna, Burgthcater 5 October 
1762; following performances were 10 and 21 
October, 11 November, 12 December; 13 Feb- 
ruary 1763, 24 July; then (after a single perform- 
ance, in French, at the Ka. 30 June 1781) revived, 
B. 31 December 1781, again in Italian. After that 
the opera was not given again at Vienna until 
1862 (see below). 

After Vienna, Orfeo is stated to have been pro- 
duced at Frankfort in April 1764 at the corona- 
tion of the Archduke Joseph as King of the 
Romans. This production, however, seems some- 
what doubtful. See for details (also of all further 
performances), The Musical Quarterly, July 1940. 



259 



260 



1762 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1762 



18th century productions: 

parma 24 August 1769 as the last act of a mixed 
spectacle called Le Teste d 'Apollo, produced for 
the celebration of the wedding of Fcrdinando, 
Prince of Parma, to Princess Maria Amalia, 
daughter of the Empress Maria Theresa. 

London 7 April 1770 (in Italian), text altered by 
G. G. Bottarelli, additional music by J. C. Bach 
and P. Guglielmi ; repeated 30 April 1771 ; then 
9 March 1773 in its original form, 25 May 1773 
once more in the Bach-Gugliclmi version. 
Twelve years later, 12 May 1785, revived for 
the singer Tenducci, this time with additional 
music by J. C. Bach, Handel and Anfossi, text 
altered by A. Andrei. First produced in English 
C.G. 28 February 1792 (with additions by 
Handel, J. C. Bach, Sacchini, Wcichscl and 
Reeve !). 

breslau, zwinger 29 August 1770 (in concert 
form; German version by J. J. Eschenburg). 

bologna, T.c. May 1771 and Casino Nobilc 16 
February 1788 (in Italian). 

Florence, t. cocomero 13 September 1771 and 
T. Porta Rossa 7 March 1773 (in concert 
form). 

Munich 5 February 1773 (in Italian, with addi- 
tional music by J. C. Bach and G. Guadagni). 

Stockholm 25 November 1773 (in Swedish, 
translated by G. Rothman, music arranged by 
F. Uttini); revived 11 May 1786 (new Swedish 
translation, from the French version, by A. F. 
Ristell). 

Naples, pal. reale 25 January 1774 (in its original 
form) and S.C. 4 November 1774 (with J. C. 
Bach's additions). 

Paris, 0. 2 August 1774 (in French, translated by 
P. L. Moline, with alterations); given there 
297 times until 28 July 1848. A parody, by P. 
L. Moline and L. F. A. Dorvigny, called Roger- 
Bontems et Javotte, was produced at the C.I., 
Paris, 13 May 1775; another Le petit Orphee by 
J. Rouhier-Deschamps, music by P. D. Des- 
hayes, at Le Havre 18 March 1785 and Paris, 
Varietes 13 June 1793 (not 1792, as indicated 
in the libretto). 

Hamburg Winter 1775-6, in concert form. 



Brussels 19 August 1 776 (in French; last revived 
there 15 February 1938). 

eszterhaza 1 776 (in Italian). 

"Warsaw 2$ November 1776 and 25 November 
1789 (in Italian). 

HAGUE 1779 (in French). 

Copenhagen 24 April 1 779 (in concert form, 
probably in French). 

brunn 12 December 1779 (first stage-perform- 
ance in German; translator not mentioned; see 
Litteratur-utid Theater-Zeitung 1780, p.96). 

Barcelona 1780 (Italian libretto printed; pro- 
duction not otherwise recorded). 

ST. Petersburg 1 782 (Italian libretto printed; 
production not otherwise recorded). 

mayence 4 November 1782 (in German, by J. 
Bohm's company and possibly in his translation). 

frankfort January 1783 (in German, by J. 
Bohm's company and possibly in his transla- 
tion; subsequently also produced at Aachen, 
and Diisscldorf). 

lille 2 March 1783 (in French). 

hanover c. May 1783 (in Italian). 

Dublin 3 January 1784 (at the Smock Alley Th., 
for the first time in English, translated by F. 
Gentleman, music adapted by F. Tenducci); a 
burlctta by R. Houlton, music by T. Giordani, 
was produced at the Capel Street Th., Dublin 
14 June 1784. 

padua 1784 (in Italian). 

salzburg 5 April 1786 (in Italian; concert per- 
formance). 

cassel 22 August 1787 (in German, by J. Bohm's 
company). 

avignon 1790 (in French). 

Charleston, s.c. 24 June 1 794 (in French, an- 
nounced as "by Paisielo"; Gluck's opera? See 
O. G. T. Sonneck, Early Opera in America, p. 206). 

siena Summer 1795 (in Italian, concert perform- 
ance at the Accademia dei Ravvivati). 

Madrid 1 January 1799 (in Italian). 

igth and 20th century productions : 

Lisbon Spring 1801 (in Italian, text altered by G. 
Caravita; additional music by M. A. Portugal; 
revived there not before 31 January 1893). 



261 



262 



1762 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1762 



clausenburg before 1804 (in Hungarian, trans- 
lated by J. Konyi; according to Z. Ferenczi. 
Konyi's translation had been published as early 
as 1774; see Bibliographia Hutigariae 11, p.941). 

Brunswick 1806 (in French). 

Berlin 20 April 1808 (in German, translated by 
J. D. Sander from the French version; revived 
25 October 1 818, 13 November 1841, etc.) and 
3 April 1 821 (in Italian). 

brescia 12 September 1808 (in concert form, by 
the Socicta Filamonica). 

milan 24 May 1813 (in concert form at the Con- 
servatory ; repeated there 1862 and 25 April 

1879). 

Dresden 19 April 1838 (apart from a concert per- 
formance at Brcslau in 1831, this was the first 
German production after Berlin). Most Ger- 
man stages produced Orfco only after 1850; 
Weimar 16 February 1854 with a prelude and 
finale by Liszt; Mannheim 16 December i860; 
Munich n July 1861. 

paris, th. L. 19 November 1859 (in French, mu- 
sic revised by Berlioz); the next revivals at 
Paris were at the Gaite 9 May 1889 (in Italian) 
and O.C. 5 May 1896 (in French). 

London, c.G. 27 June i860 (Berlioz's version); 
6 November 1890 (original version); Ly. 10 
December 1892 (in English, by the R.C.M.); 
C.G. 17 May 1 898 (for the first time in French) ; 
22 June 1905; Savoy 12 April 1910 (in English); 
C.G. 1 July 1920 and 20 June 1937. 

Dublin 21 September i860 (in Italian). 

Manchester 12 December 1861 (in concert form, 
English version by H. F. Chorlcy). 

Vienna 15 November 1862 (for the first time 
dicrc since 1781, in concert form; further con- 
cert performances 8 April 1870 and 6 April 
1873) ; revived on the stage as late as 2 February 
r882 (in German). 

new york 25 May 1863 (at the Winter Garden, 
in English, translated by F. M. Raymond); 
Academy of Music 8 January 1886 (in Eng- 
lish); M. 30 December 1891, ti December 
1895, 23 December 1909, 22 May T936, 29 No- 
vember 1939 (in Italian); revived in English 
Provincetown Playhouse 29 April 1926; May- 



fair Th. 21 February 1927; Juillard School 

I935- 

baden-baden 1 7 August 1 863 (in French). 

Prague 17 December 1864 (for the first time in 
Czech, translated by J. J. Kolar and J. Kopp) ; 
revived there 6 November 1884 (new Czech 
version by V. J. Novotny) ; revived at Briinn 
30 June 1883 (in German). 

ST. Petersburg 2 June 1 867 (in Italian, privately, 
at court, under Rubinstein) and 27 April 1 868 
(in Russian). 

riga 30 December 1869 (in German). 

weimar 6 March 1 870 (first performance of the 
Berlioz version in Germany). 

Cambridge 22 May 1 876 (in English, Chorlcy's 
translation, in concert form by St. John's Col- 
lege Musical Society). 

GRAZ 26 March 1877 (in German). 

ROTTERDAM January 1880 (in German). 

Budapest 8 March 1883 (in Hungarian, translated' 
by E. Abranyi) and 30 January 1904 (translated 
by S. Varady). 

BOSTON 11 April 18S5 (in German). 

ROME, cost. 26 October 18S8 (first stage per- 
formance in Italy in the 19th century); sub- 
sequently Florence, P. 16 February 1S89; 
Venice, F. 17 March 1889; Milan, T. Manzoni 
10 April 1889; Turin, T. Vittorio Emanuele 
May 1889; Naples 24 June 1889; Trieste 5 De- 
cember 1889; Genoa 13 April 1890, etc. 

Barcelona, t.l. September 1889 (in Italian); 
Catalan version by J. Pena published 1910. 

Trieste 1889 (in German). 

Cambridge 1 3 May 1890 (in English; Chorlcy's 
version revised). 

basle 5 March 1894 (in German; possibly tor the 
first time in Switzerland). 

Copenhagen 30 September 1896 (in Danish, 
translated by J. Lchmann). 

buenos aires 5 January 1899 (in Italian); revived 
3 June 1924. 

Amsterdam October 1902 (in Dutch). 

Antwerp 15 March 1904 (in French) and 4 No- 
vember 191 1 (in Flemish). 

Marseilles 29 March 1904 (in French). 

oslo(ciiristiania)8 October 1907 (in Norwegian). 



263 



264 



1762 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1762 



Helsinki 21 April 1914 (in Finnish). 
lauchstedt 19 June 1914 (revival of the 1762 
version, new German translation by H. Abert). 
falmouth 28 November 1923 (new English ver- 
sion by M. and E. Radford). 
Sofia 30 September 1927 (in Bulgarian, translated 

by V. Bobchevsky). 
London, old vic 29 November 1933 (new Eng- 
lish version by E. J. Dent). 
tokyo 3 February 1935 (in concert form, in a 

Japanese translation by Ono). 
Rio de Janeiro August 1935 (in Italian). 
Cairo 1937 (in German). 

Jerusalem 7 February 1939 (concert perform- 
ance, in Italian). 

Open-air productions took place at the Amphi- 
theatre, Orange, 11 July 1903 ; at the Theatre du 
Jorat, Mezieres (Switzerland) 1 July 191 1 (music 
arranged by G. Doret and C. Saint-Saens) ; at the 
Arenes, Beziers, 30 June 1928; and at the Park 
de Proce*, Nantes, 28 June 1930. 

traetta: Sofonisba 

4 November, Mannheim 
Text by M. Verazi (according to M. Fehr only a 
new version of A. Zeno's Scipione nelle Spagne, 
first produced with music by Caldara at Barce- 
lona in 1710). Three acts. 

Although one of Traetta's best works it does 
not seem to have been given on any other stage. 
The opera was published in Denkmaler der Ton- 
kunst in Bayern (edited by H. Goldschmidt) in 
1914. 

monsigny: Le Roi et le Fermier 

22 November. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. M. Sedaine. Three acts. 

Successful in Paris (last revived O.C. 23 Octo- 
ber 1806), first given at Versailles 15 February 
1763. 

In French also given at Vienna Autumn 1763 ; 
Warsaw Carnival 1766; Geneva 1766; Dresden 
16 July 1766; Brussels 1767; Ghent 12 March 
1769; Liibeck 27 November 1769; Liege 22 No- 
vember 1770; St. Petersburg 3 February 1776; 
Cassel 1782. 



In German (translation by C. G. Pfeffel publish- 
ed Frankfort 1766), performed Cologne Spring 
1772; (with new dialogue by J. H. Faber pub- 
lished Frankfort 1773), performed Frankfort 13 
September 1774 or earlier; Munich 19 April 
1781; Carlsruhe 1781. 

In Danish (translated by C. D. Biehl), Copen- 
hagen 25 November 1777. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 24 January 1784. 

A Dutch version, by J. F. Cammaert, was pub- 
lished at Brussels in 1764; another, by J. T. Neyts, 
about the same time (n.d.). 

piccinni: II Cavalier e per Amore 

Winter, Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. Petrosellini. Two acts. 

In Italian also, Lisbon Carnival 1764; Vienna 
Carnival 1766; Dresden 22 February 1766; Bialy- 
stok (Poland) Spring 1766 (at the private theatre 
of the Hetman Branicki). Revived Munich 
Summer 1772; Warsaw 19 April 1775; Moscow 
27 September 1782. 

Given in an enlarged 3-act version, II Fumo 
villano (text altered by A. Palomba, with addi- 
tional music by B. Ottani), at Venice Autumn 
1766 and Copenhagen Autumn 1769 (Danish 
translation in the libretto by F. A. Friis). 

t. a. arne: Love in a Village* 

8 December. London, C.G. 
Text by I. Bickerstaffe. Three acts. 

Music partly composed, partly selected. Over- 
ture by C. F. Abel. Besides Arne, 15 other com- 
posers had their share in the score; but out of 43 
numbers 19 are Arne's, 6 of them expressly com- 
posed for Love in a Village, which, therefore, has 
been called the first English comic opera, after 
the preceding period of 35 years of, more or less 
pure, ballad opera. (See M. Silburn, in The Mu- 
sical Times, July 1920). 

First given at Dublin 8 July 1763 ; York Spring 
1764; Newcastle Summer 1764; Edinburgh 
1765; Philadelphia before 22 January 1767; New 
York 11 January 1768; Kingston, Jamaica 9 Oc- 
tober 1779; Calcutta 24 February 1791. 



265 



266 



1762-63 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1763 



Frequently revived in London; the latest pro- 
ductions were at the Princess's Th. 4 March 1844 
and 16 November 1848; Surrey 17 September 
1853; Guildhall School of Music 10 May 1923 
and Everyman 21 December 1923 (music arrang- 
ed by J. Herbage); Leeds 27 March 1926; Lyric, 
Hammersmith 19 April 1928 (music arranged by 
A. Reynolds). 

wni: Le Milicien 

20 December. Versailles 
Text by L. Anseaume. One act. 

First given at the C.I., Paris 1 January 1763 and 
in French also, Brussels 1767; Hamburg 10 Feb- 
ruary 1769; Vienna 15 January 1776; Warsaw 
30 July 1777; Liege 30 January 1779. Revived 
Paris, Th. de la Cite, 28 October 1795 ; Hamburg 
1795; Antwerp 27 August 1807. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Frank- 
fort 1772; Munich 6 January 1783; Carlsruhe 6 
December 1786. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 23 November 1782. 

In Polish, Warsaw 2 January 1783; Cracow 29 
April 1790; Wilna 26 February 1799. 

There are three printed Dutch versions, by J. 
T. Neyts (n.d.), J. F. Cammaert (1770), and P. F. 
Lynslager (1779 and 1782). 

1763 

rutini: I Matrimoni in Maschera 

Carnival. Cremona, T.N. 
Text, according to Piovano, perhaps by F. Ca- 
sori. Three acts. 

Sonneck (Catalogue, p.739) gives "Venice, Au- 
tumn 1765" as place and date of first perform- 
ance. But there are earlier productions on record: 
Cremona as above. 

BOLOGNA, T. FORMAGLIARI 30 July 1 763 (as II 

Matrimonii) in Maschera). 

Florence, T. via s. MARIA Autumn 1 763 (as Gli 
Sposi in Maschera). 

ferrara Carnival 1764 (as Li Matrimonj in Mas- 
chera; libretto British Museum). 



novara Carnival 1764 (as Li Matrimoni in Mas- 
chera). 
Trieste Spring 1764 (as // Matrimonio in Mas- 
chera). 
rovigo Autumn 1764 (as II Tutore burlato, addi- 
tional music by Scolari). 
modena, t. rangoni January 1765 (as Gli Sposi 
in Maschera). 

Rutini's name only occurs in the libretti for 
the performances at Novara, Trieste and Modena. 
There is a libretto at Munster of a work, Amore 
in Maschera sia il Tutore burlato, performed still 
earlier, at Rome, T. Valle, Carnival 1762, which 
is obviously related, at any rate in subject, with 
Rutini's opera. But this was a set of "intermezzi 
in musica", not a three act opera. The early his- 
tory of / Matrimoni in Maschera remains some- 
what dubious. 

Given then at Venice, S. Cass., Autumn 1765 
(the first performance which is recorded by Son- 
neck) and other Italian stages; at Pistoia with yet 
another title, Li Sposi per Inganno (pasticcio). 

Outside Italy: Dresden 6 January 1767; Aran- 
juez Spring 1767; Prague Summer 1767; Copen- 
hagen Autumn 1768 (as II Tutore burlato; Danish 
translation in the libretto by F. A. Friis) ; Munich 
Summer 1772; Valencia [25 August] 1774 (pas- 
ticcio). Die Verheyratung in der Maske, one act, 
Brunswick 26 January 1779, performed by child- 
ren, was probably a reduced version of Rutini's 
opera. 

The most successful of Rutini's comic operas. 
Score preserved. See for an analysis, A. Delia 
Corte, L' Opera comica Italiana (1923), Vol. 1, 
p.254. 

cI'avossa: La Papilla 

Carnival Naples, Fior. 
Text by A. Palomba. Three acts. 

Avossa's only extant opera. Given at Venice, 
S. Moise Autumn 1765 as II Ciarlone; Turin, T. 
Carignano 1766 and 1774 as La Pupilla scaltra. 
In Italian also Barcelona 1765, Lisbon 1766 and 
Prague 1768 (as II Ciarlone) \ Stralsund January 
1769; Copenhagen Autumn 1769 (as La Pupilla 
ed il Ciarlone; Danish translation in the libretto 



267 



268 



1763 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1763 



by F. A. Friis); Vienna 1770 (as ll Ciarlone); 
Munich Carnival 1775. 

ve n t o : L'Egiziana 

Carnival Venice, S. Moisc 
Librettist unknown. Three acts. 

Vento's only extant opera. Given at Milan, T. 
R.D., in Autumn of the same year, and (with 
additional music by Gassmann) at Vienna Sum- 
mer 1769 and Florence Spring 1771 (as La Zin- 
gara). 

van maldere: LaBagarre 

10 February, Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. F. Guichard and A. A. H. Poinsinet. 
One act. 

The only opera of the Belgian composer that 
was produced in Paris; given at Brussels later in 
the same year. 

piccinni: Le Contadine bizarre 

February. Rome, Capr. 
Text by G. Petrosellini. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy; given at Verona Autumn 
1764 as La Schiocchezza in Amorc; Rome, Capr. 
5 February 1765 as Le Contadine astute; Bologna 
September 1765 as La Contadina bizarra; Siniga- 
glia July 1769 as Le Villanelle astute. Last revived 
in Italy, Bergamo 26 December 1776 (as Le 
Villane astute). 

In Italian also, Trieste Carnival 1764; Klagcn- 
furt 1765; Lisbon Autumn 1765; Dresden 28 
October 1766; Vienna Carnival 1767; Prague 
Summer 1767; Breslau 7 September 1768; Berlin 
December 1768; London 7 November 1769; 
Bastia (Corsica) 1774 (as Le Villanelle astute). 

In Spanish (translated by R. dc la Cruz), 
Madrid [20 August] 1773. 

(Date of first production according to G. Pa- 
van; Venice Autumn 1763 is usually given.) 

j. c. bach: Orione o sia 
Diana vendicata 

19 February. London, Hm. 
Text by G. G. Bottarclli. Three acts. 

Bach's first London opera. Very successful, 



given there for three months' run and revived 
24 May 1777. 

philidor: Le Bucheron ou 
Les trots Souhaits 

28 February. Paris, CI. 
Text by J. F. Guichard and N. Castet (founded 
on a tale by Pcrrault). One act. Given at Ver- 
sailles 15 March 1763, etc. Outside France: 
vrENNA 1765 and 1768 (in French). 
Dresden 1765 and 2 April 1766 (in French). 
geneva and Brussels 1766 (in French). 
Copenhagen 1767 (in French) and 3 December 

1782 (in Danish, translated by L. Knudsen). 
ghent 14 March 1769. 
Hamburg Autumn 1770 (in German, translated 

by J. H. Faber). 
Frankfort 1773 (in German, translated by J. H. 

Faber). 
Berlin 20 February 1774 (in German, translated 

by J. A. C.Koch). 
Warsaw August 1778 (in French) and 1780 (in 

Polish, translated by L. Pierozyiiski). 
liege 8 June 1779 (in French). 
Munich 7 August 1 781 (in German). 
cassel 8 December 1783 (in French). 
Moscow 15 or 22 July 1787 (in Russian). 

There are two printed Dutch translations by 
J. F. Cammacrt (1770) and by J. T. Neyts (n.d.). 
An Italian version by G. Brunati was published 
in 1805. For a German version of the libretto see 
1778. . 

The opera was revived at Brussels, Th. Moliere, 
8 March 1906. 

sacchini: Alessandro neW Indie 

Spring. Venice, S. Salv. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1729). Three acts. 

Successful in Italy. Turin Carnival 1766; 
Naples, S.C., 2 June 1768, etc. 

gluck: U Trionfo di Clelia 

14 May. Bologna, T.C. 
Mctastasio's text (first set to music by Hasse, see 
1762). Three acts. 



269 



270 



1763 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1763 



Gluck's setting was written for the inaugura- 
tion of the new Tcatro Comunale, Bologna; it 
does not appear to have been produced on any- 
other stage. 

sacchini: L'Olimpiade 

June. Padua 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

Given on Italian stages until about 1790. In 
Italian also, Salzburg 1 May 1768. In French 
(translated by N. E. Framery), Paris, C.I. 2 Oc- 
tober 1777 (originally intended for production 
at the Opera, but withdrawn after some rehear- 
sals; revived C.L 15 January 177S and 24 April 
1780); Fontainebleau 24 October 1777; Ghent 21 
December 1778; Licgc 21 December 1779. 

In German, Bonn 16 March 1783; Frankfort 
6 May 1783; Mannheim 28 November 1784; 
Carlsruhe 14 February 1785; Mayence 21 De- 
cember 1785 (one of the very few Italian serious 
operas of that time which were translated into 
German); also given at Wintcrthur November 
1793 (in concert form). 

duni: Les deux Chasseurs et 
la Laitiere 

21 July. Paris, C.I. 
Text by L. Anseaume (after two fables by La- 
fontaine). Ono act. 

Very popular in France and abroad. In French 
also Brussels 1763 and 1766; Vienna, Laxenburg 
8 May 1764; Amsterdam 1764; St. Petersburg 
12 November 1764; Stockholm 7 January 1765; 
Warsaw 8 May 1765; Dresden 1765; Turin 
Spring 1765; Hamburg 4 December 1766; 
Copenhagen 30 December 1766; Liibeck 17 May 
1769; Liege 6 November 1770; Moscow 24 No- 
vember 1775 (according to the diary of Bourrce 
de Corberon); Smolna February 1776; Stock- 
holm June 1783; Casscl 16 January 1784; New 
York 9 November 1790 (Sonneck) or 10 No- 
vember 1790 (Odell); London 20 Janus ■ 1792 
(at the Th. of Varieties, Savile Row); Charleston, 
S.C. 8 February 1794; Cologne 1795-6; Phila- 
delphia 17 December 1796. 



In German (first translated by C. F. Schwan), 
Mannheim 1771; Weimar 15 November 1771; 
Cologne Spring 1772; Berlin 5 August 1772; 
Hanover 23 June 1773; Hamburg 1773; Gotha 
20 September 1774; Leipzig 8 October 1774; 
Altenburg 26 August 1775; Frankfort 18 Sep- 
tember 1776 if not earlier; Rcgcnsburg 15 May 
1778; Bonn 28 February 1779; Munich 6 August 
1779; Augsburg 13 August 1779; Vienna, Jos. 
23 August 1779 (revived Lcop. 20 December 
1803); Carlsruhe 1881; Bremen 15 October 1883. 
In German also, Hague 1774; Warsaw 6 May 
1 781; Riga 29 October 1782; Pressburg 1789. 

In Russian (translated by Z. Krizhanovsky), 
St. Petersburg 1779. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Stenborg), Stock- 
holm 15 November 1780; Gothenburg 16 No- 
vember 1 78 1. 

In Polish (translated by J. Baudouin), Warsaw 
19 July 1781; Cracow 5 November 1789. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 6 November 1781. 

There are printed Dutch versions by J. F. Cam- 
maert, 1764, J. T. Neyts, 1768 and 1770, and 
P. F. Lynslager, 1778, 1783 and 1794. Given in 
Dutch at The Hague as late as 1820. 

A translation into Provencal dialect, called La 
Laytayro de Naubemad, was published at Toulouse 
in 1783. 

Frequently revived in Paris: O.C. 3 August 
1865 (text revised by J. Adenis); Galerie Vi- 
vienne 15 October 1896; and Petite Scene 25 
April 1920. 

(Date of first production according to the 
libretto; according to Bachaumont's Memoircs 
sicrcts, it was 23 July; according to the Mercurc 
de France it was 25 July 1763.) 

traetta: Ifigenia in Tauride 

4 October. Vienna, Schonbrunn 
Text by M. Coltellini. Three acts. 

In Italian also, Florence 1 February 1767 (under 
Gluck's direction); Milan, T.R.D. 26 December 
1767; St. Petersburg April 1768; Copenhagen 
25 October 1774 (probably Tractta's opera); 
Mantua 1777; Naples, S.C. January 1778. Re- 



271 



272 



1763-64 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1764 



vivcd Florence, P. 21 March 1782 (as a cantata, 
two parts); Vienna, B. 22 December 1784 (in 
concert form); Esztcrhaza 1786 (with one addi- 
tional air by Haydn). Burney (iv, p.505) men- 
tions a private performance in London, at Mrs. 
Blaire's "lately" (i.e. before 1789). Performed as 
an oratorio, S. Ifigenia in Etiopia, Florence 19 
March 1773. 

Earlier performances of Traetta's opera in 1758 
and 1759 are recorded in Sonnleithner's Collccta- 
neen. But the 1763 libretto (no earlier edition is 
known) reads: "Sebbenc il presente dramma sia 
stato composto espressamente dairautore per 
questa occasione". See on this question (which is 
of some bearing because of the possible priority 
to Gluck's Orfco) Goldschmidt's introduction to 
Traetta's works in Denkmaler Deutscher Tonkunst, 
p.14; also R. Haas, Gluck und Durazzo, p.70 and 
A. Einstein, Gluck, p.46. 

boroni: V Amove in Musica 

IS October. Venice, S. Moise 
Text perhaps by C. Goldoni (see on his possible 
authorship G. Ortolani in Opere complete di Carlo 
Goldoni, Vol. xxxn, p.i43)- Three acts. 

Outside Italy given at Vienna 1764; Dresden 
12 September 1765; Prague, Carlsbad, Warsaw 
1765; Lisbon 1766; Ludwigsburg 22 August 
1770; Brunswick 1777. 

I764 

piccinni: Gli Strav aganti 

1 January. Rome, Valle 
Librettist unknown. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy; given at Parma in the same 
Carnival as La Schiava riconosciuta, which is the 
better-known title of this opera. In Italian also 
given at: 

Lisbon 6 June 1765. 
Dresden 15 October 1765 (as La Schiava; revived 

12 October 1776 and 12 April 1780). 
London 21 October 1766 (as Gli Stravaganti osia 

I Matrimoni alia Moda, pasticcio, arranged by 

G. G. Bottarelli, "in which there were several 



airs by Piccinni" [Burney]; and in its original 

form, as La Schiava 7 November 1767; revived 

22 February 1770; 12 March 1772; 1 April 

1777; and 24 February 1784). 

Vienna, B. before 19 February 1768; Bruns- 
wick 1768; Copenhagen Autumn 1768 (Danish 
translation in the libretto by F. A. Friis; revived 
6 March 1776); Valencia Autumn 1768; Barce- 
lona [22 April] 1769; Dresden 1770; Mannheim 
19 November T771; Warsaw 16 October 1775; 
Regensburg Carnival 1777; Aachen 28 August 
1781; Danzig August 1782; Cracow 1 January 
T788. 

In German (as Die Sclavin und der grossmiithige 
Seefahrer, translated by J. J. Eschenburg). Mann- 
heim January 1773; Leipzig 13 August. 1777; 
Munich November 1777; Cologne Summer 
1779; Vienna, Jos. 28 June 1779 (B. 7 August 
1 78 1, translated by G. Stephanie); Salzburg 22 
October 1780; Warsaw 21 April 1781; Bonn 1 
December 1782; Bremen 22 December 1783; 
Riga 7 June 1785; Carlsruhe 2 November 1785; 
Berlin 20 November 1786; Prague 1787; Agram 
15 October 1789; Amsterdam Winter 1791. 

An anonymous French i-act version, VEsclave 
ou Le Marin ginireux, was probably first perform- 
ed at Zweibriicken 1773 (where the libretto — 
copy Bibl. Soleinne — was printed in that year); 
in French also, Hague 1782; St. Petersburg 1800. 

In Swedish (translated from the French by C. 
Manderstrom), Stockholm (31 May 1779 accord- 
ing to the libretto; produced only) 31 July 1783. 

philid or: Le Sorcier 

2 January. Paris, C.I. 
Text by A. A. H. Pc ; nsinet. Two acts. 

Philidor introduced one air from Gluck's Orfeo 
("Chiamo il mio ben cosi") into his Sorcier 
("Nous etions dans cet age"); see on this plagia- 
rism the introduction to the Pelletan edition of 
Gluck's Orfeo (1898). First given at Versailles 21 
March 1764; in French also, at Amsterdam 1764; 
Vienna 1765; Turin Spring 1765; Copenhagen 
and Brussels 1767; Hamburg 6 February 1769; 
Hanover 31 July 1769; Li6ge 24 November 1770; 
Hague 24 January 1774; Smolna 16 February 



273 



274 



I7<54 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1764 



1 775 ; Berlin 24 January 1 777 ; Warsaw July 1 778 ; 
St. Petersburg 1798. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber) ; Ham- 
burg 1 771; Frankfort 1772; Hague 1774; Dres- 
den January 1777; Munich 4 May 1779, etc. 
Another German version, by C. F. Henisch, was 
published at Prague in 1772. 

There are Dutch translations by J. T. Neyts 
(n.d.) and by J. F. Cammaert (1769). Revived 
Paris, F.P. 9 February 1867 (text revised by J. 
Adenis, music revised by Poise; reduced to 1 act). 

gluck: La Rencontre iuiprevue* 

7 January, Vienna, B. 
Text by L. H. Dancourt (from an earlier French 
vaudeville by Lesage and d'Orneval, 1726). Three 
acts. 

The last and best of Gluck's French comic 
operas. 

In French also, Bordeaux 1766 (as All ct Rczia); 
Brussels 19 May 1766; Amsterdam, Hague and 
Mannheim 1768; Copenhagen 1772; Liege 23 
December 1776; Cassel 1780; Lille 17 Novem- 
ber 1783; Marseilles 1784; Paris, C.I. 1 May 1790 
(music arranged by J. P. Solid). 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber, as Die 
wwcrmuthetc Zttsammenkunft oder Die Piioriiiime 
von Mecca), Frankfort 16 April 1771 ; Vienna, Ka. 
Spring 1776 (revived B. 26 July 1780, Lcop. 10 
November 1789 and Ka. 28 June 1S07); Munich 
9 March 1779; Augsburg r 6 July 1779; Ulm 6 
December 1781 ; Hamburg T7S1.; Carlsruhc 1781; 
Nuremberg Autumn 17S2; Bonn 16 September 
1783; Berlin 27 October 1783 (first Gluck opera 
there); Mayence 1784; Riga 5 August 1785; 
Schwedt 23 December 1785; Pressburg 14 July 
1786; Pyrmont and Cologne 17S6; Hanover it 
May 1789; Brunswick 22 August 1789; Bruun 
31 January 1792; Graz 14 December 1793; Berne 
Spring 1804, etc. 

In Danish (translated by P. T. Vandal]), Copen- 
hagen 26 November J 776. 

In Swedish (transited by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 20 June i 7Sr>. 

There is also a printed Dutch version by J. T. 
Neyts (n.d.) 



Revivals. In French: Paris, O.C. 20 December 
1906 (as Les Pelerins de la Mecque); Paris, Tr.L. 
6 November 1923. 

In German: (text revised by C. Hagemann) 
Wiesbaden October 1922. 
basle 26 September 1924. 
Berlin, o. 18 February 1928. 
Vienna June 193 1. 
stettin 16 February 1932 (new German version 

by C Rittberg). 

In English (translated by G. Dunn), Loughton, 
Essex 21 July 1939. 

The score was first published in 193 1, edited 
by M. Arend. 

rush: The Royal Shepherd 

24 Febmary. London, D.L. 
Text by R. Rolt (an English version of Metas- 
tases II Re Pastore). Three acts. 

Given in an altered version by F. Tenducci at 
Dublin July 1765 and Edinburgh 30 January 
1769; and (as Amintas) London, C.G. 15 Decem- 
ber 1769 (with additional music by Gugliclmi, 
Arnold, and Th. C. Carter). 

monsigny: Rose et Colas* 

S March. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. M. Sedainc (founded on Lafontame's 
tale Lc Van). One act. 

One of Monsigny's most popular works, Fon- 
tainebleau 13 October 1764, etc. Very successful 
in Paris; given at the C.L until 21 February 1794; 
revived at the Th. de FEgalite 3 November 1794; 
O.C. 12 May 1S62 (revised by Gevaert) and at 
the Tr.L. 12 January 1918; revived at the Con- 
servatoire, Amsterdam June 1929. Outside 
France given at: 

WARSAW 27 August 1765 (in French) and 7 Sep- 
tember 1 7X1 (in German). 

GENEVA AND BRUSSELS J 766 (ill French). 

Copenhagen March 1767 (in French) and 2S Oc- 
tober 1777 (in Danish, translated by N. K. 
Brcdal). 

liege 27 October 1770 (in French). 



^75 



276 



1764 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1764-65 



Hamburg 9 November 1770 (in German, trans- 
lated by J. H. Faber); Mannheim 1771; Frank- 
fort 3 April 1771, etc. 

Amsterdam 4 February 1774 (in French) and [6 
May] 1783 (in Dutch, translated by P. F. Lyns- 
lager) ; an earlier version, by J. T. Neyts, had 
been published in 1769; Hague Spring 1774 
(in German). 

Vienna 8 January 1776 (in French) and 9 May 
1778 (in German). 

Moscow 29 August 1784 (in Russian, translated 
by M. V. Sushkova) and 4 January 1785 (in 
French); revived 6 June 1809. 

Berlin 17 October 1786 (in German). 

Stockholm 21 July 1790 (in Swedish, translated 
by C. Stenborg; revived there as late as 15 
October 1927). 
An English version, text and music by C. 

Dibdin, was produced at C.G. London on 18 

September 1778. 

fischietti: Vologeso, Re de } Parti 

4 October. Prague 
Text by A. Zeno (a later version of his Lucio 
Veto, 1700). Three acts. 

The composer was then musical director of 
Bustelli's troupe. In 1765 he became Hasse's suc- 
cessor at Dresden. 

battishill and M. arne: Almena 

2 November. London, D.L. 
Text by R. Rolt. Three acts. 

Another English serious opera by Rok, pro- 
duced at D.L. in 1764 (see above, The Royal 
Shepherd). Also given at Dublin c. 1765; with 
alterations, D.L. 7 February 1766. 

majo: Ifigenia in Tauride 

4 November. Mannheim 
Text by M. Verazi. Three acts. 

sacchini: L^no Veto 

4 November. Naples, S.C. 
Zeno's text (first set to music by Pollarolo in 1 700). 
Three acts. 



Revived at Naples 13 August 1785. Also given 
in London 20 November 1773 (Sacchini is men- 
tioned by Burney and most other authorities; 
the libretto says "Music by several eminent 
composers"). 

KOHOUT'.Le Serrurier 

20 December. Paris, C.I. 
Text by A. F. Quetant. One act. 

In French also, Brussels 1767; Copenhagen 
1769; Vienna 24 January 1776. In Swedish (trans- 
lated by C. Envallsson), Stockholm 3 October 
1797. In German (translated by J. H. Faber), 
Frankfort Autumn 1771. Dutch translation by 
J. T. Neyts published (n.d.). 

An early instance of a French comic opera 
written by a Czech composer. The score was 
printed in 1765. Le Serrurier was revived at the 
Prague Conservatoire on 24 June 1929 (see J. 
Branberger in Der Attftakt, February 1929). 

1765 

sacchini: La Contadina in Corte* 

Carnival. Rome, Valle 
Librettist unknown to Schatz-Sonneck. P. Gra- 
denigo (in his unpublished Notatorj, Venice, 
Museo Correr) attributes a libretto of the same 
title, but in 3, instead of 2 acts, set by Rust and 
performed at Venice in 1763 and at Lisbon in 
1765, to Gasparo Gozzi. 1 

One of the various versions of the Bertoldo 
story (see 1749); given at Rovigo Carnival 1779 
as La Contadina ingentilita. 

1 A comparison of the two libretti (see A. Iacuzzi, 
The European Vogue of Fauart, pp.259-266) shows that 
the text as composed by Sacchini was reduced and con- 
siderably altered. But Sacchini returned to the original 
3-act version in 1771 when the opera was given at 
Ludwigsburg and about the same time in London. 
Matters are even more complicated than Iacuzzi states. 
He does not discuss the two extant London libretti, the 
second of which (1782) seems to represent a third ver- 
sion (two acts, but six instead of four characters). Both 
the Ludwigsburg 1771 and the London 1782 libretto 
affirm that the music was "entirely new"; but we may 
take such statements cum grano salts. 



277 



278 



1765 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1765 



In Italian also: Prague Carnival 1767 (accord- 
ing to Teuber), 1777 (according to Haas and 
Kamper); Vienna 1767 (revived 19 April 1782); 
Dresden 17 January 1767; Pressburg 1768; Ljub- 
ljana Carnival 1769; Hanover 6 February 1770; 
Bamberg 18 June 1770; Copenhagen Carnival 
1 771 (Danish translation in libretto by R. Soel- 
berg); London 14 March 177 1 (revived 14 De- 
cember 1779 and 2 March 1782); Ludwigsburg 
Spring 1771; Madrid 1771 (asLaSandrina); Bonn 
March 1772; Munich April 1772; Schwetzingen 
July 1772; Graz 1776; Trieste 5 April 1779; 
Warsaw 22 January 1781; Brunswick c. Carnival 
1783; St. Petersburg 1784 (?); Gothenburg 30 
April 1793; Stockholm 12 November 1793; 
Christiania 2 May 1794. 

A German translation, Das Bauermadchen am 
Hofe, Munich 1777, preserved at Regensburg, is, 
according ro S. Farber, signed "L. J. F.'*, per- 
haps a misprint for "C.J. F.", (the Munich trans- 
lator, C. J. Forg). 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 19 October 1783. 

piccinni: IlBarone di Torreforte 

10 January. Rome, Capr. 
Librettist unknown. Two acts. 

In Italian also: Dresden 12 June 1766 (revived 
23 January 1781); Wiirzburg [22 September] 
1/69; Hanover 22 March 1770; Bonn 1772; 
Palermo Autumn 1775; London 22 February 
1781. 

In Spanish (translated by R. de la Cruz), 
Madrid 4 February 1768 and Barcelona 1774. 

In German, Hanover 22 March 1770. 

The same text was set by Joseph Michl and 
produced at Munich 23 March 1772 (in Italian) 
and in a German translation by C. J. Forg at 
Munich 1777 and Mannheim 24 June 1779. 

gluck: // Telemaco o sia 
Ulsola di Circe* 

jo January. Vienna, B. 
Text by M. Coltellini (altered from an earlier 
Italian libretto by C. S. Capeci which was first 
composed by A. Scarlatti in 1718). Two acts. 



It has often been stated that Telemaco was first 
produced at Rome in 1750, in an original 3-act 
version. The evidence for and against this legen- 
dary original Telemaco h?$ been summed up by 
M. Cooper and A. Einstein in their recent books 
on Gluck. It should be pointed out that as early 
as 1890 A. Ademollo wrote in the Gazzetta Musi- 
cale di Milano (p.398): "Di tale rappresentazione 
non si trova ne il libretto, ne alcun documento. 
Di piu, nel 1750, Anno Santo, i teatri di Roma 
restarono tutti chiusi, come sempre negli Anni 
Sand." 

The score of the 1765 Telemaco has been pre- 
served. 

Arnold: The Maid of the Mill* 
j 1 January. London, C.G. 
Text by I. BickerstafFe (founded on Richardson's 
Pamela). Three acts. 

Successful ballad opera which had a run of 29 
nights in its first season. The printed score men- 
tions — besides Arnold who arranged the music, 
— no less than 1 8 composers from whose works 
the music was compiled. The overture was 
written by T. A. Erskine, Earl of Kelly. 

Revived London, C.G. 20 October 1797 in a 
reduced 2-act version and 18 October 1814 with 
some new music by Bishop and others. 

Given at Dublin, Crow Street Th. 25 March 
1765 (as pasticcio) and Smock Alley Th. the next 
night (with new music by Giordani). R. Hitch- 
cock (Irish Stage, 1794) gives a slightly different 
account as to the dates: "Both managers thought 
it an object worth their utmost attention. The 
words of the opera were published and equally 
free for both. But the music was in manuscript 
and the sole property of the Covent-garden 
manager. From him Mr. Barry purchased it and 
consequently imagined he had in this instance 
securely triumphed over his antagonist. In this 
dilemma Mr. Mossop found an unexpected re- 
source, in the great abilities of Signior Giordani. 
It is a fact well established, that though the parts 
were writing out in Dublin for Mr. Barry, yet 
did Signior Giordani sit down and new compose 
the entire opera of the Maid of the Mill in full 



279 



280 



1765 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1765 



score, with all the accompaniments, in less than 
a fortnight; and it was written out, studied, the 
scenes painted, and the opera brought out, two 
nights before they were able to accomplish it at 
Crowstreet". 

The Maid of the Mill was also given at New 
York 4 May 1769; Philadelphia 5 January 1770, 
etc.; Brighton 31 July 1770 (first opera there); 
Kingston, Jamaica 13 November 1779. Also pro- 
duced by a travelling English troupe at St. Peters- 
burg 16 May 1772. 

A parody, The Man of the Mill, by "Seignior 
Squallini", was published in 1765. 

bates: Pharnaces 

1$ February. London, D.L. 
Text by T. Hull (founded on an Italian libretto 
by A. M. Lucchini). Three acts. 

One of the few attempts to follow up the great 
success of Arne's Artaxerxes (see 1762). Bates's 
only grand opera. 

philidor: Tom Jones* 
27 February. Paris, C.L 
Text by A. A. H. Poinsinet and B. Davesne 
(founded on Fielding's novel). Three acts. 

Regarded by some authors as Philidor's chef- 
d'oeuvre. First given at Versailles 20 March 1765 
and repeated at the C.L 30 January 1766 with 
some alterations. Subsequently given at Geneva 
1766; Brussels 26 July 1766; Dresden 3 Decem- 
ber 1766; Amsterdam 1767; Vienna 1768; Co- 
penhagen 1769; Lubeck 4 December 1769; 
Florence, T. Via S. Maria September 1776 (li- 
bretto Washington; one of a series of French 
opera-comiques produced at Florence under the 
direction of Rutini; see Floquet's letter to Gretry, 
dated 13 September 1776, in Mercure de France, 
November 1776); Turin Spring 1778; Cassel 23 
January 1784; St. Petersburg 20 July 1800. Re- 
vived at Paris, Fa. 15 February 1795. 

In German, Frankfort 16 September 1769 
(translated by F.J. Sebastiani; one of the earliest 
German translations of French op£ra-comique\ 
later versions were by J. H. Faber (published 



Mannheim 1772; Frankfort 1773) and by F. W. 
Gotter (Mayence 1776; Hamburg 26 April 1779; 
Munich 6 July 1779, etc.) ; in German, also Hague 
1774; Riga 24 March 1784. 

In Russian (translated by Princess Volkonsky 
and V. A. Levshin), Moscow before 1786 (at 
Prince Volkonsky *s private theatre). 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 3 November 1790. 

There are printed Dutch versions by J. T. 
Neyts, n.d.; by J. N. Esgers, Hague 1779; and by 
C. Lorie, Amsterdam 1785. 

Tom Jones was revived by amateurs ("Socidte" 
du i8 c Siecle") at the Salle Villiers, Paris in June 
1914. 

An English opera, text by J. Reed, music com- 
posed and compiled by Arnold (London, C.G. 
14 January 1769) is an independent work, using 
Poinsinet's text only to a very small degree and 
not a single number of Philidor's music. 

sacchini: Iljinto Pazzo per Ampre 

Spring. Rome, Valle 
Text by T. Mariani (first composed by Sellitti, 
Naples 1735). Two acts. 

Given at Pavia Spring 1775 as II Soldato per 
Forza impazzito per Amore. Last revived Varese 
Autumn 1797. 

In Italian also, Dresden 1769; Pressburg 1770; 
Prague 12 September 1781. 

In German (translated by G. Stephanie), Vien- 
na, B. 6 April 1779 (revived Leop. 10 May 1787); 
Hamburg 1780; Riga 26 June 1784. 

Given at Warsaw 10 January 1775 (in Italian); 
25 September 1779 (in Polish, translated by W. 
Boguslawski) ; 31 May 1781 (in German). 

blaise: Isabelle et Gertrude ou 

Les Sylphes supposes 

14 August Paris, C.L 

Text by C. S. Favart (founded on Voltaire's 

Gertrude ou L'£ducatwn d*une Fille). One act. 

The authors introduced three airs by Gluck 
into their "mince partition" (as Cle'ment-Larousse 
call it). 



281 



282 



1765 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1765-66 



In French also given at Brussels 1 May 1766; 
Dresden 1766; Copenhagen 1767; Mannheim 
1767; Liibeck ir December 1769; Cassel 1780 
and 26 April 1784. 

Last revived in Paris by the Petite Scene May 
1914 and 25 April 1920. 

The same libretto was set by young Gretry in 
1766; it was his first French opera, produced at 
Geneva in December 1766. 

duni: La Fee Urgele, ou 
Ce qui plait aux Dames 

26 October. Fontainebleau 
Text by C. S. Favart (after a tale by Voltaire 
which, itself, is founded on Chaucer's The Wife 
of Bath* s Tale). Four acts. 

Given at Paris, C.I. 4 December 1765 and last 
revived there at the Gymnasc 6 January 1821 
(reduced to one act and with new choruses by 
L. Aimon). 

In French also Geneva 1766; Brussels 12 De- 
cember 1766; Amsterdam and Hague 1767; Co- 
penhagen 1770; Vienna, Ka\ November 1780; 
Moscow 13 November 1874 (revived 22 Decem- 
ber 1S10); Cologne 1796-7. Revived at Antwerp 
10 March 1824. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Mann- 
heim T772; Frankfort Spring 1772. 

In Danish (translated by J. H. Wessel), Copen- 
hagen 30 January 1782. 

In Polish (translated by J. Baudouin), Warsaw 
$ April 1783. 

An English adaptation of the libretto is D. 
Garrick's A Christmas Tak\ produced London, 
D.L. 27 October 1773 (with new music by Dib- 
din); Dublin 7 March 1777. 

p. G u c. l i e l m i : // Ratio della Sposa 

Autumn. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by G. Martinelli. Three acts. 

Gugliclmi's 18th opera and his first great suc- 
cess. Given at Padua Carnival 1775 as // Vecchio 
deluso; at Siena it February 1778 as La Sposa 
rapita. 

In Italian also given at Dresden 22 May 1766; 
Trieste [10 September] 1766; Barcelona [2 June] 



1767; Lisbon 6 June 1767; London 26 March 
1768; Breslau 6 September 1768; Berlin Decem- 
ber 1768; Valencia Autumn 1769; Ludwigsburg 
Summer 1770; Copenhagen Autumn 1770 
(Danish translation in the libretto by R. Soel- 
berg); Bonn 1772; Gorizia Carnival 1776; Vien- 
na 9 June 1777 (as // Vecchio deluso; probably 
Guglielmi's opera). 



I766 

sacchini: L'iso/tf d'Amore 

Carnival. Rome, Valle 
Librettist unknown. Two acts. 

The most successful of Sacchini's comic operas, 
particularly in the French and German versions. 

In Italian also given at Dresden 9 February 
1768; Oggerstein near Mannheim 1769, and 
Schwetzingen June 1772; Vienna Summer 1769 
(additional music by Gassmann) ; Mannheim 
January 1772 and 1775; Munich Carnival 1773; 
Lisbon 20 April 1774; Regcnsburg 1775 ; London 
12 March 1776; Eszterhaza Summer 1776; as La 
Cokmia, re-translated from the French version by 
G. A. Riva, Colorno, near Parma 9 October 

1775. 

In Spanish (translated by R. de la Cruz), 
Madrid 12 September 1774; Barcelona 1777. 

In French (as La Colonie y translated by N. E. 
Framcry), Paris, C.I. 16 August 1775 (revived 
Th. dc 1'Egalite 23 September 1794); Fontaine- 
bleau 4 November 1775; Brussels 10 January 
1776; Vienna c. January 1776; Cassel 2 July 
1777; Warsaw June 1778; Smolna 25 June 1778; 
Parma, Conte de Flavigny's April 1784; Cologne 
1796-7; Moscow 1 May 1809. 

In Danish (translated from the French version 
by N. K. Bredal), Copenhagen 15 April 1777. 

In German (translated from the French version 
by J. Andre), Mannheim 21 February 1779; 
Berlin 2 May 1779 (revived 13 April 1790); 
Breslau 2 December 1779; Hamburg 8 February 
1780; Frankfort 11 April 1780; Vienna, B. 7 May 
1780; Augsburg 19 May 1780; Cologne 5 July 
1780; Munich 18 August 1780; Bonn 6 October 



283 



284 



1766 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1766 



1780; Cassel 7 September 1781; Riga 29 October 
1783; Carhruhe 29 October 1784; Schwedt 7 
October 1785; Solothurn 12 July 1789; Press- 
burg November 1793. 

In Polish (translator unknown), Warsaw 1780. 

In Dutch (translated from the French version, 
translator unknown), Amsterdam 1782. 

In Swedish (translated from the French version 
by C.Envallsson),Stockholm7May 1783; Gothen- 
burg 16 April i784;Malmo 23 September 1804. 

In Russian (translated from the French version 
by V. G. Voroblevsky), Moscow 16 November 
1780 (revived 25 September 1794) and St. Peters- 
burg 23 November 1790. 

piccinni: La Pescatrice ovvero 
UErede riconosciuta 

9 January. Rome, Capr. 
Librettist unknown (the text has nothing to do 
with Goldoni's Pescatrici). Two acts. 

Given at Venice Autumn 1771 in an enlarged 
3-act version with additional music by S- Perillo; 
at Turin, T. Carignano 1781 and Genoa 1782 as 
La Pescatrice innocente. 

In Italian also, Vienna 23 January 1769; Dres- 
den 3 1 January 1 773 ; Munich April 1 773 ; 
Warsaw 16 January 1775; Regensburg Carnival 
1777, etc. 

In German (translated by C. J. Forg) Munich 
1771-2 and ir September 1777; Salzburg 1778; 
Nuremberg 7 July 1779 (by Schikaneder's com- 
pany); Regensburg 27 December 1779; Augs- 
burg 13 April 1780; Gotha 24 April 1784; Carls- 
ruhe 6 December 1784; Pforzheim 6 June 1787, 
etc. In German, also Warsaw 23 June 1781; 
Pressburg 1788; Riga 1790. (C. A. Vulpius had 
another German translation, called Der Liebes- 
trank, ready by 1787; but it does not seem to 
have been acted.) 

jommelli: 77 Vologeso 

11 February. Ludwigsburg 

Text: a later version of Zeno's Lucio Vero (1700), 

first set to music by Rinaldo di Capua in 1739. 

Three acts. 

Lisbon Carnival 1 769. 



A scene from this opera was sung at a London 
concert as late as 5 May 1823 ; parts of the opera 
were revived at the inauguration of the new 
Stuttgart Hoftheater even on 14 September 1912. 
(See for a description of the opera, W. Heinse's 
novel Hildegard von Hohenthal, 1795-96.) 

p A i s I e L L o : Lefinte Contesse 

February. Rome, Valle 
Text by P. Chiari (originally called // Marchese 
Villano and first set to music by Galuppi, see 1762), 
reduced to 1 act. 

Given at Milan July 1770 as LaLavandara astuta 
(pasticcio, additions by Piccinni) ; also Pisa Car- 
nival 1786. Revived in an enlarged 2-act version 
St. Petersburg 1777 (at Oranienbaum Palace) and 
I November 1779 (at Kamenoy Ostrov) as // 
Matrimonio inaspettato. 

Under this title as well as under two others, 
viz. I\ Marchese Tulipano (Florence) and La Conta- 
dina di Spirito (Vienna) the opera was then given 
all over Europe; yet another sub-title La Contessa 
di Sarzana was used at Trieste. Given at: Naples, 
Palace of Portici June 1781 ; Florence, P. Spring 
1783; Vienna 6 April 1785; London 24 January 
1786 (with additional music by Cherubini; a 
pasticcio II Marchese Villano, with music by 
Piccinni and Paisiello had been given there al- 
ready 26 March 1778); Hamburg 1 May 1787; 
Versailles 17 July 1787; Rome, Capr. 7 January 
1788; Eszterhaza 1788; Madrid 25 August 1788; 
Trieste January 1789; Warsaw 6 January 1790; 
Lisbon 1790; Barcelona 9 December 1791; 
Prague 1792; Paris, Th. I. 13 December 1801. 

There were almost as many German alter- 
native titles. Given at: 
pressburg 18 November 1785 (as Das listige 

Bauernmadchen, translated by J. Chudy). 
pyrmont i August 1786 (as Ritier Tulipan auf 

Rosenstock, Nelkenhain und Hollerbliith, oder Das 

listige Baucmmddchen). 
Nuremberg 1 787 (as Das witzige Landmadchen oder 

Der geadelte Landmann). 
cologne 1787-8; Hanover 18 April 1792 and 

Bremen 22 October 1792 (as Das listige Bauern- 

madchen oder Die unvermutete Heirat). 



285 



286 



1766 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1766 



VIENNA, TH.A.D. LANDSTRASSE Spring 1790. 

Munich 20 December 1793 (as Das listige Bauerti- 

madchen oder das Tultpanengeschlecht). 

The opera was frequently revived in German 
in the beginning of the 19th century (Poznan 
1 February 1805; Wiirzburg 13 February 1809; 
Hanover 1 May 1809; Darmstadt 13 August 1809, 
Berlin 19 December 1811, Hamburg 28 February 
1 81 3; Bremen 13 May 1814; Mayence 17 May 
1 8 15; Graz 15 November 1827) and was given at 
Stuttgart as late as 1843. 

In French (translated by C. J. A. Gourbillon), 
Paris, Th. de M. 28 January 1789 (revived Th. 
Porte Saint-Martin 9 September 1802); Lille 15 
November 1789; Ghent 1792; Liege 1 August 
1795; Brussels 2 January 1796; Kingston, Jamaica 
20 December 1800; Antwerp 15 January 1805 
(revived 10 July 1812); Moscow 28 August 1809; 
Lyons October 18 16; Le Havre 18 February 
1817. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 13 November 1794. 

In Russian (translated by V. A. Levshin), St, 
Petersburg 26 April 1795 (revived April 181 1); 
Moscow 22 June 1798 (revived 4 May 1806 and 
5 May 1820). 

In Polish (translated by L. Osiriski), Warsaw 
1804. 

In Dutch (translated by C. van der Vijver), 
Amsterdam [21/October] 1807. 

monsigny: Aline, Reine de Golconde 

15 April Paris, O. 
Text by J. M. Sedaine (founded on a story by 
S. J. de BoufHcrs). Three acts. 

Revived in Paris 4 October 1768; 26 May 
1772; 4 July 1779; and 16 July 1782. In French 
also Brussels 4 July 1774; Liege 18 January 1783. 

A German translation by F. L. W. Meyer was 
published at Berlin 1782. 

An Italian version by A. Andrei, music by 
Rauzzini, was produced in London 18 March 
1784. 

In Russian, Moscow 21 December 1786 and 

1793* 

287 



A parody by P. T. Gondot, called Nanine, Soeur 
de Lait de la Reine de Golconde was published in 
1768. 

The story became a favourite subject with 
opera composers: see Uttini 1776; Schulz 1787; 
Berton 1803; Donizetti 1828. 

barthelemon: Pelopida 

24 May. London, Hm. 
Very probably G. Roccaforte's text (first set to 
music by G. Scarlatti in 1763). Three acts. 

The first opera of Barthelemon who, since 
1764, had been leader of the orchestra at the 
King's Theatre. Extracts from the opera were 
performed at a Dublin concert 10 October 1771. 

j. a. hiller: Die verwandelten Weiber, 
oder Der Teufel ist los 

28 May. Leipzig 
Text by C. F. Weisse. (For his first, 2-act version, 
of the libretto, set by Standfuss, see 1752; 
this new 3-act version was influenced by Sedaine's 
French libretto of 1756, q.v.). 

Very successful all over Germany: Hamburg 
21 July 1766, etc., Berlin 1.3 July 1771. In German 
also, St. Petersburg 11 February 1779; Graz 10 
February 1793; Temesvar 28 February 1802; 
Vienna, Leop. 19 December 1809. Parts of the 
opera were given at Hamburg as late as 19 Feb- 
ruary 1855. 

(For a sequel Der lustige Schuster oder Der zweite 
Teil vom Teufel ist los t see 1759; this was also 
revised and partly re-composed by Hiller, but it 
can hardly be called a new opera and is treated 
here as a new version of Standfnss's original 
setting. Hiller's new version was also given at 
Leipzig in 1766; exact date unknown, probably 
a few weeks after Die verwandelten Weiber.) 

go s sec: Les Pecheurs 

7 June. Paris, C.I. 
Text by A. N. de La Salle d'OfFemont. One act. 
One of Gossec's best works. In French also 
given at Brussels 10 September 1767; Smolna 

288 



1766 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1766-67 



8 March 1777; Casscl 20 February 1784; Cologne 
1796-7. Last revived Antwerp 11 March 1805 and 
Brussels 31 July 1815. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 6 September 1789; Gothenburg 28 
October 1790; Malmo 12 July 1808. 

In Dutch (translated by B. Ruloffs), Amster- 
dam [6 May] 1793; Oudenarde 1796-7. 

duni:Li Clochette* 

24 July. Paris, C.I. 
Text by L. Anseaume (founded on a tale by La- 
fontainc). One act. 

In French also Amsterdam 1766; Brussels 18 
January 1767; Copenhagen 1767; Vienna 1768; 
Warsaw 10 February 1778; Liege 10 June 1780; 
Munich 21 March 1783; Gothenburg 25 April 
1783; Stockholm June 1783; Cassel 30 October 
1784; Hamburg 1795; Cologne 1795-6. 

In Swedish (translated by D. G. Bjorn), 
Gothenburg 16 December 1783 and Stockholm 
18 February 1786. 

In Russian, Kouskovo 1780 and Moscow 19 
September 1792. 

A Dutch version by J. T. Ncyts was published 
in 1768; another by J. G. Doornik in 1783. 

Vocal score reprinted in 1910, edited by C. 
Lecocq. Revived Paris, Varictcs amusantes, 29 
August 1794 and "Th. dc Monsieur" (Th. des 
Mathurins) 22 December 1910. 

traetta: Le Serve Rivali* 

Autumn. Venice, S. Moisc 
Text by P. Chiari. Three acts. 

Very successful in Italy: Florence, T. Coco- 
mero Spring 1767; repeated Venice, S. Moisc 
Autumn 1767; Bologna November 1767; No- 
vara Carnival 1769; Milan, T.R.D. Summer 
1769, etc. 

In Italian also, Vienna 1767; Lisbon and Bruns- 
wick 1768; Dresden 11 October 1768; London 
3 June 1769 (revived 19 December 1780); Bonn 
1773; Warsaw 4 February 1775. 

In German as Die Nebenbuhlerinnen, Cologne 
27 September 1785; Casscl 5 January 1787; Pyr- 
mont 7 August 1787. 



jommelli:// Matrimonii) per 
Concorso 

4 November. Ludwigsburg 
Text by G. Martinelli. Three acts. 

In Italian also, Milan, T.R.D. Autumn 1768; 
Lisbon 6 June 1770. At Stuttgart still given during 
the 'eighties. 

hiller : Lisuart und Dariolette oder 
Die Frage und die Antwort 

23 November, Leipzig 
Text by D. Schiebeler (partly founded onFavart's 
La Fee Urgele, see 1765). 

On the origin of the libretto see G. Schmidt- 
mann's dissertation on Schiebeler, 1909). Orig- 
inally in 2 acts; given also at Vienna 6 January 
1767. An enlarged 3 -act version was produced at 
Leipzig 7 January 1767; Salzthal 1 August 1769; 
Hamburg 1769; Berlin 26 July 1771, etc. 

1767 

p. guglielmi: La Sposafedele 

Carnival. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by P. Chiari. Three acts. 

The most successful of Guglielmi's earlier op- 
eras. Given at Florence, Carnival 1774 as La Rosi- 
nella La Sposafedele and Spring 1779 as La Sposa 
costante; at Genoa, S.Ag. Summer 1776 as La Fe- 
delta in Amore. 

Outside Italy, in Italian, given at Dresden 1768 ; 
Copenhagen Autumn 1768 (Danish translation 
in the libretto by F. A. Friis); Vienna 1769 (re- 
vived 19 April 1777); London 31 March 1770 (as 
La Costanza di Rosinclla; repeated 31 October 
1775 under its original title, as a pasticcio); 
Munich Summer 1772; Cadiz 1772; Lisbon 
Autumn 1773; Warsaw 4 January 1775; Prague 
1775; Madrid Summer 1776; Graz, Carnival 
1778; Eszterhaza 3 May 1778, etc. 

Successful also in a German translation by J. J. 
Eschenburg, as Robert und Kalliste, oder Der 
Triumph der Treue: Berlin 8 April 1775; Dresden 
25 February 1776; Vienna 20 June 1776; Ham- 



289 



290 



1767 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1767 



burg 25 September 1776; Hanover 10 January 
1777; Frankfort 14 June 1777; St. Petersburg 29 
January 1778 ; Strasbourg 28 February 1779; Augs- 
burg 11 June 1779; Bonn 9 December 1781; 
Warsaw 22 June 1782; Riga 29 November 1782; 
Prague Easter 1783; Munich 1 July 1783; Lai- 
bach 31 May 1784; Cologne Autumn 1784; 
Carlsruhe 21 February 1785 ; Bremen 18 October 
1785; Cassel 28 April 1787; Pyrmont 26 June 
1787; Pressburg 1788; Graz 14 March 1789; 
Wolfenbiittel 25 August 1789; Budapest 27 De- 
cember 1789; Amsterdam 1792, etc. Given on 
German stages until about 1800. 

haydn: La Canter ina* 

Carnival Eszterhaza 
Librettist unknown (the text is different from 
Goldoni's intermezzo of the same title, set to music 
by Galuppi in 1756). Two acts. 

Revived Bielefeld 21 March 1939 (in German, 
as Die kleine Sangerin, translated and arranged by 
M. See). Cleveland 30 December 1940 in English 
as The Songstress. 

m. arne: Cymon 

2 January. London, D.L. 
Text by D. Garrick (A dramatic romance, founded 
Dn Dryden's poem Cymon and Iphigenia). Pro- 
logue, 5 acts, and epilogue. 

Arne*s most successful work; Dublin 4 March 
[771 (accompaniments by W. Clagget); Phil- 
adelphia 3 March 1773 ; New York 3 May 1773 ; 
Edinburgh 1783, etc. Frequently revived in Lon- 
don; the latest revivals were at: 
:.G. 20 November 181 5 (reduced to 3 acts, with 

additions by Bishop, also airs by Stevenson, 

Braham and Paer). 
:.G. 14 December 181 5 (reduced to 2 acts); and 

21 October 1817; 11 October 1820 and 7 April 

1827). 
,Y. I April 1850 (reduced to 1 act, adapted by 

J. R. Planche* as Cymon and Iphigenia). 

mysliveczek: II Bellerofonte 

20 January. Naples, S.C. 
Text by G. Bonechi (according to B. Croce, who 
motes a letter by Bonechi, saying that his work 



had previously been successfully produced in 
Russia, viz., with music by Araja in 1750). Three 
acts. 

The first success of the Czech composer; given 
at Siena [6 May] 1767 and later in the same year 
also produced at Prague. (The opera was not 
written for Parma as stated by Eitner and many 
other authorities.) 

j. A. hiller: Lottchen am Hofe 

24 April Leipzig 
Text by C. F. Weisse (after Goldoni and Favart, 
see 1749 and 1755). Three acts. 

Successful on German stages; Berlin 1 July 
1769, etc.; in German also, Prague 1 April 1771 ; 
St. Petersburg 1778; Riga 1778 (as Lotte und Gur- 
get)\ Salzburg 18 February 178 1. Given in Ger- 
many until the end of the 18th century. Revived 
Darmstadt 31 March 1936 (new version by F. 
Herburger and A. Anzengruber). 

Given at Vienna, Ka. 10 June 1769 "umge- 
andert als Lustspiel von Heufeld". A new setting 
of Favart's text (see 1755) by H. M. Berton (first 
produced Paris 21 December 1811) was given 
with parts of Hiller's music when performed (in 
a German version by G. F. Treitschke) at Vienna, 
W. 19 October 1815. 

gas sm ann : UAmore Artigiano 

26 April Vienna, B. 
Text by C. Goldoni (first set to music by Latilla 
in 1760). Three acts. 

Gassmann's setting was very successful all over 
Europe. Given at: 
bologna [10 April] 1768 and on many other 

Italian stages : Burney attended a performance 

at Milan i7july 1770; revived Milan, Sc. 1 May 

1782. 
Valencia Autumn 1769 (in Italian). 
DRESDEN 2 January 1770 (in Italian). 
Copenhagen Autumn 1770 (in Italian; Danish 

translation in the libretto by R. Soelberg) and 

4 January 1781 (in Danish, translated by L. 

Knudsen). 
schwetzingen May 1772 (in Italian). 



291 



292 



I7<57 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1767 



Prague 1774 (in Italian) and Summer 1783 (in 

German). 
Munich Carnival 1775. 
Warsaw 22 January 1775 (in Italian) and 22 April 

1787 (in Polish, translated by W. Boguslawski). 
graz Spring 1778 (in Italian) and 18 December 

1792 (in German). 
London 3 March 1778 (in Italian; not 3 August 

1775). 

Vienna, B. 29 September 1779 (for the first time 
in German, translator not mentioned); re- 
vived Leop. 30 April 1790 (translated by J. A. 
von Ghelen); and in yet another version by 
K. F. Lippert, Ka. 29 December 1801 (as pas- 
ticcio). 

nice Carnival 1781 (in Italian). 

bonn 15 October 1781 ; Frankfort 13 April 1782; 
Hamburg 28 August 1782, etc. (in German). 

Dublin 1782 (in Italian). 

Berlin 16 June 1783 (in German). 

riga 18 December 1783 (in German). 

ST. Petersburg 1785 (in Italian). 

pressburg 1788 (in German; revived 16 Decem- 
ber 1797). 

Budapest 1788 (in German). 

p A I s I e l l o : Uldolo Cinesc* 

Spring. Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. B. Lorenzi. Three acts. 

Successful at Naples; given 6 April 1768 at the 
court theatre of Cascrta as the first comic opera 
there. In Italian also, Paris, O. iojune 1779 (with 
additional music by Piccinni and others); St. Pe- 
tersburg 30 August 1779 (at Tsarskoye Selo; 
French and Russian translations by A. G. Volkov 
and Levachoi published on that occasion). Re- 
vived Naples Fondo 1783. 

mozart: Apollo et Hyacinthus seu 
Hyacinthi Metamorphosis* 

13 May. Salzburg 
(Latin) text by R. Widl. Called a Lateinischc Ko- 
mb'die. Strictly speaking, not an opera, but musical 
intermezzi (9 numbers) in Widl's Latin tragedy, 
dementia Croesi. Such Latin plays were performed 



at Salzburg University at the end of each term. 
(Even this was not the first stage-work of the 
eleven-year-old boy; Die Schuldigkeit des ersten 
Gebotcs, the first act of which was set by Mozart, 
had been given at Salzburg University on 12 
March 1767.) 

Apollo et Hyacinthus was revived at 
rostock 29 April 1922 (in German, translated by 

H. C. Schott and G. Scholz, music arranged 

by P. G. Scholz and J. Turnau). 
Munich April 1932 (in German, translated by E. 

Mann, music arranged by K. Schleifer). 
salzburg August 193 5 (new version by R. Ten- 

schert, arranged for puppets) ; this version was 

also given at Linz 16 April 1937. 

gossec: Toinon et Toinette 

20 June. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. A. J. Des Boulmiers. Two acts. 

In French also, Amsterdam and Hague 1768; 
Liege 2 February 1771 ; Copenhagen 1771 ; Brus- 
sels 27 May 1776; Cassel 14 January 1784. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Frank- 
fort 1774; Cologne 22 June 1775; (translated by 
G. Stephanie), Vienna, Ka. 1 June 1776 and B. 
9 February 1779, etc. 

In Dutch (translated by P. J. Uylenbroek), 
Amsterdam November 1783; an earlier Dutch 
version, by J. T. Neyts, had been published at 
Alkmaer in 1768, and a third anonymous one in 
the same year. Burney attended a performance in 
Flemish at Brussels in July 1772 (music arranged 
by Vitzthumb). 

In Danish (translated by A. G. Thoroup), Co- 
penhagen 25 November 1785. 

In Swedish (adapted and translated by C. En- 
vallsson), Stockholm 11 September 1804 (pas- 
ticcio); also Malmo 22 April 1807 and Lund 22 
July 1807. 

naumann: L'Achille in Sciro 

5 September. Palermo 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara, see 
1736). Three acts. 
Naumann's first preserved opera. 



293 



294 



1767 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1767 



hasse: Partenope 

g Septembre. Vienna, B. 
Text by P. Metastasio. Two acts. 

Written to celebrate the betrothal of King Fer- 
dinand iv of Naples to the Archduchess Maria 
Josepha (d. 15 October 1767). Also given at 
Naples, S.C. 20 September 1767 and Berlin 18 
July 1775. 

(According to the diary of Khevcnhuller 1 Par- 
tenope had been produced two years earlier at 
Innsbruck, 6 August 1765, at the wedding of the 
Archduke Leopold; but it was Romolo ed Ersilia, 
by the same authors, which was performed on 
that occasion.) 

p h i l I d o r : Ernelinde Princesse 
de Norvege 

24 November. Paris, O. 
Text by A. A. H. Poinsinet (founded on an Italian 
libretto by M. Noris, Ricimero, Re de Vandali, 
1684). Three acts. 

Philidors chief work in the province of grand 
opera. Given at Paris 24 January 1769 as Sartdomir, 
Prince de Dannemarck and revived (with the orig- 
inal title) Versailles n December 1773 and Paris, 
O. 8 July 1777 (enlarged to 5 acts, text revised by 
J. M. Sedainc). 

Given at Brussels 4 October 1772 (first version) 
and 4 November 1774 (second version). 

A parody by J. E. Dcspreaux, called Berlitigtte, 
was produced at Choisy 13 September 1777 and 
another, called Sans-Dormir, at the C.I., Paris 
12 October 1777. 

Vocal score reprinted in 1883 (edited by Cesar 
Franck). 

gluck: Alccste* 

26 December. Vienna, B. 
Text by R. de* Calzabigi [Tragedia per mttsica). 
Three acts. 

1 Aus dcr Zeit Maria Thcresias. Taoebuch des Fiirsfen 
Johatin Josef KhevenhiiUcr-\ictsc\i. Vol. vi (1764-67), 
1917, pp,i2o and 263. The anticipation of the 1767 title 
in a diary entry of 1765 remains a curious fact which 
can be explained only by assuming that the title of the 
opera was supplied from memory at a later date. 



After Orfeo (sec 1762) Gluck's second "reform 
opera" ; the preface to the score (published Vienna 
1769) is one of the most remarkable documents 
for the theory of opera. The date of 16 December 
(instead of 26) 1767 for the first performance at 
Vienna, still frequently occurring, is wrong, and 
owes its existence to an old misprint; see C. F. 
Pohl, Haydn, Vol. 11 (1882), p.119. 

Alceste was revived at Vienna, in Italian, on 
21 September 1770; again Schonbrunn 25 No- 
vember 1781 and Vienna, B. 3 December 1781; 
also Vienna, Prince Auerpcrg's February 1786. 
Outside Vienna given at Paris, O. 23 April 1776 
(in French, translated by F. L. G. Lcbland du 
Ronllet; with some adjustments in the last act by 
Gosscc); given there more or less regularly until 
1826; revived 21 October 1861 (revised by Ber- 
lioz) and 12 October 1866 (313 performances in 
all). Then revived at the O.C. 28 May 1904 and 
again at the O. 8 February 1926 and 23 November 
1936. A parody by P. A. A. de Piis, P. Y. Barre, 
J. B. D. Dcsprcs and L. P. P. Rcsnicr, called La 
Bonne Fern me on he Phenix, was produced at the 
C.I. on 7 July 1776, Another, Celeste, by Bardon, 
was published in 1784. 

In French also given at Casscl 6 April 1 778 (first 
performance in Germany); Brunswick 1801. 

In Italy, Padua 1777; Bologna, T.C. 9 May 
1778 and Casino Nobile February 1788; Naples, 
Fondo Autumn 1785; Florence, P. 26 December 
1786. (Calzabigi's text was also used by 
Gugliclmi, whose setting was produced at Milan 26 
December 1768, exactly one year after Gluck's.) 

In Italian also given at Copenhagen 1 February 
1775 (Danish translation in the libretto by R. 
Soclbcrg); Lille 12 April 1783; Hanover (-.No- 
vember 1783 ; London 30 April 1795 (for Brigitta 
Band's benefit; a selection had been given pre- 
viously at a "fete" at the King's Th. 10 April 
1780, with Antonia Bernascom for whom Gluck 
originally had written the part of Alccste); Berlin 
4 March 1796 and 15 January 1804; St. Petersburg 
1798; Moscow Carnival 1803 ; Trieste 1804. 

In Swedish (translated by C. J. Hcrtzcnhjelm 
and J. H. Kcllgrcn, music arranged by L. S.Lalin), 
Stockholm 26 February 1781. 



295 



296 



1767 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1767-68 



In German, Frankfort 31 July 1784 (translated 
by J. Bdhm); Cologne Autumn 1784 (Bohm's 
translation); Cassel 23 March 1787; Mayence 
9 April 1791 (translated by H. G. Schmieder); 
Berlin 15 October 1817 (translated by C. A. 
Herklots); Budapest 1 November 1817; Munich 
8 July 1840; Dresden 17 February 1846; Prague 
17 November 1846; Leipzig 18 June 1853 ; Carls- 
ruhe 28 June 1855; Rotterdam April 1864. 

In Russian, Kouskovo, Count Cheremetyev's, 
after 1785. 

Some of the more recent revivals of Alceste 
were at: 
Vienna 4 October 1885 and 6 March 1916 (in 

German). 
bologna, T.C.70ctober 1888 (in Italian, re-trans- 
lated from Herklots's German version by A. 

Zanardini). 
bahcelona, t.l. September 1889 (in Italian, re- 
translated from Herklots's German version by 

A. Zanardini). 
Copenhagen 1 5 November 1898 (in concert 

form). 
Prague 6 February 1901 (in German). 
paris, o.c. 28 May 1904 (in French). 
London, h.m's 2 December 1904 (by the R.C.M., 

in English, translated by C. Aveling). 
Brussels 14 December 1904 (in French; for the 

first time there). 
stuttgart 1 8 November 1923 (new German 

version by H. Abert). 
paris, o. 8 February 1926 and 23 November 1936 

(in French). 
ZURICH 10 March 1926 (in German). 
TURIN, T. Dl TORINO 12 May 1 926 (in Italian). 
oxford 6 December 1926 (in English). 
buenos aires 21 June 1934 (in French). 
Florence, boboli gdns. i June 1935 (i 11 Italian). 
rome, t.r. 16 January 1937 (in Italian). 
London, c.g. 6 May 1937 (in French). 

WELLESLEY COLLEGE, MASS. II March 1938. 

basle i June 1939 (in German). 



The first American opera libretto was printed 
in 1767, The Disappointment, or, The Force ofCre- 



297 



dulity, a new American Comic'Opera of two acts. By 
Andrew Barton. It was announced for production 
at Philadelphia 20 April 1767, but withdrawn as 
it contained "personal reflections". Reprinted (in 
3 acts) 1796. The music consists of popular airs. 
See O. G. T. Sonneck, in Sammelbdnde of the 
I.M.S., Vol. vi (1904-5). 



1768 

GASSMANNrLa Notte critica 

$ January. Vienna, B. 
Text by C. Goldoni (first set to music by Boroni, 
1766, and Piccinni, 1767). Three acts. 

In German (translated by J. J. Eschenburg) 
Vienna, B. 10 January 1783. 

duni: Les Moissonneurs 

27 January. Paris, C.I. 
Text by C. S. Favart. Three acts. 

In French also, Amsterdam 1768; Liege 8 De- 
cember 1768; Copenhagen 12 June 1769; Er- 
langen 1769. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber) Frankfort 
1772; another German version, by G. K. PfefFel 
was given at Rostock 5 June 1776 (modified by 
P. F. Ilgener; see Sonneck*s Catalogue, p.974 and 
A. Iacuzzi, The European Vogue of Favart, p.184). 

An anonymous English translation The Reapers, 
or The Englishman out of Paris, was published in 
1770; see also Shield's Rosina, 1782. 

A Spanish version by R. de la Cruz was set 
by Esteve (La Espigadera, Madrid 20 July 1778). 

An anonymous Dutch translation was pub- 
lished in 1785. 

jommelli: Fetonte 

1 1 February. Ludwigsburg 
Text by M. Verazi. Three acts. 

Lisbon 6 June 1769. Given at Stuttgart until 
1773. An earlier Fetonte opera by Jommelli (per- 
formed Stuttgart 11 February 1753 ; different lib- 
retto) is not extant. 

298 



1768 



The score was published in the Denkmaler 
Deutscher Tonkunst series in 1907 (edited by H. 
Abert). 

dibdin: Lionel and Clarissa* 
25 February. London, C.G. 
Text by I. Bickerstaffe. Three acts. 

Given in a new version as Lionel and Clarissa, 
or A School for Fathers, London, D.L. 8 February 
1770; Dublin 2 April 1770 (first version already 
1 769) ; Philadelphia 1 4 December 1 772 ; Kingston, 
Jamaica 14 April 1781; Edinburgh 23 February 
1786 (if not earlier) ; New York 21 February 1794 
(first recorded performance; probably given there 
already c.1773); Boston 14 November 1796. 

The greater part of the music was composed by 
Dibdin; as to the additions by other composers, 
see Sonneck's Catalogue, p.687. 

Frequendy revived on English stages; in Lon- 
don as late as 22 May 1924 at Birkbeck Institute 
and 28 October 1925 at the Lyric, Hammersmith 
(music arranged by A. Reynolds; ran for 171 
nights). 

traetta: Ulsola disabitata 
[26 April]. Bologna, T.C. 

Metastases text (first set to music by Bonno in 
1752). Two acts. 

Of the music only one air is extant. Given also 
at St. Petersburg Carnival 1769; Copenhagen 
8 January 1773 (Danish translation in the libretto 
by F. A. Friis); Warsaw 1 June 1781 (composer 
not mentioned; rather Traetta' s than G. Scar- 
latti's setting); Prague Autumn 1783. 

gal up pi: Ifigenia in Tauride 

2 May. St. Petersburg 

Text by M. Coltellini (first set to music by Traetta, 
see 1763). Three acts. 

The only opera Galuppi wrote for Russia 
where he was court conductor, 1766-68. Score 
preserved. 



ANNALS OF OPERA 1768 

j. A. hiller: DieLiebe aufdemLande 

18 May. Leipzig 
Text by C. F> Weisse (founded on Favart's An- 
nette et Lubin, see 1762, and Anseaume's La Clo- 
chette y see 1766). Three acts. 

Hamburg 1769; Berlin 13 August 1771 and all 
over Germany; in German also, St. Petersburg 
5 November 1778; Vienna 7 June 1779; Riga 30 
April 1784. 

For a Danish version, see 1810. 

Rodriguez de hita: Briseida 

11 July. Madrid, T. del Principe 
Text by R. de la Cruz (zarzuela herSica). Two 
acts. 

Parts of the music were revived in concert form 
at the Ateneo, Madrid in 1896 (under F. Pedrell). 



GRETRYlLeHtfrOtt 
j 20 August. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. F. Marmontel (founded on Voltaire's 
Vlnginu). Two acts. 

Gretry's first success; given in Paris until 1807; 
the 100th performance there was on 17 March 
1776. 

In French also, Amsterdam 1768; Li^ge 26 Jan- 
uary 1769; Copenhagen 1769; Cassel 19 Novem- 
ber 1783; Parma Carnival 1787. 

In German (translated by C.L. Reuling) Vienna 
1770; Prague 1770; Frankfort 1772-73 ; Mayence 
1776; revived Vienna, Ka. April 1776 and Leop. 
25 October 1783; Bonn 1783. 

In Danish (translated by C. H. Pram), Copen- 
hagen 6 January 1780. 

A Dutch version by J. T. Neyts was published 
in 1769. 

mozart: Bastien undBastienne 

September? Vienna 
Text: F. W. Weiskern's German version of Fa- 
vart's parody on Rousseau's he Devin du Village 
(see 1752). One act. 

The performance took place at the garden 
theatre of Anton Mesmer, the once famous hyp- 



299 



300 



1768 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1768 



notist, probably in September 1768. It was the 
only production of this little Singspie! until 122 
years later. The Basticn und Bastietmc produced 
at Vienna suburban theatres 3 August 1775 and 
29 May 1779 is attributed to Mozart in E. K. 
Blummrs and G. Gugitz's Ah-Wicner Thespis^ 
lumen (p.481). But there is no evidence that this 
was not rather the Wciskern version of Favart's 
parody, which seems to be much more likely 
(sec 1752). 

Basticn und Bastiame was revived by the GcselU 
schaft dcr Opcrnfreundc at the Architektenhaus, 
Berlin on 2 October 1 890. One year later, with 
a new text by M. Kalbeck, it was produced at 
Vienna, O. 25 December 1891 and subsequently 
atBriinnHApril 1892, Graz28 November 1892, 
Hamburg 29 November 1892, Berlin 5 Decem- 
ber 1892, Basle 19 December 1892 and in most 
German theatres. Another new version, by R. 
Simons, was given at Vienna, V.O. 3 1 October 
1905. 

Translated from Kalbeck's version also given at : 
Budapest 20 November 1892 (in Hungarian, 

translated by A. Rad6). 
Stockholm 28 September 1893 (in Swedish, 

translated by E. Grandinson). 
londow, t>ALY*s 26 December 1894 (in English, 
translated by C. Bache) and C.G. 2 May 1907 
(in German) ; broadcast 17 March 1933 (English 
version by E. Blom). 
Paris, o.c. 9 June 1900 (in French, translated by 
H. Gauthier-Villars and G. Hartmann); re- 
vived at the Theatre Club Arlequin 9 January 
1932. 
Brussels 29 December 1900 (in French). 
anttwerp 2 February 1901 (in Flemish). 
Prague 1905 (in Czech, translated by V. J. No- 

votny). 
zagreb 1 June 191 1 (in Croatian; by amateurs). 
Manchester 21 October 1912 (in English, trans- 
lated by S. Langford). 
Venice, liceo 1914 (in Italian, translated by C. 

Rossi). 
MADRID Spring 191 5 (in Spanish, translated by A. 
Gil y Gordaliza, with recitatives by Manuel 
M. Faixd). 



new york 26 October 1916 (in English, trans- 
lated by A. Mattulath) and 5 February 1939 
(translated by H. Hagen). 

Trieste, conservatory I4june 1923 (in Italian). 

rome, t. di marcello 21 January 1927 (in Italian). 

nantes 13 March 1928 (in French). 

Barcelona April 1928 (in French). 

salzburc 6 August 1928 (in Russian, by the Len- 
ingrad Conservatoire). 

geneva March 1933 (in French). 

Hague April 1938 (by theDutch Chamber Opera). 

Jerusalem i March 1939 (in Hebrew, translated 
by E. Troche). 

Rodriguez de hita: Las Segadoras 

(The Reapers) 

3 October. Madrid, T. del Principe 

Text by R. de la Cruz (zarzuela burksca). Two 

acts. 

Successful at Madrid. Also given at Barcelona 
1773. Music preserved. 

h A y d n : Lo Spe&iale* 

Autumn. Eszterhaza 
Text by C. Goldoni (first set to music by V. 
Pallavicini and Fischietti, see 1755). Three acts. 

Repeated Vienna 22 March 1770 (privately at 
Freiherr von Sumerau's). 

Revived (in a German version by R. Hirsch- 
feld), Dresden 22 June 1 895 ; Vienna, Ca. 3 No- 
vember 1895 ; Hamburg 5 November 1895 ; Basle 
19 March 1897* etc. Again Vienna, O. 10 Feb- 
ruary 1899 and 29 May 1909 (reduced to one act, 
scoring revised) ;• Amsterdam 24 January 1911, 

In 1932 (being the year of the 20oth-anniversary 
of Haydn*s birth) the opera was seen again 
on many German stages (Vienna 9 April 1932, 
ate). Since 1925 produced in many countries 
by the Vienna Sangerknaben. Translated from 
Hirschfeld's version, Lo Speziak was given in 
London^ King's Th., Hammersmith 3 September 
1925 (English version by A. Skalski and K. Lark) ; 
at the Neighborhood Playhouse, New York 16 
March 1926 (English version by A. Macdonald, 
music arranged by H. Barlow); at Budapest 24 
April 1932 (Hungarian version by E. Unger). 



30i 



302 



1768 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1769 



dibdin: The Padlock 

3 October. London, D.L. 
Text by I. Bickerstaffe (founded on Cervantes's 
story El Celoso extrcmeno). Two acts. 

Very successful on English stages. Given at 
New York as early as 29 May 1769; Philadelphia 
8 November 1769, etc. Dublin 26 February 1770; 
Edinburgh c. January 1775; Montego Bay, Ja- 
maica 19 March 1777; Calcutta 1789; CapeTown 
27 May 1 81 5; Bombay November 1820. Also 
given by a touring English company at St. Peters- 
burg 21 November or ^December 1771. During 
the 19th century revived on many European and 
American stages by the touring Negro actor Ira 
Aldridgc (in the part of Mungo, which was, in 
1768, created by Dibdin himself). 

Given at Vienna, Ca. 19 February 1853 (in 
English) and 18 April 1857 (in German, as Das 
Vorhangeschloss, translated by C. Juin). Anony- 
mous French version published 1822. 

duni: Les Sabots 

26 October. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. M. Sedaine and J. Cazottc. One act. 

In French also, Copenhagen 1769; Liege ^De- 
cember 1776. In Swedish Gothenburg 21 No- 
vember 1786. There arc two printed Dutch ver- 
sions by J. T. Neyts (n.d.) and by J. C. Honig 
(18 12). The opera was revived at the O.C., Pans 
on 6 July 1866. 

HASSE: Piramo e Tisbe* 

November. Vienna, B. 
Text by M.Co\tcl\im(Intennc.zzo tragico).Two acts. 
The last intermezzo of Hassc and one of the 
few extant ones. Repeated Laxcnburg Palace 
September 1770 and also given at Potsdam March 
1771; Dresden 1775; Copenhagen T77S. Revived 
Cologne Autumn 1939 (in German). 

esteve: Lpsjardincros dc Aranjttez 

J.s December. Madrid, T. de la Cruz 
Text by the composer [opera civmco-buffo-dnwia- 
tica). Two acts. 

Early extant example of Spanish comic opera. 



1769 

sacchini: IlGidde 

Carnival Rome, Arg. 
Text by G. Pizzi. Three acts. 

In Italian also, London 19 January 1773 (lib- 
retto altered byG.G. Bottarelli); Lisbon Autumn 

1773* 

Revived in a French version as Chimene ou Le 
Cid (translated by N. F. Guillard) Fontainebleau 

18 November 1783 andParis, 0. 9 February 1784; 
also Brussels 3 May 1801. Given at Paris 50 times 
until 1790; revived Paris, O. 5 April 1808. 

The statement, given by some authors, that 
this opera was first produced as Chimena at Rome 
in 1762 or 1764, lacks verification. 

gretry: Lucile 

$ January. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. F. Marmontel (from his tale L'£cole des 
Peres). One act. 

Given at Fontainebleau 18 October 1769; in 
Paris until 1793 (100th performance 8 July 1773). 

In French also, Copenhagen, Amsterdam and 
Hague 1769; Liege 25 November 1770; Laxcn- 
burg, near Vienna 23 September 1772; Turin 
Spring 1774; Florence September 1776; Warsaw 
July 1778; Cassel 17 December 1783. 

In German (translated by J. H. Fabcr), Frank- 
fort 1772; Cologne Spring 1772; Hague 1774; 
Vienna, Ka. May 1776 and B. 29 June 1778; 
Gotha 6 November 1778; Munich November 
1778; Augsburg 1 July 1779; Car lsru he 1781; 
Bonn 5 June 1782, etc. 

In Swedish (translated by A. M. Malmstcdt), 
Stockholm 19 June 1776 (music adapted by L. S. 
Lalin); revived Malmo 28 October 1804. 

In Danish (translated by N. K. Bredal), Copen- 
hagen 4 September 1778 (at Frcdcnsborg palace) 
and 27 October 1778 (at the Royal Theatre). 

In Dutch, Amsterdam Winter 17S3 (see De 
Tooiwvhpel-Beschouwcr, 17S3) ; there are printed 
versions by J. T. Neyts (n.d.) and by P.J. Uylcn- 
broek (17S1). 

In Polish (translated by F. Zablocki), Warsaw 

19 February 17S8. 



303 



304 



1769 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1769 



Lucile contains the famous quartet, "Ou peut- 
on etre mieux qu'au sein de sa famille". The opera 
was revived at Lidge as late as 17 April 1920. 

MONSiGNY:Le Deserteur 

6 March. Paris, C.I. 

Text by J. M. Sedaine. Three acts. 

Monsigny's most famous work. Given in Paris 

until the end of the 19th century; revived at St. 

Cloud 28 October 1843 and at the O.C. 30 Oc- 
tober 1843 (re-scored by Adam); F.P. 8 October 

1867; O.C. 23 June 1893 and 26 October 1911. 

Outside Paris given at: 

Amsterdam 1 769 (in French); 11 May 1772 (in 
Dutch, translated by J. T. Neyts) and 1776 (in 
German); another Dutch version, by B. Ru- 
loffs, was published in 1782 and 1784. 

Hamburg and Brunswick 1770 (in German, 
translated by J. J. Eschenburg); Frankfort 8 
April 1771, etc. There are at least two more 
German versions, by C. F. Schwan (published 
Mannheim 1770; used at Altenburg 13 Sep- 
tember 1775) and by M. von Brahm (published 
Vienna 1770; used for a performance, appar- 
ently without music, at Vienna, Ka. 19 No- 
vember 1770). 

Copenhagen 1770 (in French) and 28 November 
1775 (in Danish, translated by N. K. Bredal). 

liege 4 December 1770 (in French). 

Berlin 12 May 1772 (in German; given there 
until 1822). 

Dresden 1772 (in French, as Alexis ou le Diserteur) 
and October 1775 (in German). 

London, DX. 2 November 1773 (in English, 
adapted by C. Dibdin, who also added some 
music of his own and two numbers by Phili- 
dor); Dublin 10 February 1774. 

hague 8 February 1774 (in French) and later in 
the same year in German. 

Vienna, schonbrunn 22 October 1775 (inFrench) 
and Ka., April 1776 and B. 28 November 1779 
(in German; last revived there 24 November 
1813, in a new version by W. Ehlers). 

Turin Spring 1776 (in French). 

Stockholm 1 5 May 1777 (in Swedish, as Alexis, 
translated by C. Stenborg) ; also in Swedish at 



Malmo 19 August 1804; Lund 7 Septembre 

1808. 
Warsaw 1778 (in French) and 17 January 1788 

(in Polish, translated by L. Pierozyiiski). 
cassel 1779 (in French). 

kouskovo 18 February 1781 (in Russian, trans- 
lated by V. G. Voroblevsky ; a later translation, 

by V. Levshin, was published in 1793). 
RIGA 14 January 1783 (in German). 
ST. Petersburg 23 January 1785 (in French); and 

20 October 1789 (in Russian, Voroblevsky 's 

translation). 
Moscow 22 February 1785 (in French) and 1799 

(in Russian); revived 22 February 1807 and 

22 January 1819. 
new york 8 June 1787 and Philadelphia 11 July 

1787 (in English, the London version). 
pressburg 1788'and Budapest 25 September 1789 

(in German). 
boston 24 April 1793 and Philadelphia 14 May 

1798 (in French). 

carvalho: UArnore industrioso 

31 March. Lisbon, Th. d'Ajuda 
Text by G. Casori (first set to music by Rutini in 
1765). Three acts. 

Carvalho's first (Italian) opera; successful at 
Lisbon, where it was first produced on the birth- 
day of Queen MariannaVittoria. Score preserved. 

mozart: Lafinta Sernplice* 

1 May. Salzburg 
Text by M. Coltellini (founded on an earlier 
libretto of the same title by Goldoni, which was 
first set by Perillo in 1764). Three acts. 

The opera had been written for Vienna in 1768, 
but the production there was frustrated; see 
Abert-Jahn, 1, p.128, and Leopold Mozart's for- 
mal complaint to the Emperor, in chapter 1 of 
H. G. Farmer's and H. Smith's New Mozartiana 
(Glasgow 1935). More than 150 years after its 
first production at the Archbishop's palace, Salz- 
burg, Lafinta Sernplice was revived in a German 
version by A. Rudolph (as Die verstellte Einfalt) 
at Carlsruhe 2 October 1921; also given at the 



305 



306 



1769 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1769-70 



Akadcmic-Th., Vienna 10 February 1925; Brcs- 
lau December T927; Prague December 1928. 

In Danish (as Rosinas Skaelmsstykker, translated 
from Rudolph's version by G. Hctsch), Copen- 
hagen 21 April 1923. 

d i b D I N : The Ephcsian Matron* 

12 May. London, Ranclagh House 
Text by I. Bickcrstaflfc (A comic serenata, after the 
manner of the Italian). One act. 

First produced at Ranclagh House at a "Jubilee 
Ridotto or Bal Pare*' (the date is given here tor 
the first time). Repeated Little Hm. 31 August 
1769; D.L. 8 May 1771; Dublin December 1778. 

Revived London, Court Th. 3 May 1926; 
Duke's 16 March 1933 (by the R.A.M.); Art 
Theatre Club 24 March 1936; R.C.M. 19 June 
1938; Fortune 23 April 1940, arranged and orche- 
strated by G. Dunn. Revived in a German version 
by G. R. Kruse at the Lessing Museum, Berlin on 
25 February 1932. 

MEYER VON SCHAUENSEE: 

Hans Hiittcnstock 

??. Lucerne 
Text by the composer. Two acts. Performed at 
the annual meeting of the "Helvetische Konkor- 
diagesellschaft", probably at the Engelberg con- 
vent, Lucerne. First extant example of a comic 
opera written by a Swiss composer. 

Rodriguez de hita: Las Labradoras 
de Murcia 

1 6 Septembre. Madrid, T. del Principe 
Text by R. de la Cruz (zarzuela burksca). Two 
acts. 

Revived in concert form Madrid 28 May 1896 
(revised by F. Pedrell). 

gretry:Lc Tableau parlant* 

20 September. Paris, C.I. 

Text by L. Anseaume (comedic-parade). One act. 

Very successful on French stages. First given at 

Fontaineblcau 7 November 1770 and frequently 

revived in Paris: at the O.C. until 1865; Th. L. 



1 June 1854; O. Nat. Lyrique 23 October 1876; 
Galeric Vivicnnc 4 April 1 895 ; "Th. de Monsieur" 
(Th. des Mathurins) October 1910; Bordeaux 
6 April 1880; Brussels 25 March 1909. 

In French also given at Brussels 1769; Copen* 
hagen 1770; Liege 17 November 1770; Vienna, 
Laxcnburg 10 September 1772; Turin Spring 
1774; Harlem 27 June 1774; Moscow 3 Novem- 
ber 1775 (revived 29 April 1809); Warsaw Au- 
gust 177H; Munich 14 March 1783; Geneva 17 
January 1784; Casscl 8 May 1784; Charleston, 
S.C. 17 June 1794; Philadelphia 17 December 
1796; Madrid July 1859; Baden-Baden 14 Au- 
gust 1 86 1. 

In German (translated by F. W. M.), Mann- 
heim 1771; (translated by H. A. O. Rcichard), 
Cologne 20 April 1722; Berlin 31 May 1774; 
Gotha 13 January 1775 (music adapted and two 
additional airs by A. Schweitzer); Vienna, Ka. 
May 1776; Munich 1776; Hamburg 15 Decem- 
ber 1780; Riga 21 February 1783; Prcssburg 7 No- 
vember 1785, etc. 

In Spanish (translated by R. de la Cruz), 
Madrid July 1777 and, in a new version, 3 July 1 78 1 . 

In Danish (translated by J. H. Wessel), Copen- 
hagen 30 November 1779. 

In Russian (translated by A. Y. Khilkov), Mos- 
cow 15 June 1780. 

In Polish (translated by J. Baudouin), Warsaw 
1782. 

In Swedish, Stockholm 10 April 1782 (trans- 
lated by C. Envallsson) and 15 January 1799 
(translated by C. G. af Leopold) ; Malmo 6 May 
1807. 

In Dutch (translated by B. RulofFs), Amster- 
dam October 1783. Another Dutch translation 
by J. T. Neyts published (n.d.). 



1770 

Schweitzer: Elysium 

18 January. Hanover 
Text by J. G.Jacobi(EinVorspiehnitArien). One act. 
Written as a piece ({'occasion for celebrating 
Queen Charlotte's birthday, but later on given 



307 



308 



1770 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1770 



on other stages as well; Hamburg 19 July 1770; 
Dessau 24 September 1774 (first opera there); 
Berlin 17 August 1775; Lucerne 1776, etc. 

In German also, St. Petersburg 1776; Riga 10 
August 1784. Last revived Magdeburg 17 March 
1797; Konigsberg April 1806. 

An anonymous French translation was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1771. 

J. A. hiller: Diejagd 
2g January. Weimar 
Text by C. F. Weisse (founded on C. Collets La 
Partie de Chasse de Henri iv which, itself, is based 
upon Sedaine's he Roi et le Fermier, see 1762, and, 
further back, upon R. Dodsley's The King and 
the Miller of Mansfield, 1736). Three acts. 

Hiller 's most popular work; given at St. Polten 
1 January 1771, Hamburg 14 February 1771, Ber- 
lin 18 June 1 771, and all over Germany. 

In German also, Pressburg December 1775; 
Vienna, Ka. June 1776; St. Petersburg 25 April 
1779; Warsaw 9 December 1781; Riga 1 
November 1782; Lucerne 1787; Amsterdam 
C.I793. 

J. F. Reichardt, in his Vber die Deutsche Ko- 
mische Oper . . . (1774) gives a detailed description 
ofDieJagd. 

Frequently revived during the 19th and even 
in the 20th century, viz. : 
Leipzig 11 March 1805, 28 January 1826 (for 

Weisse's centenary), 18 November 1857, and 

28 January 1891. 
osnabruck 20 November 1830 (revised by Lort- 

zing). 
Dresden 27 February 1837 (given there until 

1866). 
konigsberg 25 November 1855. 
Berlin, fr. w, 14 September 1857 and 11 October 

1890 (revised by E. Pohl, re-scored by G. Lehn- 

hardt). 
HAMBURG 16 May 1858 and 15 January 1878. 
Bremen February 1905 (Lortzing's version). 
Leipzig September 1912. 
Dresden October 1915 (revised by V. Eckert). 



gretry: Silvain 



19 February. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. F. Marmontel (founded on Gessner's 
Erast). One act. 

Given in Paris until 1827. In French also, Am- 
sterdam and Hague 1770; Liege 12 January 1771; 
Bonn 1771; Copenhagen 1771; Harlem 3 July 
1774; Smolna 24 April 1781; Cassel 21 January 
1784; Lazienk Summer 1791; Brussels 30 De- 
cember 1794; Cologne 1795-96; Hamburg 1797 
or earlier; St. Petersburg 4 February 1800. 

In German, Frankfort 1772 (translated by J. H. 
Faber); Hanover 7 May 1773 (as Walder); Berlin 
26 May 1773 (as Erast und Lucinde, translated by 
J.J. Eschenburg) ; Hamburg 21 July 1773 ; Vienna, 
Ka. May 1776 and, in a new translation, B. 18 
November 1778; St. Petersburg 1 March 1778 
(Eschenburg's Version) ; Munich October 1778. 

In Danish (translated by N. K. Bredal), Co- 
penhagen 15 February 1775. 

In Dutch, Amsterdam September 1783; there 
are printed Dutch versions by H. Asschenbergh, 
1777; by J. T. Neyts (n.d.); by J. A. Backer, 
1785; and by P.J. Kasteleyn, 1786. 

In Russian (translated by V. Levshin), Moscow, 
Prince Volkonsky's 9 March 1788. 

In Swedish (translated by A. M. Malmstedt), 
Stockholm 27 July 1791. 

(For a German opera on the same subject, see 
Benda's Walder, 1776.) 

coignet and J. J. rousseau: 
Pygmalion 

May. Lyons 
Text by J. J. Rousseau (Scene lyrique). One act. 

The earliest account of this first "melodrame" 
or "monodrame" is contained in Coignet's letter 
to the Mercure de France, January 1771 (in answer 
to a report that the whole of Pygmalion was com- 
posed as well as written by Rousseau) : 

". . . mais ce n'est point un op£ra: il Ta intitule^ 
Scene Lyrique. Les paroles ne se chantent point, 
& la Musique ne sert qu a remplir les intervalles 
des repos necessaires a la declamation. . . . Je dois 
cependant a Texacte v£rite d'annoncer, que dans 



309 



310 



1770 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1770 



les vingt-six ritournelles qui composent la Mu- 
sique de ce drame, il y en a deux que M. Rousseau 
a faites lui-mSme. Je n'aurois pas besoin de les 
indiquer a quiconque verra ou entendra cet ou- 
vrage; mais comme tout le monde ne sera pas 
a portee d'en juger, par la difficulte* de repr&enter 
ce spectacle, je declare que 1* Andante de Fouver- 
ture, & que le premier morceau de l'interlocution 
qui caracterise le travail de Pygmalion, appax- 
tiennent a M. Rousseau. . . ." 

After private performances at Lyons, Hotel de 
Ville, and Paris (at Madame de Brionne's), Pyg- 
malion was publicly produced at the Comedie- 
Francaise, Paris, on 30 October 1775 ; given there 
once 11 September 1780, with new music by 
Baudron (in place of Coignet's share). 

Revived at the Varietes amusantes 2 April 
1793; Th. de TEgalite* 11 October 1794; Th. de 
la Cite 26 September 1805. 

Parody by Guillemain Arlequin, Marchand de 
Poupies ou le Pygmalion moderne, Variete*s amu- 
santes 24 May 1779. 

In French also given at: Brussels 1772; Venice, 
S.Sam. Carnival 1774; Hague 29 January 1774; 
Milan, T.R.D. 1775; Palermo 1776; Brescia 
1776; Warsaw April 1777; St. Petersburg 13 
July 1777 (privately); Cassel and Dresden 1779; 
Naples 1781; Hamburg June 1782; Gothenburg 
29 April 1783 ; Madrid January 1788 ; New York 
9 (Sonneck) or 10 (Odell) November 1790 (per- 
haps in English) and 3 March 1796 (in French); 
Vienna 4 January 1791; Charleston, S.C. 8 Feb- 
ruary 1794; Copenhagen 1805; Berlin 16 August 
1808 and 13 April 1832. 

In Polish, Warsaw 23 November 1777 (trans- 
lated by T. K. Wegierski); there is another 
printed Polish version by J. Baudouin (n.d.). 

In German (translated by O. H. von Gem- 
mingen), Mannheim 29 March 1778; German 
versions of Rousseau's text were set by 
Aspelmayr, Schweitzer, Benda, etc. (see 1779). 

For Italian versions, see Cimadoro's setting, 
1790. 

Spanish versions by P. Suarez y Pinez, and by 
J. D. Rojo, both published 1788; by F. Duran, 
published (3rd edition) 1816. 



Anonymous English version published 1779. 
In the preface there is an allusion to performances 
(in French) at Lord "Villers" (Villiers's?) private 
theatre at Boulney (?), with Le Texier as Pygma- 
lion, and Miss Hodges (to whom the translation 
is dedicated) as Galatea. There is another English 
version, by William Mason, written in 1775 but 
not published until 1811 (in Vol. n of his Works). 

Russian version by V. I. Maikov published 

1779. 

Dutch versions published 1788 (anonymous), 
1790 (by J. van Walrd) and 1796 (by J. vanBalen). 

Danish version by N. T. Bruun published 
1814. 

E. Istel's theory (see Beihefte of the I.M.S., 
Vol. 1, 1 901) that there exists a second version of 
Pygmalion wholly composed by Rousseau, has 
not been generally accepted. There was a scenic 
revival of the Berlin score (according to Istel, 
Rousseau's setting), at Munich on 4 May 1904 
(with an older German translation by G. von 
Leon, originally published 1788). The Coignet- 
Rousseau version was last revived at the Com&lie- 
Francaise, Paris 29 June 1912 (music revised by 
L. Leon and O. Letorey). 

jommelli: Armida abbandonata 
30 May. Naples, S.C. 
Text by F. S. de' Rogati (after Tasso). Three acts. 
One of JommeUi's best works. Lisbon 3 1 March 
1773; Florence, P. 1775; revived Naples 13 Au- 
gust 1780 (last Jommelli production in Italy). 
Mozart attended one of the 1770 performances 
at Naples. 

GASSMANN:La Contessina* 

3 September. Neustadt, Moravia 
Text (founded on an earlier libretto of the same 
title by Goldoni), generally attributed to M. Col- 
tellini (who is, for instance, mentioned as the 
author in the Milan and London librettos) ; but 
according to Lazzeri (La Vita . . . di Calzabigi, 
1907, p.215) and G. Ortolani (in the City of 
Venice edition of the works of Goldoni, Vol. 
xxvii, 1929, p.159) it was written by R. de' Cal- 



3ii 



312 



1770 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1770 



zabigi (ms of the libretto preserved; see also H. 
Michel in Gluck-Jahrbuch, rv, 1918, p.113). Three 
acts. 

First performed at Neustadt (Unicov), Mo- 
ravia, at a meeting of the German Emperor, 
Joseph 11 and King Frederick n of Prussia. Sub- 
sequently performed (in Italian) at Vienna 1770; 
Dresden 2 January 1772 (with additional music 
by Schuster); Florence, T. Cocomero Spring 
1772; Turin, T. Carignano Autumn 1772 and 
Lisbon Carnival 1774 as II Superbo deluso; Lon- 
don 11 January 1774; Milan, T.R.D. Autumn 
1774; Modena, T. di Corte, November 1774; 
Trieste Carnival 1775; Copenhagen 26 March 
1778; Bologna Summer 1778 (pasticcio, addi- 
tions from Astaritta and Cimarosa); Parma 
Carnival 1779 (pasticcio); Rimini Carnival 1780 
(same pasticcio as at Bologna). 

Successful also in different German versions; 
as Dasgrafliche Fraulein (translated by L. Schmidt) 
Prague Summer 1783; Nuremberg 25 August 
1784; Cologne 14 November 1786. As Diejunge 
Grafin (translated by J. A. Hiller), Riga 14 Sep- 
tember 1784. As Die Grafin oder Der iibel-ange- 
brachte Stolz, Vienna," Leop. 30 May 1786; re- 
vived there 28 March 1797 and 16 January 1803 
zsjohann in seeks Gestalten. 

The score was printed in Denkmaler der Ton- 
kunst in Osterreich (1919). in J. A. Hiller 's trans- 
lation, edited by R. Haas. 

The opera was revived at Klagenfurt 18 March 
1924 and Mannheim 20 September 1924 (revised 
by L.K. Mayer). 

e. w. wolf: Das Rosenfest 

4 September. Weimar 

Text by G. E. Heermann (founded on a French 
libretto by Favart, produced with music by Blaise, 
Duni, and Philidor at Fontainebleau 25 October 
1769 and at the C.I., Paris 14 December 1769). 
Three acts. 

Wolf's most successful Singspiel. Leipzig 21 
September 1770; Berlin 2 July 1771; Hanover 
12 July 1773; Hamburg 1773, etc. In German 
also, St. Petersburg 1 February 1778. 



pacheco: En Casa de Nadie no se 
meta Nadie o El buen Marido 

28 September, Madrid, T. del Principe 

Text by R. de la Cruz. Two acts. 

Early zarzuela jocosa. Score preserved. 

(The proverbial title freely translated means 
Mind your own Business; or, The good Husband.) 
Pacheco's only work for the stage. See J. Subira, 
La Musica en la Casa de Alba (1927), p.335. 

gretry: Les deux Avares* 

27 October. Fontainebleau 

Text by C. G. Fenouillot de Falbaire. Two 
acts. 

After two private performances publicly pro- 
duced at the C.I., Paris on 6 December of the 
same year, and, with alterations, 6 June 1773. 

In French also, Brussels 1771; Copenhagen 
1772; Leghorn 8 June 1773; Hague 20 February 
1774; Liege 19 November 1775; Vienna 10 Jan- 
uary 1776; Florence September 1776; Stuttgart 
14 December 1776; Warsaw 1776; Geneva 7 Feb- 
ruary 1784; Cassel 20 February 1784, etc. St. Pe- 
tersburg 18 November 1800. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Frank- 
fort 1771 (libretto printed in that year; perform- 
ance not recorded) ; Vienna, Ka. May 1776 and B. 
12 May 1779 (revived Vienna, W. January 1805, 
translated by J. von Seyfried, with additional music 
by A.J. Fischer); Munich 30 June 1776; Gotha 11 
September 1776; Dresden May 1777; Pressburg 
August 1777; Hamburg 26 February 1778; Augs- 
burg 9 July 1779; Cologne 22 June 1780; Bonn 
3 December 1780; Riga 20 December 1782; 
Carlsruhe 22 April 1785; Berlin 11 December 
1787 (revived 2 August 1858) ; Budapest 8 January 
1812. 

In Danish (translated by N. K. Bredal), Co- 
penhagen 29 October 1774. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Manderstrom), 
Stockholm 15 May 1778; Gothenburg 12 March 
1782 (with additional music by B. Schindler). 

In Polish (translated by J. Baudouin), Warsaw 
25 September 1781. 



313 



3H 



1770 



ANNALS 



In Russian (translated by V* G. Voroblevsky), 
Kouskovo c.i 780; (translated by F. V. Gensh), 
Moscow 5 March 1783; (translated by Z. Kriz- 
hanovsky) St. Petersburg 17 July 1789. 

In Dutch, Amsterdam 9 May 1772. There are 
three printed Dutch translations, by J. T. Neyts 
(n.d.), J. F. Cammaert (1772) and B. Ruloffs 
(1787). 

An English adaptation by K. O'Hara (The Two 
Misers), music by Dibdin, was produced in 
London, CG. 2Tjanuary 1775; (also Dublin 1781 
with the sub-title The Mufti's Ghost); Baltimore 
14 March 1783; New York 17 July 1786; and 
Philadelphia 9 April 1791. There are also German 
and Italian adaptations. When, 90 years later, 
Agnelli, a pupil of Donizetti, set the original 
text again, he kept parts of Gretry's music 
(Marseilles 22 March i860; Brussels 26 April 
1867). Grctry's opera was revived at: 
paris, o.c. 23 June 1893 (in French). 
carlsruhe 2 October 1894 (in German). 
Moscow 1909 (in Russian). 
Cassel 1926 (in German). 
geneva March 1932 (in French, by students). 
Versailles 12 May 1939 (in French; by pupils of 

the Paris Conservatoire at the Th. Montansier). 

G L u c K : Paride e Elena* 

3 November. Vienna, B. 

Text by R. de* Calzabigi (the third and last lib- 
retto he wrote for Gluck ; but sec note on Salierfs 
Les Danaides, 1784). Five acts. 

Unsuccessful; outside Vienna only given at 
Naples [17 December] 1777. Khcvenhullcr wrote 
in his diary "... welche aber wegen ihres un- 
gleichen und in etwas wunderlichen Gusto nicht 
besondere Approbation gefunden hat". 

Revived Prague 9 February 1901 and Ham- 
burg 11 March 1905 (in German; revised by J. 
Stransky, in a reduced 2-act version). Again Tu- 
bingen 22 June 1937 (in concert form) and Wei- 
mar 30 November 1937 (on the stage). 

(Date of first performance 3 November, not 
30 November as sometimes stated.) 



OF OPERA 1770 

gretry: UAmitie a l'£preuve* 

tj November. Fontainebleau 

Text by C S. Favart and C. H. F. de Voisenon 
(founded on a tale by Marmontel). Two acts. 

Paris, C.I. 24 January 1771. Reduced to one 
act: Versailles 29 December 1775 and Paris, CI. 
1 January 1776. Enlarged again (3 acts); Fon- 
tainebleau 24 October 1786 and Paris* CI. 30 
October 1786 (as Les vrais Amis ou UAmitii h 
Vfyreuve). In French also, Brussels 1771; Co- 
penhagen 1772; Berlin 1773; Hague 29 January 
1774; Liege 6 January 1776; Cassel 3 April 

1784. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Frank- 
fort 29 April 1772; (translated by H. A. O. 
Reichard), Gotha 22 November 1775; Munich 
1775; Amsterdam 1776; Dresden 1777; Mann- 
heim 19 May 1778; Regensburg 21 January 1 780; 
Berlin 12 February 1780; Vienna, B. 22 January 
1 78 1 (translated by G. Stefanie?); Bonn 2 April 
1782; Munster 22 July 1782; Hamburg 30 De- 
cember 1782. 

In Danish (translated by N. K. Bredal), Co- 
penhagen 25 October 1 775. 

In Russian (translated by V. G. Voroblevsky), 
Kouskovo 10 July 1779. 

A Dutch version by J. T. Neyts was published 
about 1772; another Dutch version, by B. Ru- 
lofFs, was published in 1782. 

An anonymous English adaptation called The 
Peruvian with new music by J. Hook was pro* 
duced at C G., London 18 March 1786. 

The opera was revived at Erfurt May 1938 
(in German, adapted by B. Laass). 

mozart: Mitridate, Re di Ponto* 
26 December. Milan, T.R.D. 

Text by V. A. Cigna-Santi (founded on G. Pa- 
rini's Italian translation of Racine's tragedy, and 
first set to music by Q. Gasparini in 1767)- Three 
acts. 

The first opera Mozart wrote for the Italian 
stage. Successful; ran for 20 nights, but never 
revived in 1 8th or 19th centuries. 



3i5 



316 



177* 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1771 



1771 

gazzaniga: La Locanda 

Carnival. Venice, S. Moisc 
Text by G. Bcrtati. Three acts. 

One of Gazzaniga's most popular works; given 
all over Italy and, in Italian, also at Lisbon 1772; 
Dresden 1772; Vienna 22 September 1772; 
Munich Carnival 1773; Trieste Carnival 1773; 
Ljubljana Carnival 1773 ; Cadiz July 1773 ; 
Bastia, Corsica 1775; Copenhagen 20 December 
1775 (Danish translation in the libretto by R. 
Soclbcrg); Klagenfurt Spring 1778; Graz Sum- 
mer 1778; Esztcrhaza 22 November 1778; St. Pe- 
tersburg 6 January 1779. 

Also given as // Matrimonii) per Inganno at 
Pa via June 1773 ; Warsaw 1774 ; Eszterhaza 
c. 1775; as 77 Re dei Mamalucchi at Prague 1775; 
Varcsc Autumn 1778; as // Mamalucco at Pcsaro 
Carnival 1776. 

piccinni: Lc fintc GemeUe* 

2 January. Rome, Vallc 
Text by G. Pctroscllini. Two acts. 

In Italy also given as Le due fititc GemeUe and as 
Le Germane in Equivoco (Sinigaglia Summer 
1774); last revived Pcsaro Carnival 1800. In 
Italian also given at Vienna 20 April 1772 (with 
additions); Mannheim 7 November 1772; Dres- 
den 2 January 1773; Munich Carnival 1773; 
Lisbon Summer 1773 (in an enlarged 3 -act 
version); Paris, O. 11 June 1778 (opening night 
of the second Italian buffo company in Paris, led 
by Piccinni; performed there on the same bill 
with Mozart's ballet, Les petits Riens, which was 
recovered by V. Wilder in 1872); Warsaw 
Spring 1784. 

mysliveczek: Motezuma 

January. Florence, P. 
Text by V. A. Cigna-Santi (first composed by 
Majo in 1765). Three acts. 

This opera by the Czech composer was re- 
vived at the State Conservatory, Prague in Sum- 
mer 1 03 1. 



martini: L'Amoureux de quinze Ans 
ou La double Fete 
1 S April Paris, C.I. 
Text by P. Laujon. Three acts. 

Martini's first successful opera. Originally writ- 
ten for Chantilly, to celebrate the wedding of the 
Due de Bourbon, but not performed there. Given 
Fontainebleau 12 October 1771; revived Paris, 
Fa. 29 October 1794; in the French provinces 
until 1 8 12. 

In French also given at Brussels 2 September 
1774; Haarlem 7 July 1774; Cassel 1780 and 25 
August 1784; Smolna 1783. 

In German, Vienna, B. 29 December 1778 
(translated by G. Stephanie, according to con- 
temporary accounts; by L. A. Hoffmann, ac- 
cording to Gocdeke); Mayence 3 February 1790 
(translated by C. A. Vulpius). There is a printed 
Dutch translation by J. T. Ncyts (n.d.). 

j. a. hiller: Der Aerndtekranz 

Spring. Leipzig 
Text by C. F. Weisse. Three acts. 

Successful in Germany: Berlin 17 February 
1772; Konigsbcrg 1773; Hanover 17 June 1773; 
Hamburg 4 August 1773; Dresden 8 January 
1776; Vienna, Ka, Spring 1776, etc. In German 
also, Amsterdam 1776; Riga 8 December 1784; 
Lucerne 1787. Last given at Berlin 4 October 
1794; Brcslau 2 July 1802; Leipzig 18 March 
1805. 

The exact date of the first performance is un- 
known, but it must have been between 3 April 
(when Koch's company came from Weimar) and 
29 May (when they went to Berlin). 

A song from this Singspicl is the theme of Max 
Roger's Hiller-Variationen, op. 100. 

salieri: Armida 

2 June. Vienna, B. 

Text by M. Coltellini (after Tasso); first set by 

G. Scarlatti, 1766. Three acts. 
Also given at: 

COPF.NHACEN20 November 1773 (in Italian; Dan- 
ish translation in the libretto by F. A. Friis) 



317 



318 



1771 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



177* 



and 30 January 1781 (in Danish, translated 
by A. G. Thorpup). 

ST. Petersburg 1774 (in Italian); Russian trans- 
lation by I. A. Dmitrcvsky and French trans- 
lation by Deville published on that occasion. 

Hamburg Winter 1775-76 (in concert form). 

mayence 1783-84 (in German, translated by C. F. 
Cramer). 

Brunswick 1785 (in Italian). 

Berlin 16 April 1787 (in concert form, in German, 
translated by C. F. Cramer). 

winterthur i December 1790 (in concert form; 
frequently revived there until 1808). 

danzig May 1798 and 5 March 1800 (in concert 
form). 

roellig: Clarisse oder 
Das unbekannte Dienstmadgen 

8 October. Hamburg 
Text by J. C. Bock (founded on Marmontel's 
dramatization of his story, La Bergere des Alpes). 
Three acts. 

Successful in North Germany; Lubeck 9 De- 
cember 1772; Hanover 30 April 1773, etc. 

hasse: Ruggiero o vero 
Ueroica Gratitudine 

16 October. Mikn, T.R.D. 

Text by P. Metastasio. Three acts and licenza. 

Hasse's last opera. Also given at Naples, S.C. 
20 January 1772. 

mozart: Ascanio in Alba* 

17 October. Milan, T.R.D. 
Text by G. Parini (Festa teatrale). Two acts. 

These two works, the last opera of the 72-years- 
old Hasse and the youthful serenata of the 
15-years-old Mozart, were written for the wed- 
ding of the Archduke Ferdinand and the Princess 
Maria Ricciarda Beatrice of Modena. These two 
days in October 1771 may be said to separate two 
epochs of opera. The often quoted two sayings, 
referring to this event, may be once more re- 
peated here; Hasse's (apocryphal) words, "Questo 



ragazzo ci fara dimenticar tutti", and Leopold 
Mozart's letter to his wife (19 October 1771), 
"Mir ist leid, die Serenata des Wolfgang hat die 
opera von Hasse so niedergeschlagen, dass ich es 
nicht beschreiben kann". 

gretry: L'Ami de la Maison 

26 October. Fontainebleau 
Text by J. F. Marmontel. Three acts. 

Publicly performed Paris, C.I. 14 May 1772 
(not 2 December 1771, as indicated in one issue 
of the libretto; nor 14 March 1772) and given 
there until 1829. 

Outside Paris given at: 
Brussels 1772 (in French). 
frankfort 1 772 (in German, translated by J. H. 

Faber). 
Copenhagen 1 773 (in French) and 23 October 

1776 (in Danish, translated by N. K. Bredal). 
Vienna, ka. May 1776 and B. 26 May 1778 (in 

German). 
turin Spring 1776 (in French). 
Warsaw 1776 (in French) and 18 August 1781 

(in German). 
liege 7 January 1777 (in French). 
goth A 8 August 1777 (in German, new transla- 
tion by H. A. O. Reichard). 
Munich November 1778 (in German). 
cassel 1780 and 7 June 1784 (in French). 
Berlin 16 October 1 780 (in German). 
riga 3 June 1783 (in German). 
geneva 4 May 1785 (in French). 

Russian translation by V. G. Voroblevsky pub- 
lished Moscow 1779. 

gretry: Zemire et Azov* 

p November. Fontainebleau 
Text by J. F. Marmontel (founded on P. C. Ni- 
velle de La Chaussee's comedy Amour par Amour, 
1742). Comidie Ballet. Four acts. 

Subsequently performed in public, Paris, C.I. 
16 December 1771. One of Gretry 's most suc- 
cessful works; given in Paris until 1836 and re- 
vived at the O.C., 29 June 1846 (re-orchestrated 
by Adam) and 15 September 1862. 



319 



320 



1 771 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1 771 



Zimire et Azor soon became an international 

success. Given at: 

Brussels 1772 (in French). 

frankfort 23 May 1772 (in German, translated 
by J. H. Faber). 

mannheim Summer 1772 (in German) and Jan- 
uary 1776 (in Italian, translated by M. Verazi). 

Copenhagen 1 772 (in French) and 7 January 
1777 (in Danish, translated by N. K. Bredal). 

hague 1774 (in German). 

liege 20 November 1774 (in French). 

hanover 1774 (in French). 

Brunswick 1774 (in French). 

Hamburg December 1774 (in French) and 27 Au- 
gust 1777 (in German). 

MOSCOW 16 June 1775 (in Russian, translated by 
M. V. Sui.hkova). 

vienna, schonbrunn io October 1775 (in 
French) and Ka. May 1776 and B. 13 October 
1779 (in German); revived Leop. 21 January 
1790; W. 8 January 181 8 (music arranged by 
Seyfried). 

GOTHA 29 January 1776 (in German, translated 
by H. A. O. Reichard); another German ver- 
sion, by Moritz August von Thummel, was 
published in 1776 (composed by Neefe, per- 
formed Leipzig 5 March 1776); another anon- 
ymous one (possibly by Bock) at Miinster 
1777; still another in a vocal score, translated 
and edited by Hiller 1783. 

Turin Spring 1776; Florence September 1776; 
Parma, at Comte de Flavigny's Carnival 1782 
(in French). 

Warsaw October 1776 (in French); 13 October 
1781 (in German); and 9 May 1782 (in Polish, 
translated by Kuszcwski). 

Amsterdam 1776 (in German) ; January 1784 (in 
Dutch, translated by P. Pijpers); there are 
earlier printed Dutch versions by J. T. Neyts 
(n.d.) and B. H. v. A. (Brussels 1772). 

London, d.l. 5 December 1776 (in English, 
adapted by G. Collier, music arranged by 
Linlcy); Hm. 23 February 1779 (in Italian, 
Vcrazi's translation); revived 8 March 1781 
(Verazi's translation altered by C. F. Badini) 



and 23 July 1796 (new translation by L. da 
Ponte). Collier and Linley's version revived 
C. G. 1 8 12, with additions by Bishop, Welsh 
and Cooke. 
t. Petersburg 27 June 1777 (in French); io Au- 
gust 1777 (in Italian, at Oranienbaum palace); 
19 January 1778 (in German); and 8 October 
1784 (in Russian). 

drottningholm 22 July 1778 and Stockholm 12 
October 1778 (in Swedish, translated by A. M. 
Malmstedt, music adapted by D. L. Wasenholtz 
and P. Frigelius). 

cassel 1778 and 15 December 1783 (in French). 

Berlin 16 October 1778 (in German); also Mu- 
nich c. December 1778; Augsburg 10 August 
1 779 ; Cologne 1 78 1 ; Hanover 1 5 January 1 78 1 , 
etc. 

pressburg 7 February 1780 (in German). 

Prague 1781 (in German). 

GRAZ Carnival 1782 (in Italian). 

riga 14 October 1782 (in German). 

geneva 7 January 1784 (in French). 

Budapest 1787 (in German). 

new york 1 June 1787 (in English, Linley's 
adaptation). 

Philadelphia 28 July 1 787 (in English, Linley's 
adaptation). 

Madrid 26 January 1791 (in Italian). 

Havana 17 December 1791 (in French?) 

Charleston, s.c. 6 August 1794 and Philadelphia 
1 June 1798 (in French). 

boston 31 March 1797 (in English; not Linley's 
adaptation). 

Lisbon Spring 1797 (in Italian). 

Dublin 1 801 (Linley's version). 
Zemire et Azor was revived at Brussels 12 May 

1909, and Liege 19 May 1930. In English, Lon- 
don, Arts Theatre Club 12 May 1935 and Fortune 

Th. 23 April 1940 (by amateurs, music arranged 

by Leighton Lucas). 
For German operas on the same subject, see 

1776 (Baumgarten) and 1819 (Spohr). A German 

sequel DcrRing derLiebe oder Zcmircns mid Azoretts 

Ehestand, with music by UmlaufF, was produced 

at Vienna 3 December 1786. 



321 



322 



1771-72 ANNALS OF OPERA 

neefe: Die Apotheke 

13 December, Berlin 

Text by J. J. Engel (founded on Goldoni's Lo 
Spcziale, see 1755, and originally written for 
Hiller). Two acts. 

The first new Singspiel to be produced at 
Koch's "Theater in der Behrenstrasse", Berlin. 
Rostock 13 November 1772; Bonn 10 April 
1782; Bremen 20 November 1782; Carlsruhe 17 
November 1784, etc. In German also, St. Peters- 
burg 26 February 1778. 

deller: // Maestro di Capella 

31 December. Vienna, B. 

Text by A. Palomba (originally called Orazio 
and first set to music by Auletta in 1737; see col. 
187). Three acts. 

Deller's best-known work; of the music only 
parts are extant. 

Der Kapellmeister oder der verwirrte Opcrn-Ver- 
walter von Seapel t Cologne Spring 1772, was 
probably a German version of this; also as Der 
verwirrte Opcrtniirektor, Hague 1774. 



1772 



sacchini: Armida 



1772 
gazzaniga: U Isola di Alcina 

Carnival Venice, S. Moise 
Text by G. Bertati (after Ariosto). Three acts. 

One of Gazzaniga's greatest successes; given in 
many Italian towns and at Lisbon Autumn 1772; 
Dresden 20 March 1773; Schwetzingen May 
1773; Vienna 4 April 1774; Bastia, Corsica Au- 
tumn 1774; Prague 1775; London 28 March 

1776 and 17 April 1777; Copenhagen 6 March 

1777 (Danish translation in the libretto by R. 
Soelbcrg); Dublin 12 April 1777; Graz Autumn 
1778; Esztcrhaza 1779 (with one additional air 
by Haydn). 

Given at Warsaw 10 June 1775 (in Italian) and 
8 March 1790 (in Polish, translated by L. Picro- 
zyiiski). 



Carnival. Milan, T.R.D. 
Text by G. de Gamerra (after Tasso). Three acts. 

In Italian also given at Florence, T. in Via S. 
Maria Autumn 1772; in London 22 April 1780 
(as Rinaldo) and revived there 17 February 1791 
at the opening of the new Pantheon Opera House 
in Oxford Street (text altered by G. Tonioli, 
music arranged by Mazzinghi); Lisbon 1798. 

In French (as Renaud, adapted by J. J. Leboeuf, 
who used for his French text Pellegrini libretto 
Renaud, set by Desmarets in 1722; music arranged 
by Framery), Paris, O. 28 February 1783 (given 
there 156 times until 1800 and revived 16 March 
1815); Liege 24 January 1784; Copenhagen 1786 
(in concert form). 

(Leboeuf *s version was re-translated into Italian 
by G. Cinque for the Russian composer P. Sko- 
kov, whose setting was produced at Naples, S.C. 
4 November 1788.) 

z A n e t t i : Le Lavarandine 

Carnival. Rome, Capr. 
Text by F. Mari. Two acts. 

The most popular opera of this otherwise un- 
important composer and the only one which is 
still extant. 

In Italian also, Lisbon 1773 and Dresden De- 
cember 1774. 

Successful in a German version by J. C. Bock: 
Hamburg 17 May 1779; Leipzig 6 October 1779; 
Frankfort 25 April 1781 ; Vienna, B. 11 July 1781 ; 
Pyrmont 15 July 1781 ; Bonn 4 November 1781 ; 
Riga 18 July 1783; Carlsruhe 29 October 1785; 
Berlin n December 1786; Prague 1790, etc. 

salieri: La Fiera di Venezia 

2g January. Vienna, B. 
Text by G. G. Boccherini. Three acts. 

In Italian also given at Mannheim 22 Novem- 
ber 1772; Bonn 1774; Warsaw 25 February 1775; 
Dresden 4 November 1775; Turin, T. Carignano 
Autumn 1776; Copenhagen 10 April 1777 (Dan- 
ish translation in the libretto by R. Soelberg); 



323 



324 



1772 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1772 



Graz Summer 1778; Florence, P. Spring 1779; 
Milan 21 August 1779 (at the inauguration of the 
new T. della Canobbiana); Kremsrminster 1780; 
Munich Carnival 1786. 

In German (translated by H. C. Pleissner), 
Hamburg 16 July 1781; Frankfort 14 April 1784; 
Bremen 13 December 1784; Schwedt 30 May 
1786; Cassel 2 March 1787; Hanover 1 February 
1790; Breslau 19 March 1790; Budapest 6 Au- 
gust 1790; Vienna, Leop. 13 July 1791; Berlin 
25 February 1799, etc. Another German version, 
by J. N. Rothmann, was published c.1780 (n.d.). 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 25 May 1791 ; Mos- 
cow 26 November 1795 (revived 6 May 1807 
and 4 June 1821). 

sarti: Deucalion og Pyrrha 

19 March. Copenhagen 
Text by C. A. Thielo, airs by N. K. Bredal 
(based on a French comedy by G. F. Poullain 
de Saint-Foix). One act. 

The most successful of Sard's Danish operas; 
given at Copenhagen 20 times until 1785 and in 
a Swedish version by W. von Rosenheim at 
Stockholm 21 October 1790. The music does not 
seem to have been preserved. 

mozart: It Soono di Scipione* 
1 May. Salzburg 
Metastases text (first set to music by Predieri, see 
1735). One act. 

Mozart's setting of this Scrcnata drammatica was 
written to celebrate the installation of the new 
Archbishop of Salzburg, Hieronymus von Collo- 
redo. (Date of first performance according to A. 
Kutscher; E. Anderson gives 29 April.) 

e. w. wolf: Die Dorfdeputierten 

l$June. Berlin 
Text by G. E. Heermann (founded on Goldonfs 
comedy, // Fcudatario). Three acts. 

Successful in Germany; Vienna, Ka. June 1776; 
in German also, St. Petersburg 5 February 1778. 
A Hungarian translation by Szerelemhegyi was 
published before 1796. 



Schweitzer: Die Dorjgala 

30 June. Weimar 
Text by F. W. Gotter. Two acts. 

Also in 2 acts: Hamburg 21 January 1779. 

Enlarged to 3 acts: Gotha 9 December 1774; 
Leipzig 5 May 1775; Altenburg 1 September 
1775; Dresden February 1776; Berlin 25 March 
1784; Schwedt 29 August 1785. 

Reduced to 1 act: Frankfort 6 September 1777; 
Maycnce 1778; Mannheim 26 December 1779; 
Bonn 26 May 1780; Cologne 29 June 1780; Pyr- 
mont 1 August 1781 ; Cassel 10 September 1781 ; 
Berlin 16 July 1802. 

In German also, St, Petersburg 27 August 1778. 

gal van: Las Foncarraleras 
(The Maids of Fuencarral) 
2$ September. Madrid, T. del Principe 
Text by R. dc la Cruz. Two acts. 

One of the few extant examples of Spanish 
18th-century zarzuela. 

DEZEDE:Jw/ie 
28 September. Paris, CI. 
Text by J. M. Boutet de Monvel. Three acts. 

Dezcde's first opera. In French also, Brussels 
1773; Haarlem 28 June 1774; Vienna 1775; Mos- 
cow August 1775 ; Liege 16 January 1776; Cassel 
30 June 1784. 

In German (first translated by J. H. Faber; 
there is another German version by G. F. W. 
Grossmann), Frankfort 18 April 1776; Amster- 
dam 1776 (there' is also a printed Dutch version 
by J. T. Neyts, n.d.); Munich 29 January 1779; 
Bonn 21 February 1779; Vienna, B. 23 August 
1779; Frankfort 4 April 1780; Hamburg January 
1782; Bremen 6 October 1783; Cologne Spring 
1787; Brunswick 29 June 1789; Hanover 19 April 
1790. 

In Danish (translated by J. H. Wessel), Copen- 
hagen 7 November 1783. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Manderstrom), 
Stockholm 25 March 1786; Gothenburg 3 No- 
vember 1796. 



325 



326 



1772-73 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1773 



(Date of first performance according to Mer- 
cure de France; the libretto gives 22 September 
1772.) 

mozart: Lucio Silla* 

26 December. Milan, T.R.D. 
Text by G. de Gamerra, with alterations by 
Metastasio. Three acts. 

The last opera Mozart wrote in Italy. 

Revived Prague 14 December 1929 (German 
version by A. Rudolph). 



1773 

A n f o s s I : U Incognita perseguitata 

9 January. Rome, T. delle Dame 
Text by G. Petrosellini (first set to music by Pic- 
cinni in 1764). Three acts. 

Although Piccinnfs setting was fairly success- 
ful (outside Italy also given at Lisbon 3 1 March 
1766 and. Dresden 3 December 1768) the glory 
of L' Incognita perseguitata remains with Anfossi's 
music; this opera was his first great success ; given 
at Milan Summer 1773 and all over Italy; at Bo- 
logna Autumn 1773 and Carnival 1786 and Na- 
ples, T.N. Autumn 1778, as Giannetta; at Forli 
1779 as La Giannetta perseguitata. Also given at: 
Vienna 31 August 1773 (as MctiUa ritrovata). 
mannheim 21 November 1773. 
Dresden 4 January 1774 (as La Giannetta perse- 
guitata). 
Munich Carnival 1774. 
Trieste Carnival 1775. 

Warsaw 23 March 1775 (as La Metilde ritrovata). 
Copenhagen i November 1775 (as La Giannetta; 
Danish translation in the libretto by R. Soel- 
berg). 
ESZTERHAZA 1 779 (as Metilde ritrovata). 
ST. Petersburg 10 July 1779 (as La Giannetta). 
Barcelona 30 May 1786. 

In French (translated by P. L. Moline, music 
adapted by J. N. A. Le Froid de Mereaux), Fon- 
tainebleau 25 October 1776 (or, according to a 
later edition of the libretto, 12 November 1776; 
an intended production at the C.L, Paris, did not 



take place) ; a French version by C. Compan was 
produced at Versailles on 8 June 1781; another 
French adaptation, by B. F. de Rozoy (music 
arranged by J. B. Rochefort) was given at Paris, 
O. 21 September 1781 and at Cassel 19 July 1784. 
In French also Aachen 17 August 1794. 

In German (translated by G. Stephanie), 
Vienna, B. 21 August 1780 (revived 8 April 
1795); and probably Schwedt 21 April 1786. A 
German translation by Stierle is mentioned in 
the Gothaer Theater-Kalendar, 1783, p.210 (pro- 
bably for Augsburg 15 May 1780, Die verfolgte 
Unbekannte). 

In Spanish (translated by Fermin del Rey), 
Madrid 10 September 1787. 

uttini: Thetis och Pelee 

18 January. Stockholm 
Text by J, Wellander (founded on a play by 
King Gustaf 111). Five acts. 

The first Swedish grand opera. Given 30 Oc- 
tober 1775 in a reduced 3 -act version; revived 
13 February 1791. One act was revived on 18 
January 1923 at the 150th anniversary festival of 
the Stockholm opera-house. 

A parody by C. I. Hallman, with music by C. 
Stcnborg, called Pctis och Thclee, was produced 
at Stockholm 27 September 1779 and Gothen- 
burg 15 November 1779. 

andre: Der Topfer 

22 January. Hanau, near Frankfort 
Text by the composer. One act. 

Andre's first opera. 

Frankfort 29 October 1773 (revived in 2 acts 
7 November 17S0); Weimar 20 January 1774; 
Gotha 29 July 1774; Leipzig 14 October 1774; 
Berlin 14 February 1775, etc.; Dessau 4 Decem- 
ber 1776; Hamburg 1778; Salzburg 8 January 
1781 ; Munich 9 January 1781 ; Rcgensburg 1781 ; 
Dresden July 1782; Bremen 30 October 1783. 

Goethe was so much impressed by the little 
work that he wrote his first SingspicI, Erwin and 
Elmire, for Andre (1775). 



327 



328 



1773 ANNALS 

G r e t r y : Le Maqnifique 

4 March. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. M. Scdainc (founded on a talc by La- 
fontainc). Three acts. 

In French also, Versailles 26 March 1773 (the 
libretto says 19 March); Hague 27 January 1774; 
Vienna 1775; Liege 20 January 1776; Turin 
Spring 1776; Casscl 24 November 1783; Parma, 
at Comte de Flavigny's Carnival 1788; Brussels 
8 March 1792; Gachina 31 October 1799; Mos- 
cow 31 December 1810. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Frank- 
fort 27 April 1775; Vienna, B. n May 1776; 
Munich October 1778; Augsburg 29 March 
1780; Carlsruhe 1781; Cologne December 1784. 

A Dutch version, by J. T. Neyts, was published 
about 1775; another, by H. Asschenberghini786. 

Schweitzer: Alceste 

28 May. Weimar 
Text by C. M. Wieland. Five acts. 

Intended by the authors as the first step towards 
a German national opera. 1 The vocal score was 
printed in 1774 and 1786, the full score in 1779. 
First performed by Seyler's troupe at Weimar 
and subsequently given at: Frankfort Spring 
1774; Gotha 16 August 1774; Schwetzingen 13 
August 1775; Altenburg 15 September 1775; 
Mannheim November 1775; Lucerne 1775; 
Konigsberg 1776 (in concert form); Dresden 
1776; Danzig 4 November 1777 (in concert 
form); Breslau 14 January 1779; Munich 1779; 
Berlin 31 May 17S0; Hamburg 23 April 1781; 
Leipzig 8 August 1781; Magdeburg January 
1782 (in concert form); Furth 12 October 1782; 
Nuremberg 30 October 1782; Neustrclitz 28 
April 1783; Passau 1 November 1783; Bozen 19 
March 1784; Vienna, Neustift 1784; Mayence 
18 November 1785; Cassel 1785 if not earlier; 
Prague 1792. Italian translation by G. U. Pagani 
Cesa published 1830. 

1 ". . . das erste StUck unserer Biihnc in Metastases 
Geschmack". (C. H. Schmid, Chronologic des deutschen 
theaters, 1775.) 



OF OPERA 



1773 



A parody, Euridice, by F. H. von Einsiedel, with 
music by Scckcndorf, was performed at Weimar 
3 September 1779. 

The opera was revived at Weimar on 9 June 
I933- 

s A l i £ r I : La Locandiera 

8 June. Vienna, B. 
Text by D. Poggi (founded on Goldoni's com- 
edy). Three acts. 

In Italian also, Warsaw 12 January 1775; 
Florence 27 July 1775; Dresden 1776; Copen- 
hagen 30 October 1777; Paris, Th. Feydeau 29 
February 1792 (as La Locandiera scaltra, with addi- 
tions by Cherubini). 

In German (translated by L. Zehnmark), 
Vienna 12 November 1782; Pressburg 2 Sep- 
tember 1785. 

d e ze d e : UErreur d y un Moment, 
on La Suite de Julie 

14 June. Paris, Q.L 
Text by J. M. Boutet de Monvel (as the title 
says, a sequel to Julie, by the same authors, see 
1772). One act. 

In French also Vienna 1775; Moscow 17 De- 
cember 1775; Liege 19 January 1777 and Cassel 
17 December 1783. 

A German translation by J. M. Kellner, Julie 
odcr der hurze Irrthum, was published at Wetzlar 
in 1777; performed Cologne 1779 (also with title 
Das zerstdrte Versprechen). 

In Russian (translated by A. Y. Khilkov), Mos- 
cow 1782. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Manderstrom), 
Stockholm 4 November 1787; Gothenburg 13 
March 1789. 

Dutch version by J. T. Neyts printed (n.d.). 

In 1805 the same libretto was set by the 
then 23-years-old Auber (his first work for the 
stage; produced by amateurs). 

naumann: Artnida 

June. Padua 
Text by G. Berrati (after Tasso). Three acts. 



329 



330 



1773 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1773 



Naumann's first greater success; in Italian also 
given at Prague 1776 and Vienna 15 October 

1777. 

In German (translated by J. C. Bock), Leipzig 
6 July 1780; Dresden Winter 1780; Berlin 27 
December 1782; Schwedt 2 December 1785; 
Brcslau 24 January 1786. 

h A y D n : Ulnfedelta delusa* 

26July. Esztcrhaza 
Librettist unknown (Burlctta per musica). Two 
acts. 

Revived Vienna 14 May 1930 (as Licbc macht 
crfindcrischy German version by H. Goja, music 
revised by G. Kassowitz). 

G re try: La Rosiere de Salency 

23 October. Fontainebleau 
Text by A. F. J. Masson de Pezay (opera lyri- 
comiqtie). Four acts. 

Paris, CI. 28 February 1774 and, in a reduced 
3-act version (now called pastorale) 18 June 1774. 

The date of the first, Fontainebleau, produc- 
tion, not hitherto recorded, is given in the original 
libretto (copy Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale). 

In French also, Brussels 20 May 1774; Srriolna 
30 July 1775; Turin Spring 1776; Casscl 1777; 
Parma, at Comte de Flavigny's Carnival 1790; 
St. Petersburg 1798. 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Frank- 
fort 1775; Augsburg 20 August 1779; Vienna 9 
September 1779; Pressburg 3 April 1780; Co- 
logne 7 August 1780; Munich 11 September 
1780; Bonn 18 October 1780; Pyrmont 17 July 
1 781; Regensburg 1781; Warsaw 15 September 
1782; Bremen 15 October 1784; Hanover 22 
January 1794. 

In Italian (as La Festa dclla Rosa, translated by 
M. Verazi), Schwetzingcnjuly 1776. 

In Danish (translated by C. D. Biehl), Copen- 
hagen 4 September 1779, at Fredcnsborg Palace 
and 17 September 1779 at the Royal Theatre. 

In Swedish (translated by Q J. Lindegren), 
Stockholm 31 January 1798. 

Given as a pantomime at Charleston, S.C. on 
1 July I795- 



There arc printed Dutch versions by J. T. 
Ncyts (n.d.), by B. D. A[sten] (1775), and by 
H. Ogelwight (1792). 

Revived Moscow 14 May 1810 (in French). 

MONSiGNYrLd helle Arsene 

6 November. Fontainebleau 
Text by C. S. Favart (comedie-f eerie \ his last lib- 
retto), founded on Voltaire's poem La Begueulc. 
Three acts. 

Given at Paris, C.I. 14 August 1775 in an 
enlarged 4-act version. Last revived Paris, O.C. 
1 October 1794 and 21 September 1808. 

In French also, Liege 18 February 1776; Brus- 
sels 19 February 1776, etc. Cassel 24 May 1777; 
Turin Spring 1778; Smolna 15 December 1782; 
Parma Carnival 1789; Cologne 1795-96; Mos- 
cow 15 May 1809; Berne 6 July 1809; Stock- 
holm June 181 3. 

In Danish (translated by T. C. Walter), Copen- 
hagen 30 January 1777 and (in a new translation 
by A, G. Thoroup) 4 September 1781 (at Fre- 
dcnsborg Palace) and 10 December 1781 (at the 
Royal Theatre). 

In German (translated by J. H. Faber), Diissel- 
dorf 27 November 1778; Mannheim 20 March 
1779; Frankfort 15 April 1779; Cologne Sum- 
mer 1779; Berlin 25 August 1779 (translated by 
J. Andre); Bonn 9 March 1780; Munich 4 July 
1780; Hamburg 27 October 17S0; Hanover 8 
January 1781 ; Warsaw 25 November 1781 ; Riga 
30 September 1782 (first opera given at the new 
Vietinghoff theatre); Neustrelitz 5 May 1783; 
Bremen 1 December 1783; Schwedt 16 August 
1785; Rostock 20 June 17S6; Vienna, Ka. 4 Au- 
gust 1786; Casscl 24 January 1787; Pyrmont 22 
July 1787; Dresden 29 May 1788. 

In Swedish (translated by A. M. Malmstedt), 
Drottningholm 22 July 1779 and Stockholm 13 
January 1780. 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 1785 (revived 22 
June 1 8 1 5 ) ; Moscow January 1802 (revived 26 
May 1806). 

In Dutch (translated by B. Ruloffs), Amster- 
dam [10 October] 1788 ; there was another Dutch 
version, by J. T. Neyts, published (n.d.). 



33i 



332 



1773 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1773-74 



In Polish (translated by F. Zablocki), Warsaw 
17 October 1788. 

In Italian (translated by L. da Ponte), London 
12 December 1795 (music arranged by Maz- 
zinghi). 

The vocal score of La belle Arsene was reprint- 
ed in 1909. 

A parody, La Lingere, by Mague de Saint- 
Aubin, was produced at La Rochelle December 
1777; Paris, Th. des Petits Comediens du Bois 
de Boulogne July 1781 ; Saint-Cloud 21 October 
1781. 

holly: Der Kaufmann von Smyrna 

13 November. Berlin 
Text by C. F. Schwan (founded on a comedy by 
Chamfort and first set to music by Vogler in 1771). 
One act. 

The most successful of Holly's operas; given 
at Vienna, Ka. June 1776 as Wohltaten gexuinncn 
die Herzen and B. 13 February 1781 zsDerSkla- 
venhdndler von Smyrna. 

The same libretto was set by Stegmann 
and first performed in the same year, 1773, at 
Konigsberg (exact date unknown) and else- 
where in Germany; also given at Copenhagen 
2 January 1776 (in Danish, translated by P. T. 
Vandall; given there until 1817); in German, St. 
Petersburg 20 February 1778 and Riga 25 Feb- 
ruary 1785; Hamburg, as late as 24 July 1793 
and 13 May 1808. 

gossec: Sabinus 

4 December. Versailles 
Text by M. P. G. de Chabanon (founded on his 
tragedy Eponine, 1762). Five acts. 

Gossec's first tragedie-lyrique (unsuccessful). 
Paris, O. 22 February 1774. 

gretry: Cephale, etProcris, ou 
U Amour conjugal 

30 December. Versailles 
Text by J. F. Marmontcl. Three acts. 

Paris, O. 2 May 1775 and (with alterations) 
23 May 1777. 



In French also, Cassel 1783 (and again 26 
April 1802; Germain translation by J. D. von 
Apell published on that occasion). 

Revived Brussels 30 April 1930 (and again 8 
September 1930 at the eighth I.S.C.M. festival). 



1774 

A n f o s s i : Lajinta Giardiniera 

Carnival. Rome, T. delle Dame 
Text by R. de' Calzabigi (the same libretto 
Mozart set to music in 1775 ; for a comparison of 
Anfossi's and Mozart's settings, see E. J. Dent, 
Mozart's Operas, p.45). Three acts. 

In Italian also given at Wurzburg [26 August] 
1774; Dresden 7 February 1775 ; London 7 March 
1775 (as La Marchesa Giardiniera, with additions 
by T. Giordani); Vienna 13 June 1775; Warsaw 
17 December 1775; Paris, 0. 12 November 1778; 
Eszterhaza Autumn 1780; Lisbon Carnival 1786. 

In German (as Die edle Gartnerin) Frankfort 
12 September 1782. 

In French (translated by Balle), Paris, Th. de 
M. 5 February 1789. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 14 February 1790. 

piccinni: Akssandro neW Indie 

12 January. Naples, S.C. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Vinci in 
1729). Three acts. 

The best of Piccinni's Italian serious operas; 
revived at Naples, Fondo 12 January 1792 after 
the composer's return from Paris. (An earlier 
setting by Piccinni of the same libretto had been 
performed at Rome, Arg. 21 January 1758. Both 
scores extant.) 

T. c. Walter: Den Provede Troskab 
(Faithfulness Proved) 
31 January. Copenhagen 
Text by C. D. Biehl. Three acts. 

Not the first Danish opera, but the first written 
by a Danish composer; given three times only. 



333 



334 



1774 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1774 



paisiello: II Duello* 



Spring. Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. B. Lorenzi. One act. 

In Italian also given at Vienna 15 July 1775; 
Tsarskoyc Selo 1782. 

In French (as Le Duel comique, adapted and 
enlarged to 2 acts by P. L. Moline, additional 
music by J. N. A. Le Froid de Mereaux), Paris, 
C.I. 16 September 1776 and Fontainebleau 10 
October 1777. 

In German (translated by C. G. Neefe): Vien- 
na, Ka. 17 April 1786; Mannheim 3 August 1786; 
Carlsruhe 6 January 1790; Budapest 18 July 1790. 

In Polish, Wilna 16 May 1799. 

Revived Taranto 26 November 19 16 (music 
revised by C. De Nardis). 

gluck: Iphigenie en Aulide* 

19 April. Paris, O. 
Text by F. L. G. Lebland du Roullet (founded 
on Racine's tragedy). Three acts. 

The first work Gluck wrote for the Paris 
Opera. "Jamais le Public n'a montrc taut d'em- 
pressement et d'enthousiasmc que pour cct opera 
qui doit faire epoque dans la musique Franchise" 
(Mcrcure de France). Its success was interrupted 
after the 5th performance through the death of 
Louis xv. Resumed 10 January 1775 and given 
there 428 times until 1824; revived at the O.C. 
18 December 1907. 

A parody by J. E. Dcsprcaux called Momie was 
given at Choisy in August 1778. 

In French also, Lille 7 July 1782; Casscl 1782; 
Hamburg 1795 ; Ghent 1799; St. Petersburg 
1 801; Brunswick 1806. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Mandcrstrom, 
music adapted by D. L. Wascnholtz and L. S. 
Latin), Stockholm 29 December 1778 (with a 
prologue by Uttini, text by J. H. Kcllgrcn). 

In Dutch (translated by P. Pijpcrs), Amster- 
dam 1 801. 

In German (translated by J. D. Sander), Mag- 
deburg 1790; Schwcrin 3 January 1806; Munich 
1807 (revived 29 January 18 16, partly re-orches- 
trated by Winter); Vienna 14 December 1808; 



Berlin 25 December 1809; Casscl 3 June 18 19; 
Stuttgart 23 December 1820. 

In 1846 Richard Wagner revised the opera by 
improving the translation, changing the orches- 
tration and composing some new recitatives for 
the third act (into which he even introduced a 
new character, Artemis). This version was first 
produced at Dresden 24 February 1847 and given 
on many German stages (including Vienna 12 
October 1867 and Berlin 11 June 1914). Also 
Strasbourg 11 March 1900. Revived Zurich 17 
October 1936. 

In Italian (translated by G. Schmidt), Naples, 
S.C. 15 August 1S12. 

In Danish (translated by A. Hertz; Wagner's 
version), Copenhagen 27 April 1861 and Chris- 
tiania 20 October 1875. 

In Czech (translated by J. Bohm) Prague 9 
April 1872 (revived 29 May 1921). Given at 
Brussels for the first time as late as 26 April 1910 
(in French) and even later in England and 
America: Oxford 20 November 1933 (in Eng- 
lish, translated by J. Troutbeck) ; Philadelphia 22 
February 1935 (in French); Glasgow 14 April 
1937 (in English, by the Scottish National Acad- 
emy of Music). 

In Croatian, Zagreb 6 July. 1933. 

In Hungarian, Budapest October 1937. 

anfossi: II Geloso in Cimento 

25 May. Vienna, B. 
Text by G. Bertati. Three acts. 

Given also as La Vcdova galante (Graz Winter 
1779), La Vcdova scaltra (Castclnuovo 1785) and 
as La Vedova bizarra (Naples, Fior. 17S8). Re- 
duced to 2 acts, Venice, S. Moisc Autumn 1784. 

In Italian also, Venice, S. Sam. November 
1774; Turin and Rome 1775, etc. Trieste May 
1775; Dresden November 1775; Copenhagen 
31 January 1776 (Danish translation in the lib- 
retto by R. Soelberg); Warsaw July 1776; 
Prague 1776; London 4 February 1777; Dublin 
1778; Eszterhaza 10 September 1778; Paris, O. 
t8 January 1779 (with additions by Giardini); 
St. Petersburg 13 April 1779; Brunswick 1781; 
Barcelona 12 June 1783; Cracow 2 May 1790. 



335 



336 



1774 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1774 



In German (as Die Eifersucht auf der Probe, 
translated by J. J. Eschenburg), Hamburg 12 Jan- 
uary 1781; Berlin 3 March 1781 (revived 29 Au- 
gust 1806); Vienna, Ka. 27 September 1783 and 
Leop. 22 March 1787; Bonn 6 July 1783; Riga 
1 3 January 1 784 ; Cologne Autumn 1 784 ; 
Schwedt 22 November 1785; St. Petersburg 
1785; Linz 18 April 1786; Cassel 12 March 1787; 
Hanover 7 June 1787; Prague 1787; Rostock 23 
June 1788; Dresden July 1788; Munich May 
1789; Pyrmcnt 10 July 1790; Amsterdam 1792; 
another German version, by L. Zehnmark, was 
used at Pressburg 12 June 1786 and Budapest 7 
July 1790. 

In Polish (translated by L. Pierozyiiski) War- 
saw 15 July 1787. 

jommelli:// Trionfo di Clelia 

6 June. Lisbon, Th. d'Ajuda 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Hasse, see 
1762). Three acts. 

Jommelli's last opera (he died on 25 August 
1774), written for the birthday of King Joseph I 
of Portugal. 

dibdin: The Waterman; or, 
The First of August* 

8 August London, Hm. 
Ballad opera, text and music (partly composed 
and partly compiled) by Dibdin. Two acts. 

Very successful on English stages; frequently 
revived in London during the 19th century, and 
as late as 23 May 191 1 at C.G. for Santley's 
benefit and farewell performance. Given at Dub- 
lin 31 December 1776; Edinburgh 11 January 
1777; Spanish Town, Jamaica February 1789; 
Philadelphia 8 April 1791; New York 22 May 
1793 (last revived 1 July 1872). A new edition 
of the vocal score by S. N. Sedgwick and E. M. 
Lee was published in 1928. 

(Date of first performance checked from the 
newspapers. It is differently given in some books 
of reference.) 



paisiello: II Credulo deluso* 

September. Naples, T.N. 

Text: an altered version of Goldoni's II Mondo 
delta Luna (see 1750). Three acts. 

The month of the first production is recorded 
in the Venetian Giornalc Enciclopedico, February 
1775 (apropos of the Venice production of an- 
other opera on the same subject by Astaritta) : 

"Si rappresenta attualmente questo Dramma 
anche a Napoli, cola pure accomodato all* uso 
odierno Napolitano, che forse e piu stravagante 
del Lombardo ; e tanto ne piacque la Musica del 
S. Maestro Paisiello, che dal mese di Settembre 
dell' anno prossimo scorso sino ad ora se n'e 
continuata la rappresentazione". 

Given in a reduced 2-act version, text altered 
by M. Coltellini, at St. Petersburg 5 October 
1783 (as I! Mondo della Lima); Naples, Fondo 10 
October 1784; Vienna 20 October 1786. 

In French (translated by M. J. Mattieu de 
Lepidor, as Orgon dans la Lune on le Cridule 
trompe), Versailles before 11 June 1777; Hague 
21 January 1780 and Paris, Th. d. M. 27 April 
1789. 

Revived Parma 26 June 1813 ; and lately, cele- 
brating the Paisiello bicentenary, Naples May 
1940 (the revival, at least, was announced). 

J. c. bach: Lucio Silla* 

4 November. Mannheim 

Text by G. de Gamerra (first set to music by 
Mozart, see 1772), with alterations by M. Verazi. 
Three acts. 

C. S. Terry, on the authority of F. Walter, 
assumes the date of performance to have been 
20 November 1776. The original Italian libretto 
is undated, but the German translation bears the 
date of 1774 and leaves no doubt that the opera 
was first produced at Mannheim in celebration 
of the name-day of the Elector, 4 November, of 
that year. 

Revived Kiel 22 March 1929 (in German, 
translated and arranged by F. Tutenberg). 



337 



338 



1774 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1774 



martini: Henri W 

14 November. Paris, C.I. 
Text by F. B. de Rozoy. Three acts. 

First given at Versailles 16 December 1774; in 
French also, Vienna 1775 ; Brussels 20 September 
1775, etc.; in French also, St. Petersburg 9 De- 
cember 1784. 

A German version was published at Frankfort 
c.1776, an anonymous Dutch version in 1778. 

Revived, Paris, C.I. 21 November 1789; Ant- 
werp 7 August 1806; and, with alterations, as 
Henri iv y ou La Bataille d'lvry, Paris, O.C. 23 
April 1 814, "pour Theureux retour des Fils de 
Henri iv au Trone de France" as indicated in the 
libretto. 

Revived in Russian (translated by A. P. Vesh- 
nyakov), St. Petersburg 4 December 1820. 

An anonymous Dutch translation was pub- 
lished in 1778. A Swedish version by J. S. Ahl- 
gren, with new music by G. H. Kiister, was 
given at Stockholm 19 December 1870. 

PAisiELLOrLrt Frascatana 

November, Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by F. Livigni. Three acts. 

Very successful in Italy and all over Europe. 
Naples, T.N. Winter 1774 (revived there with 
additional music by Paisiello, November 1786); 
Milan, T.R.D. Autumn 1775 and Sc. Autumn 
1780, etc. In Italian also produced at: 

Vienna 29 April 1775. 

Trieste May 1775. 

PRAGUE 1776. 

DRESDEN I776. 

COPENHAGEN 31 October I776. 

London 5 November 1776. 
Dublin Spring 1777. 
eszterhaza 3 1 May 1778. 
graz Summer 1778. 
paris, o. 10 September 1778. 

ST. PETERSBURG 4 November I77S. 

cassel 1779. 

Barcelona 26 March 17S0. 

Warsaw 27 January 1781. 

BRUNSWICK I7S2 



Ghent June 1783. 

Madrid 24 November 1787. 

cracow 12 March 1789 

LISBON I793. 

Revived in London 5 April 1781; 15 May 
1788; 5 June 1794; 9 January 1808; revived in 
Paris 15 October 1806. 

A pasticcio from La Frascatana and Le due 
Contesse (see 1776), called Iljinto Spettro (text by 
M. Vcrazi) was produced at Mannheim 26 No- 
vember 1776; it was the last opera which was 
sung in Italian there. 

In German (translated by J. F. Schmidt), Augs- 
burg 30 July 1779; Pressburg 8 February 1780; 
Frankfort 1 June 1781; Berlin 19 November 
1781; Graz and Laibach 1782; Riga 9 May 1783; 
Vienna, Neustift 3 August 1783 and Ka. 9 Sep- 
tember 1783; Prague 1787; Budapest 29 Septem- 
ber 1787; Amsterdam 21 June 1796. Another 
German version, by M***, called Der Vormund 
oder Das Madchen von Frascati, was given at 
Mannheim 14 January 1783. Translated also from 
the French version (see below), as Die Infant in 
von Zatnora: Weimar October 1785; Graz 1 Jan- 
uary 1794 (earlier given therein 1782, see above, 
in a translation by A. L.). 

In French (as L* Infante dc Zanwra, adapted by 
N. E. Framery) first at Strasbourg Autumn 1780 
(see letter in Litteratur- and Thcaterzeitung, 16 
December 1780); subsequently produced at Ver- 
sailles 1 78 1 and all over France; Lille 26 May 
1782; Ghent July 1782; Liege 7 December 1782; 
Cassel 28 November 1783; eventually Paris, Th. 
dc M. 22 June 1789; revived Antwerp 23 January 
1806. 

In Russian (translated by V. A. Levshin), St. 
Petersburg 1780. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 2 April 1782. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 13 July 1782; Cracow 13 February 1790. 

A Dutch translation (from the French version) 
by B. Zurmuhlcn was published 1784. 

In Swedish (translated from the French ver- 
sion by J. D. Valerius), Stockholm 10 October 
I799- 



339 



340 



1774-75 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1775 



La Frascatana was revived by the Societa Filar- 
monica, Turin 19 June 1937 (under G. Gedda). 



1775 
PAisiELLo:Ld Discordiafortunata 

Carnival. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by "Abate F. B. A. F.". Three acts. 

Given at Dresden 20 November 1776 and 
Prague Autumn 1784 as L'Avaro deluso; at 
Rome, Tord. January 1780 in a reduced 2-act 
version; at Pesaro Carnival 1780 as ll Quadra 
parlattte. In Italian also, Vienna 6 July 1785. 

In German (translated by C. A. Vulpius), 
Weimar 26 April 1786; (translated by J. L. 
Schmidt), Aachen 26 March 1787; (translated by 
P. Trautmann), Prague 1787. Hanover 17 April 
1787; Budapest 1788 (Vulpius's translation); 
Hamburg 28 August 1789, etc. 

mozart: Lafinta Giardiniera* 

13 January. Munich 

Calzabigi's text (first set to music by Anfossi, see 

1774), with alterations by M. Coltellini. Three 

acts. 

After the very successful Munich production 
the opera was translated into German by the 
actor Stierle for the touring troupe of the man- 
ager Johann Bohm. The first traceable perform- 
ance of this German version took place at Augs- 
burg on 1 May 1780 (as Die verstelltc Gartnerin); 
also given in the same year at Nuremberg. But 
it is likely to have been given earlier in 1780, or 
even late in 1779, at Salzburg where Bohm's 
troupe had a season before they went to Augs- 
burg and where Mozart also spent those months. 
Next we find the opera performed at Erankfort 
on 2 April 1782 (as Sandrina oder Die verstellte 
Grafin). This was the first performance of any 
Mozart opera in Central or Northern Germany; 
another translation (by H. G. Schmieder?) Das 
verstellte Gartnermddchen was given at Mayence in 
August 1 789 (play-bill of the second performance, 
22 August 1789, preserved). 



After Mozart's death La finta Giardiniera was 
given, in the original Italian, once more at 
Prague on 10 March 1796; and, in German again, 
as Die scho'ne Gartnerin at Oels (Silesia) 25 Feb- 
ruary 1797 (see Schlesische Provinzialblatter, Feb- 
ruary 1797, p.199); then it disappeared from the 
stage for 95 years. 

It was revived, in a new translation by M. 
Kalbeck, on the same bill with Bastien und Bas- 
tienne at: 

Vienna, O. 25 December 1891 (music revised 
by J. N. Fuchs); subsequently at Bremen 30 Sep- 
tember 1892; Leipzig 28 November 1892; Basle 

I March 1893; Berlin 2 December 1893; Graz 

II December 1896, etc. 

20th Century Revivals 

In German: 

mayence 21 October 1915 (revised by R. and L. 
Berger). 

darmstadt 25 November 1915 (revised by O. 
Bie; one act). 

Berlin 17 February 1916 (O. Bie's version). 

carlsruhe 27 January 191 8 (revised by A. Ru- 
dolph). 

Munich 14 January 1935 (revised by S. Anheisser). 

basle 14 March 1935 (the Mayence 191 5 ver- 
sion). 
In Hungarian (as Mirandolina, adapted to a new 

libretto by S. Hevesi, founded on Goldoni's 

comedy), Budapest 27 November 1924. 

In English (translated by H. Dowd), New 

York, Mayfair Th. 18 January 1927; London, 

Scala 7 January 1930 (with recitatives by L. 

Heward). 

In the original Italian (music revised by V. 

Garulli), Trieste July 1928; Milan, T.d.V. 6 No- 
vember 1928. 

g. bend a: Ariadne aufNaxos* 

27 January, Gotha 
Text by J. C. Brandes (founded on a cantata by 
H. W. von Gerstenberg and originally written 
for Schweitzer, who did not finish his composi- 
tion). Ein Duodrama mit Mustek. One act. 



34i 



342 



1775 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1775 



The first and most successful German "melo- 
drama" (a spoken play with orchestral accom- 
paniment throughout). Published 1778 (vocal 
score) and 1781 (full score). New edition of the 
vocal score published 1920 (edited by A. Einstein). 
In German also produced at Leipzig 24 April 
1775; Altenburg 11 September 1775; Berlin 23 
August 1776; Hamburg 6 September 1776; 
Hanover 27 December 1776, etc.; Vienna, Jos. 
11 July 1779 and B. 4 January 1780; St. Peters- 
burg 2 September 1779; Salzburg 29 September 
1780; Warsaw 19 May 1781; Riga 16 October 
1782; Pressburg 24 January 1798. 

Benda's Ariadne was one of the very few Ger- 
man musical dramas before Mozart to be trans- 
lated into other languages. Produced at: 
Berlin 10 February 1777 (in French, translated 
by Prince Frederick Augustus of Brunswick- 
Oels). 
Warsaw 8 March 1778 (in French, "traduit de 
l'AUemand par un Prince du Sang d'une des 
plus illustres maisons du Nord", probably the 
same translation as used at Berlin). 
Copenhagen 29 May 1778 (in Danish, translated 

by B. G. Sporon). 
paris, c.i. 20 July 1 78 1 (in French, translated by 

J. B. Dubois de Jancigny 1 ). 
Naples, fior. 16 December 1783 (in Italian, trans- 
lated by H . . . ; see Cramer's Magazin der 
Musik, 1784, pp.64-70). 
gorizia 1786 (in Italian, translated by A. de' 

Giorgi-Bert6la). 
Stockholm 22 December 1786 (in Swedish, 
translated by J/ P. Stolpe) ; revived Gothen- 
burg 9 October 1806; Malmo 21 July 1807; 
Lund 24 July 1807. 
Budapest 18 May 1802 (in Hungarian). 
PRAGUE 22 December 1875 (in Czech); revived 
Brno 1935. 

Frequently revived on German stages : Munich 
18 December 1832 (music revised by H. L. von 

1 He wrote the introductory essay in the French 
libretto; the anonymous translation is attributed both 
to him and to Cuinet Dorbeil; see Catalogue of the 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Vol. 18, p.968, and Vol. 
34, p.609. 



Spengel); Berlin 13 June 1833; Konigsberg 25 
November 1855; Breslau 17 January 1898; 
Weimar 16 June 1916; Lauchstedt 6 July 1924; 
Regensburg 23 February 1925; Aussig 193 1. 

The German melodrama movement initiated 
by Benda in 1775, soon found adherents, such as 
Neefe, Reichardt, Vogler, Winter, Danzi, Can- 
nabich, Zumsteeg and interest even on the part 
of Mozart, who admired Ariadne (see his 
letter to Leopold Mozart, dated Mannheim, 12 
November 1778). The whole movement, how- 
ever, lasted only for about twenty years. See for 
details E. Istel, Die Entstehung des deutschen Melo- 
dramas (1906). 

gretry: Lafausse Magie 

1 February, Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. F. Marmontel. Two acts. 

Given at the C.I., with alterations, 18 Marcn 
1776; in Paris until 1828 and revived at the O.C. 
16 July 1863 (re-orchestrated by E. Prevost). 

In French also produced at Hague 1775; Liege 
23 December 1775; Brussels 10 May 1776; Stutt- 
gart 13 June 1776; Cassel 1777; Turin Spring 
1778; Geneva 4 October 1784; Charleston, S.C. 
3 June 1795; Hamburg 1795; Cologne 1796-97; 
Gachina (Russia) 4 September 1798; Hanover 
27 July 1805; Moscow 20 April 1809; Vienna 
27 June 1809. 

In Danish (translated by N. K. Bredal), Copen- 
hagen 30 January 1778. 

In German (as Die abgeredete Zauberey, trans- 
lated by G. Stephanie), Vienna, B. 27 October 
1778; (as Das Blendwerk, translated by F. L. W. 
Meyer), Mannheim 25 February 1779; (as Der 
Zauberspiegel, translated by J. Andr6 and C. F. 
von Bonin), Berlin 18 January 1781. Yet another 
German version, by J. N. Rothmann was pub- 
lished in 1 78 1. 

In German also, Warsaw 1 June 1782; Riga 
30 June 1783. 

In Dutch, Amsterdam 1785 ; in Flemish already, 
Mecheln 1783. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 16 July 1792. 



343 



344 



1775 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1775 



G. bend a: Der Dorfjahrmarkt 

10 February. Gotha 
Text by F. W. Gottcr. One act. 

The vocal score was published in 1776 as Der 
Dorfjahrmarkt, the libretto in 1778 as Der Jahr- 
markt. Full score first published in T930, in Denh- 
mciler Dcutscher Toiiktmst, edited by T. W. 
Werner. This very popular Singspicl originally 
had one act. Divided into two acts and with 
some additional music by J. A. Hiller it was 
given at Leipzig 25 April 1775; Dresden 26 Oc- 
tober 1775; Hanover 8 May 1776; Hamburg 
4 July 1776; Berlin iS June 1778; Vienna, B. 
15 April 1779; Mannheim 13 February 1780; 
Riga 23 October 1782, etc. 

In Danish (translated by S. Sonnichsen and N. 
H. Weinwich), Copenhagen 21 November 1788. 

Revived Wiirzburg 5 December 1915 (revised 
by L. LandshorF); Hanover May 193 1 (accord- 
ing to the D.D.T. edition). 

rauzzini: Piramo e Tisbe 

16 March. London, Hm. 
Text by M. Coltellini. Two parts. 

The first and best opera Rauzzini wrote for 
London (revived there 29 March 1781). 

In Italian also, Vienna 31 December 1776; 
Brunswick Spring 1782; Prague Summer 1783; 
Warsaw Spring 1784. 

In German (translated by L. Zchnmark), 
Vienna, B, 7 December 1794. 

(Date of first performance checked from news- 
papers; different dates arc given by Nicoll and 
Terry.) 

mozart: II Re Pastore* 

23 April. Salzburg 
Metastases text (first set to music by Bonno in 
1751). Two acts. 

Mozart's setting was produced in honour of a 
visit of the Archduke Maximilian, son of Maria 
Theresa, to Salzburg. 

Revived Salzburg 27 January 1906 and 
Munich March 1906 (in Italian, celebrating 
Mozart's 150th birthday); Dessau 9 May 1933 
(in a German translation by S. Anheisser). 



G. benda: Medea 

1 May. Leipzig 
Text by F. W. Gotter. Ein mit Musik vermischtes 
Drama. One act. 

Bcnda's second melodrama, hardly less success- 
ful than Ariadne some months earlier. Vocal 
score published 1778 and 1785. 

Subsequently produced at Gotha 6 June 1775; 
Altcnburg 6 September 1775; Dresden 6 No- 
vember 1775 ; Hamburg 10 December 1776; 
Berlin 26 March 1777; Frankfort 31 May 1777; 
Vienna, B. $ December 1778, etc.; Graz 7 July 
1818. 

In German also, St. Petersburg 8 February 
1781; Warsaw 16 April 1781; Flcnsburg 1781; 
Riga 12 March 1783; Berne March 1811; 
Moscow 24 February 1821; Strasbourg 15 June 
1825. 

In French, Warsaw 4 March 1785. 

In Danish (translated by F. Schwartz), Copen- 
hagen 17 October 1788 (published already 1782). 

In Hungarian (translated by M. Ernyi), Buda- 
pest 19 May 1802. 

In Russian, Moscow 1802. 

In Polish (translated by F. Zablocki), Warsaw 
1806. 

A Czech version by K. H. Tham was publish- 
ed in 1787; produced in Czech (not in Tham's 
translation), Prague 22 December 1875. 

An Italian version, with new music by G. 
Poffa, was given at Trieste 21 November 1783; 
in Italian also Fori! Spring 1784; Gorizia Sum- 
mer 1786; Milan 1792. 

A French version by J. J. G. Bcrthevin, with 
new music by J. S. Dcmar, was published (and 
performed?) at Orleans in 1798 (Bihl. Solcinne, 
no. 3005); two earlier French translations, by 
Dc Rosicrcs, Vienna 1778, and by A. Bcrquin, 
Paris 1781, were published. 

An anonymous Swedish version appeared 
1784 in Afton-Bladcd (Stockholm). 

Frequently revived in Germany: Munich 12 
February 1885 (revised by J. R. Schachncr); 
Gotha 21 March 1888 and 22 February 1896; 
Regcnsburg 23 February 1925; Berlin 25 March 
1934. Revived in Czech, Brno 1935. 



345 



346 



1775 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1775 



haydn : Ulncontro improviso* 

2p August Eszterhaza 
Text: an Italian version, by K. Friberth, of Dan- 
court's Rencontre imprivue (set by Gluck, see 
1764). Three acts. 

Produced in honour of a visit of the Archduke 
Ferdinand, son of Maria Theresa, to Eszter- 
haza. 

Revived Lauchstedt Summer 1936 (in Ger- 
man, as Unverhofftes Begegnen, translated by H. 
Schultz). 

paisiello: Socrate immaginario* 

October, Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. B. Lorenzi, on a plan by F. Galiani. 
Originally in two acts. 

After a command performance at court, 23 
October 1775 the opera was banned by King 
Ferdinand i (being "ritrovato indiscreto") and 
allowed to be acted again only in March 1780 
(now in 3 acts). Subsequently given at Florence, 
P. Spring 1780, etc.; Dresden 1781; Milan, Sc. 
Autumn 1783; Malta Carnival 1784; Lisbon 
Carnival 1788; and revived at Naples (with some 
alterations) in 1796, 1 801, and 1 8 14; at Milan in 
1801 and 1814. 

A modern revival took place at the T. degli 
Independent, Rome 20 February 1926 (as a 
spoken comedy, without the greater part of 
Paisiello's music). A new edition of the vocal 
score (edited by G. Barini) was published in 
193 1. Revived again Naples, Politeama 6 or 10 
October 1936. 

One of Paisiello 's best works. ". . . il capo- 
lavoro poetico dell* opera bufFa, come il Matri- 
monio segreto n'e il capolavoro musicale. Queste 
due produzioni mostrano quanto l'ingegno napo- 
letano possa ncl genere comico" (Scherillo). 

M. Kelly was present at the "first representa- 
tion" (meaning that of the 1780 revival as he 
arrived at Naples only 30 May 1779. See his 
Reminiscences, 1, p.49; the famous Casacciello then 
sang the name-part, which in 1775 had been 
created by Gennaro Lucio). 



anfossi: UAvaro 



Autumn. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by G. Bertati. Three acts. 

Milan 3 August 1776; Bologna and Turin 
1776; Florence Carnival 1777; Parma Carnival 
1777; Alessandria April 1777; revived Venice, 
S. Moise Carnival 1778; Vicenza and Cremona 
Carnival 1778, etc. Given at Florence Spring 
1777, as La Fedelta nelle Angustie. 

In Italian also, Vienna 1776; Trieste 26 De- 
cember 1776; Copenhagen 31 January 1777 
(Danish translation in the libretto by R. Soel- 
berg); Graz Carnival 1779; Warsaw Autumn 
1779; Dresden 1780; Brunswick 1782 and 
Hanover 1783 (as II Sordo e VAvaro); Frankfort 
February 1783 (as I due Avari); London 14 June 
1783; Lille 4 March 1788; Madrid 1791. Revived 
Milan, Sc. March 1791; Trieste Carnival 1805. 

In French (as Le Tuteur avare, translated by J. 
L. Gabiot de Sahns, additional music by Cam- 
bini), Paris, Th. Beaujolais 1 March 1788; Ver- 
sailles 15 August 1788; Liege 16 December 1789. 

In German (as Der Geizige oder Die Liebe ist 
sinnreich) t Hanover 14 June 1790; Pyrmont 28 
June 1790. 

In Spanish (translated by L. F. Cornelia), 
Madrid 9 December 1796. 

linley: The Duenna; or, 
The Double Elopement* 

21 November. London, C.G. 
Text by R. B. Sheridan. Three acts. 

Music partly composed, partly compiled by 
Thomas Linley, father and son. 

One of the most successful English comic 
operas of the 18th century: "63 nights was the 
career of the Beggar's Opera; but the Duenna 
was acted no less than 75 times during the first 
season, the only intermissions being a few weeks 
at Christmas, and the Fridays on every week; 
the latter on account of Leoni, who, being a Jew, 
could not act on those nights" (G. Hogarth, 11, 
p.350). 

Given at York 9 April 1776; Birmingham 12 
August 1776; Dublin, Th. R., Crow St. 31 Jan- 



347 



348 



1775-7* 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1776 



uary 1777 (in a pirated version as The Governess) 
and New Th., Fishamble St. 21 February 1777 
(in the original form) ; Kingston, Jamaica, 27 No- 
vember 1779; New York 10 July 1786; Phila- 
delphia 3 July 1787; Baltimore 5 September 
1787; Charleston, S.C. 13 March 1795 (orches- 
trated by T. Bradford); etc. A parody by I. Pot- 
tingcr was published 1776. 

An Italian version of the libretto, La Gover- 
nante, by C. F. Badini, was composed by Bertoni 
and produced in London, Hm. 15 May 1779; 
according to the libretto some of the original 
songs were retained. 

A French translation (without the lyrics), by 
A. H. Lapierre de Chateauneuf, La Duegne et le 
Juif PortugaiSy was published in 1827. 

The Duenna was given at Calcutta 191 5 in 
Bengali, at Bombay 1925 in Marathi. 

Frequently revived on English stages; Norwich 
1922; Birmingham May 1923 (arranged by C. 
F. Smyly) and 26 December 1924; arranged by 
A. Reynolds: London, Lyric Th. (Hammer- 
smith) 23 October 1924 and again 22 April 193 1 
(ran for 141 nights). 

1776 

paisiello: Le due Contesse 

2 January. Rome, Valle 
Text by G. Petrosellini. Two parts. 

Successful in Italy. Milan, Sc. Spring 1782, etc. 

In Italian also produced at Vienna 17 Novem- 
ber 1776; Dresden and Graz 1777; London 4 
November 1777; St. Petersburg 1778; Paris, O. 
9 July 1778; Warsaw 1779; Prague 1783; Barce- 
lona 24 July 1783; Madrid 25 July 1788. 

In German (translated by C. J. Forg), Munich 
1 8 May 1779; Frankfort 15 May 1782; Cologne 
Autumn 1784; Hamburg 1785; Mannheim 29 
September 1785; Carlsruhe 20 October 1785; 
Budapest 2 February 1787, etc. 

In French (adapted by N. E. Framery), Ver- 
sailles and Strasbourg before 5 July 1781 (accord- 
ing to Framery 's letter to Paisiello as quoted by 
Schizzi); Amsterdam 15 November 1785 (lib- 
retto British Museum); Lidge 9 February 1787. 



In Russian, St. Petersburg 1782. 
In Polish, Wilna 17 February 18 10. 

anfossi: La vera Costanza 

2 January. Rome, T. delle Dame 
Text by F. Puttini. Three acts. 

Repeated at Rome in the same year at T. 
Pallacorda; Bologna Autumn 1776; Turin 1776; 
Florence Carnival 1777; Milan Autumn 1777, 
etc. 

Given at Venice 20 November 1776 as La 
Pescatricefedele; at Florence, T. Cocomero Spring 

1777 and Milan Autumn 1777 as // Principe di 
Lago Nero. 

In Italian also, Vienna 12 January 1777; Trieste 
25 January 1777; Dresden February 1777; Lon- 
don 20 January 1778; Copenhagen 31 January 

1778 (Danish translation in the libretto by R. 
Soelberg); St. Petersburg 25 November 1778; 
Brunswick February 1783; Prague 1785. 

uttini: Aline Drotning uti Golconda 

11 January. Stockholm 
Text: a Swedish translation, by C. B. Zibet, of 
Sedaine's French libretto (see 1766). Three acts. 
Uttini's last opera. Revived at Stockholm 30 
November 1778 and 14 May 1781. 

fridzeri: Les Souliers mors-dores 
ou La Cordonniere Allemande 

11 January. Paris, C.I. 
Text by A. de Ferricres. Two acts. 

The most popular of Fridzeri's comic operas. 

In French also, Brussels 4 September 1776; 
Cassel 9january 1784; Baltimore 30 March 1796; 
Philadelphia 24 December 1796. Revived Nantes 
14 August 1806. 

In Polish (translated by A. Michniewski), 
Warsaw July 1776; Cracow 17 December 1789. 

In Russian, Moscow 22 January 1779. 

In Dutch (translated by P. F. Lijnslager), Am- 
sterdam 1779. 

In German (translated by J. Andre), Munich 
13 April 1779; Bonn 9 February 1783; for a 
German opera on the same subject, see 1779. 



349 



350 



1776 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1776 



In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 8 February 1785 (as pasticcio). 

A Danish adaptation, Silkeskoertc, by T. 
Thaarup, music by Schall, was produced at 
Copenhagen on 28 March 1794. 

j. Schuster: La Didone abbandonata 

[i2january], Naples, S.C. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Sarro, see 
1724). Three acts. 

The best of Schuster's Italian serious operas. 

Revived in 1779 at Venice and Naples (see M. 
Kelly's Reminiscences, t, p.72). 

As to the date of the first performance, no 
season is indicated by Florimo, Croce, or by 
Englandcr in his study on Schuster. The score at 
the Naples Conscrvatorio has the handwritten 
note "li 12 del 1776." 

bertoni: Orfeo, edEuridice 

January. Venice, S. Ben. 
Calzabigi's text (first set to music by Gluck, see 
1762). One act. 

First produced on the same bill with another 
1 -act opera by Bertoni, Aristo c Temira\ repeated 
Padua 2 May 1776 in concert form; Venice, S. 
Ben, 3 June 1776 and revived Venice, F. 13 May 

1795. 

In Italian also, London 31 May 1780 (for one 
night only, "in the manner of an oratorio"); 
Casscl 1781; Hanover 1783; Berlin 31 January 
1788 (enlarged to 3 acts; additional music by 
Reichardt; Gluck's Orfeo was not given at Berlin 
before 1808); Esztcrhaza 1788. 

Bcrtoni's setting (considered now as a rather 
clumsy imitation of Gluck) was published in full 
score in 1776. The interesting preface has been 
reprinted several times (e.g. in the Pellctan edi- 
tion of Gluck's Orfeo, 1898). 

g. bend a: Walder* 

23 February. Gotha 
Text by F. W. Gottcr (from Marmontel's 5i7- 
vaitt, see 1770; Ein landliches Schauspiel mil Ge- 
sang). One act. 



Dresden July 1776; Frankfort 29 May 1777; 
Hamburg 19 December 1777; Berlin 4 March 
1780, etc. 

In German also, Pressburg August 1792. 

baumgarten: Zemire und Azov 

18 May. Brcslau 
Text: a German version, by K. E. Schubert and 
the composer, of Marmontel's French libretto 
(see 1771). Romantisch-komische Oper. Four acts. 
Given by the Brcslau company also at Vienna, 
Ka.June 1776; Maycncc 1776. 

gretry: Les Manages Samnitcs 

12 June. Paris, C.I. 
Text by B. F. de Rozoy (founded on a talc by 
Marmontel). Three acts. 

A new version of the first opera Gretry had 
written for Paris (1768, performed privately at* 
the Prince de Conti's). 

Revived with alterations (the dialogue in verse 
instead of prose), Paris, C.I. 22 May 1782. In 
French also, Brussels 4 November 1776; Cassel 
19 June 1779; Geneva 6 March 1784. 

In German (translated by J. Andre and F. L. 
W. Meyer), Frankfort 1776 or 1777; Schwcdt 
1780; Mannheim 17 February 1782; Berlin ijunc 
1782; Munstcr 27 July 1782; Bonn 10 Novem- 
ber 1782; Vienna, W. March 1806 (re-orches- 
trated by Sey fried). 

In Danish (translated by A. G. Thoroup), 
Copenhagen 30 January 1784. 

In Russian, Kouskovo 11 July 1787. 

The march from this opera is the theme of 
Mozart's piano variations K. 352 (1781). 

A parody Cephaltde, ou Les autres Manages 
samnitcs, text by Prince Charles Joseph de Ligne, 
music by Vitzthumb and Cifolclli, was given at 
Brussels on 30 January 1777. 

G. bend a: Romeo und Julie 

25 September. Gotha 
Text by F. W. Gotter (after Shakespeare). Three 
acts. 



351 



352 



1776 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1776-77 



This was the first Romeo and Juliet opera of a 
long series to follow 1 and the only German one. 
Very successful on German stages : Dresden • 
February 1777; Frankfort 3 June 1777; Hamburg 
10 May 1778; Berlin 8 February 1779; Regens- 
burg February 1779 (orchestrated by T. von 
Schacht); Mannheim 11 March 1779; Stuttgart 
1780; Breslau 1 December 1780; Bonn 8 May 
1782; Prague Summer 1783; Vienna, Ka. 27 
August 1783; Bremen 13 October 1783; Riga 
20 July 1784; Munich 12 November 1784; Cassei 
28 February 1787; Pyrmont 3 July 1787; Hano- 
ver 23 November 1787; Cologne 1787-88; Dres- 
den 26 June 1788; Celle 18 September 1789; 
Bremen 11 December 1793; Graz 26 September 

1794. 

In German also, Prcssburg 1787; Temesvar 8 
December 1801 ; St. Petersburg 18 10, and accord- 
ing to R. Schlosser, at Amsterdam, Solothurn, 
and Odense. 

The opera was revived at the State Conserva- 
toire, Prague in Summer 193 1. 

dibdin: The Seraglio 
14 November. London, C.G. 
Text by the composer. Two acts. 

Successful in London; also given at Philadel- 
phia 19 May 1794 and New York 21 September 
1797. Some airs were contributed by S. Arnold 
and by J. A. Fisher. 

sarti: he Gelosie villane 

November. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by T. Grandi (founded on Goldoni's 
comedy, II Feudatario). Three acts. 

Sard's first great success as a composer of 
comic opera. Given at Pistoia 3 January 1779 
and on other Italian stages as // Feudatario. Milan, 
Sc. Spring 1779 (first comic opera there). Re- 
vived Venice, S. Angelo 23 August 1798 as II 
Feudatario and Turin, Carignano 1799 as II Feu- 
datario burlato. 

1 See Steibelt 1793; Zingarelli 1796; Vaccai 1825; 
Bellini 1830; Marchetti 1865; Gounod 1867; d'lvry 
1878; Bark worth 1916; Zandonai 1922. 

353 



In Italian also given at Vienna 8 October 1777 
(revived 21 April 1793, perhaps with Mozart's 
final chorus K. 615, composed in 1791). 

Dresden 14 January 1778; Eszterhaza 1779; 
Trieste 5 October 1779; St. Petersburg 6 October 
1779 (revived 1 December 1798); Graz Winter 
1780; Brunswick c. Summer 1782; Frankfort 
February 1783 ; Potsdam 29 March 1783 and Ber- 
lin 18 January 1784; Barcelona 26 January 1784 
(revived 16 July 1807); London 15 April 1784 
(revived 1 February 1794 as / Contadini bizzarri; 
8 June 1797; and 10 January 1801); Warsaw 24 
February 1785; Versailles September 1787 and 
Paris, Th. d. M. 14 April 1790 (revived 14 March 
1805); Madrid 19 January 1788; Lisbon Summer 
1793; Lugano 1807. 

In German (translated by H. C. Pleissner), 
Bonn 13 July 1783; Frankfort 8 August 1783; 
Linz 5 August 1786; Budapest 23 April 1790; 
Berlin 5 October 1791, etc. 

In Polish (translated by L. Pierozyriski), 
Warsaw 27 May 1786 (revived 1810) and Wilna 
14 February 1799. 

bortnyansky: Creonte 

26 November. Venice, S. Ben. 
Librettist unknown. Two acts. 

One of the earliest examples of an opera 
written for the Italian stage by a Russian com- 
poser (the only forerunner, it seems, being 
Demofoonte, performed at Leghorn Carnival 
1773, composed by M. S. Berezovsky). 

1777 

holzbauer: Gunther von 
Schwarzburg 

5 January. Mannheim 
Text by A. Klein. Three acts. 

Holzbauer's only German opera. Modestly 
called "Singspiel", but it was a new attempt to 
create a German grand national opera (with 
recitatives). 

Given at Mannheim until 1785; also Mayence 
1778; Miinster 17 August 1782; Frankfort 14 

354 



1777 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1777 



September 1782; Bonn 17 November 1782; 
Briinn 11 January 1783; Breslau 1783; Cologne 
Autumn 1784; Cassel August 1785; Pressburg 
1788; Hanover4june 1789 (celebrating the birth- 
day of King George m) ; Budapest 3 September 
1792. 

The score was printed in 1776 and reprinted 
in 1902 (Vol. vm-ix of Denkmaler Deutscher Ton- 
kunsty edited by H. Kretzschmar). It was the first 
German opera ever published in full score. 



In Danish (translated by J. H. Wessel), Copen- 
hagen 4 September 1780 at Fredensborg Palace 
and 30 October 1780 at the Royal Theatre. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), Stock- 
holm 2 January 1794; Gothenburg 24 May 1796; 
another version, by C. J. Lindegren, was pro- 
duced at Stockholm 10 February 1797 (with 
additional music by Dupuy). 

Dutch translation by H. J. Roullaud published 
1787. 



anfossi: II Curioso indiscrete) 

February. Rome, T. delle Dame 
Librettist unknown. Three acts. 

In Italian also given at Dresden 4 April 1778; 
Paris, O. 13 August 1778; Barcelona 26 April 
1780; Trieste 3 October 1780; Prague Spring 
1782; Vienna 30 June 1783; London 18 December 
1784; Madrid 1 October 1791; Warsaw 30 Oc- 
tober 1792 (as 1/ Curioso burlato). 

In French (translated by P. U. Dubuisson), 
Paris, Th. Montansier 23 September 1790. 

For the Vienna performance of Anfossi's opera, 
Mozart wrote the two soprano airs Vorrei spie- 
garvi, oh dio (K. 418) and No, no che non sei capace 
(K.419). 

dezede: Les trois Fermiers 

24 May. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. M. Boutet de Monvel. Two acts. 

In French also given at Cassel 1778; Lidge 24 
June 1779; Vienna 1780; Smolna November 
1780; Stockholm 28 May 1783; St. Petersburg 
13 September 1798. 

In German (translated by W. G. Becker and 
C. G. Neefe): Frankfort 21 April 1779; Mann- 
heim 2 May 1779; Berlin 24 April 1780; Bonn 
21 May 1780; Cologne 6 June 1780; Hamburg 

25 September 1780; Munich 28 November 1780; 
Minister 18 July 1782; Riga 13 February 1783; 
Bremen 9 December 1784; Schwedt 30 Decem- 
ber 1784; Vienna, Ka. 28 October 1785; Mainz 

26 November 1785, etc. ; revived Berlin 10 March 
1809. 



schmittbauer: Lindor und Ismene 

4 June. Liineburg 
Text by J. von Soden. One act. 

Libretto first published in 1771; a second edi- 
tion, with alterations and under the title Bin Grab 
in Arkadien! followed in 1779, a third edition, 
called Arkadien, 1788, in Vol. 1 of Soden's col- 
lected plays. (All three editions in the Library of 
Congress, Washington; see Sonneck's Catalogue, 
pp.686-87.) The ms score of the opera has been 
preserved (at Darmstadt); for a detailed account 
of it see L. Schiedermair, in Sammelbande of the 
I.M.S., Vol. xiv (191 3), pp.542-50. 

Place and date of first performance according 
to G. Fischer, Musik in Hannover (1903), p.39. 
Produced by J. F. Stoffler's company under the 
direction of Franz Anton von Weber, the father 
of Carl Maria von Weber. An earlier production 
at Hanover in 1771 (by Seyler's troupe?), as main- 
tained by Schatz, I could not verify. Fischer's 
date is supported by the facts that Schmittbauer 
is not mentioned as the composer of Lindor und 
Ismene in the Gotha Theaterkalender before 1777, 
and that the Darmstadt score has the date of 1778. 

Soden's remark in the 1779 preface "auf der 
hannoverischen Biihne" might be regarded as 
fitting for Liineburg as well; for Liineburg be- 
longed to (the electorate of) Hanover. In the 1788 
edition this prefatory note was extended to "auf 
der hannoverischen Biihne und anderen . . ." 
which would cover productions at Cologne 6 
July 1779; Rostock 17 May 1780; Nuremberg 
7 November 1782; Bozen 15 March 1784; Carls- 
ruhe 25 April 1785. An opera Lindor und Ismene 



355 



356 



1777 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1777 



was also performed by a German troupe at St. Pe- 
tersburg on 15 November 1778 (sec Findeizen, 11, 
p. 1 15, who mentions as the composer Schweitzer 
widi a question-mark). It was, however, probably 
not Schmittbauer's opera, but a setting of the 
same text by Nikolaus Miihle which was pro- 
duced there (sec Gothacr Theatcrkaleuder, 1780, 
p.258) as well as at Danzig 21 September 1781 
(see L. Gompcrz, Kritische Bemerhungen iiher das 
Theater, p. 105). 

(pepusch and) Arnold: Polly 

lgjune. London, Little Hm. 
Text by J. Gay (An Opera, being the second part of 
the Beggar's Opera). Three acts. 

The preface to the libretto is dated 15 March 
1729; text and songs were published in that year, 
but the opera was not allowed to be acted until 
48 years later (with alterations in the original 
text by G. Colman the Elder and 6 new airs by 
Arnold). 

Revived : 

LONDON, LITTLE HM. II June 1 782. 

London, d.l. 16 June 1813 (for this unsuccessful 

revival M. Kelly wrote some new airs). 
London, kingsway 30 December 1922 (text re- 
written by C. Bax, music arranged by F. 
Austin. This revival had a run of 324 nights). 
London, chelsea palace 3 1 March 1923 (text 
adapted by W. E. B. Henderson and R. B. Sal- 
isbury, lyrics by N. Slee, music arranged by 
H. Bath). 

Also revived New York, Cherry Lane Play- 
house 10 October 1925. 

stenborg: Konung Gustaf 
Adolphs Jagt 

25 June. Stockholm 
Text by A. F. Ristell (founded on C. Colle's 
comedy La Partie de Chasse de Henri iv). Three 
acts. 

The earliest attempt at Swedish historical opera 
(comedie . . . hlandad med sang). First given at 
Gothenburg 6 December 1779. 



haydn:// Mondo della Lima* 

3 August. Eszterhaza 
Goldoni's text (first set to music by Galuppi, see 
1750). Three acts. 

Revived Schwcrin 20 March 1932 (in German, 
translated by W. M. Treichlingcr, music arranged 
by M. Lothar); this version was also given at 
Berlin, Hochschulc fiir Musik 1 July 1932; Basle 
6 January 1933. 

righini: II Convitato di Pietra 
o sia II Dissoluto 

21 August. Vienna, Ka. 
Librettist unknown to Sonneck; the text is (on 
what authority?) attributed to A. de* Filistri da 
Caramondani in C. SchmidFs Dizionario; both 
the Vienna and Prague libretti are anonymous. 
Three acts. 

One of the earliest Italian Don Giovanni operas, 
ten years before Mozart. Also produced at Prague 
1777; Eszterhaza Summer 1781 (probably Ri- 
ghini's opera); Brunswick 1782; Hanover 1783 
or 1784. 

Further Don Giovanni operas of this period are: 

77 Convitato di Pietra, anonymous text (2 acts), 
music by G. Callegari; Venice, S. Cass. Carnival 
1777. 

Il Convitato di Pietra, text by G. B. Lorenzi 
(1 act), music by Tritto; Naples, Fior. Carnival 

1783. 

Albertini's opera, see 1783; Gazzaniga's and 
Mozart's operas, see 1787. 

// nuovo Convitato di Pietra, text by G. M. Foppa 
(2 acts), music by F. Gardi; Venice, S. Sam. 5 Feb- 
ruary 1787; also Bologna 1791; Milan, Teatro 
privato de* due Muri Summer 1791 (performed 
by amateurs); Corfu Carnival 1795; Milan, Can. 
Summer 1796. 

Il Convitato di Pietra, Lorenzi's text, music by 
V. Fabrizi; Fano 1788; Leghorn 1789; Barcelona 
8 July 1790; Bologna Carnival 1791; Lucca 
Autumn 1792; Lisbon 1796; Madrid 12 Novem- 
ber 1796, etc. 

Additional pasticci with similar titles were 
produced at Rome, Valle Autumn 1789; Venice, 



357 



358 



1777 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1777 



S. Cass. Carnival 1792 (1 act; text different from 
all others); Bastia, Corsica Spring 1797. 

sarti: Medonte, Re diEpiro 

8 September. Florence, P. 
Text by G. de Gamerra. Three acts. 

Apart from Giulio Sahino (sec 1781) Sard's most 
important serious opera. Given all over Italy 
(until the end of the century) and (in Italian) also 
at London 14 November 1782 (revived 8 De- 
cember 1798); Trieste 26 March 1786 (revived 
12 November 1796); Madrid 27 January 1787; 
Vienna 9 February 1794. 

. gluck: Armide* 

23 September. Paris, O. 
Quinault's text (first set to music by Lully, see 
1686). Five acts. 

At the Paris Opera given until 1837 and revived 
there 12 April 1905 (392 performances up to 
191 3). Given at Versailles 14 June 1784. 

Parodies: VOpira de Province, by P. A. A. de 
Piis, P.Y. Barre\ J.P.D. Despres and L.P.P. 
Resnier, Paris, CI. 17 December 1777 (revived 
18 October 1780); Madame Terrible, by P. L. Mo- 
line, Meaux 6 September 1778. Early productions 
after Paris: 
Copenhagen I May 1779 (in concert form; parts 

only). 
hanover 18 January 1782 (in Italian). 
cassel 4 April 1783 (in French). 
Stockholm 24 January 1787 (in Swedish, trans- 
lated by A. F. Ristell, with a prologue by G. J. 

Vogler, text by C. G. af Leopold, and with 

ballet music by J. M. Kraus). 
Berlin 20 May 1805 (in German, translated by 

J. von Voss; given there until 1889). 
Vienna, w. 9 January 1808 and Ka. 3 April 1808 

(in German). 
Brussels 23 December 1823 (in French); revived 

7 November 1905. 

Some revivals : 
Dresden 5 March 1843 (Wagner conducting). 
carlsruhe May 1853 (in German, recitatives by 

Jos. Strauss, translation revised by E. Devrient). 



Prague 11 April 1866 (in Czech, translated by J. 
Bohm) and 9 March 1898 (in German). 

basle 3 December 1880 (for the first time in 
Switzerland?). 

naples, s.c. 11 March 1890 (for the first time in 
Italy, translated by A. Zanardini). 

wiesbaden 1 5 May 1902 (in German, revised by 
G. von Hiilsen and J. Schlar). 

beziers 28 August 1904 (open-air performance). 

lyons 12 November 1904 (in French). 

London, c.G. 6 July 1906 (in French; for the first 
time in England, apart from a concert selection 
given at a Norwich Festival on 18 September 
i860); revived C.G. i May 1928 (in Ger- 
man). 

new york 14 November 1910 (in French). 

milan, sc. 17 December 191 1 (new Italian trans- 
lation by A. Lega). 

falmouth 24 November 1936 (for first time iii 
English, translated by M. and E. Radford); 
also Glasgow 14 April 1939. 

Florence 14 May 1941 (in German). 

m o n s i g n y : Felix, ou UEnfant trouve 

10 November. Fontainebleau 
Text by J. M. Sedaine. Three acts. 

Monsigny's last opera; like Rossini, Monsigny 
lived on for more than 39 years without writing 
another work for the stage. 

Paris, C.I. 24 November 1777; given at the 
O.C. until 1825. Revived at the Opera Populaire 
22 December 1847 (re-scored by Adam). 

In French also, Liege 12 November 1782; Cas- 
sel 16 June 1784; Amsterdam and Hague 1784; 
Cologne -1796-97; Berne 1 January 1807; Mos- 
cow 4 June 1810. 

In German (translated by J. Andre), Mann- 
heim 6 April 1783; Berlin 5 January 1784 (re- 
vived 2 November 1801, with additions by B. A. 
Weber); Vienna, Ka. 16 October 1785; Riga 14 
May 1790. 

There are printed Dutch versions, anonymous 
1784, and by P. Pijpers, 1790. A Danish version 
by R. Frankenau was published in 1808. 



359 



360 



1778 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1778 



1778 

G. bend A: Der Holzhauer oder 
Die drei Wiinsche 

2 January, Gotha 

Text: a German version, by F. W. Gotter, of 
Guichard's and Castet's he Bucheron (see 1763). 
One act. 

In German also, Hamburg 4 May 1778, etc.; 
Bonn 13 December 1780; Berlin 20 April 1781; 
Munich September 1782; Riga 8 July 1785. 

An opera of this title was given at Moscow on 
15 July 1787 (in Russian) ; as no composer is men- 
tioned, it may have been Philidor's original. 

bertoni: Quinto Fabio 

January. Milan, T. Interinale 

Text: an altered version of Zeno's Lucio Papirio 
Dittatore, 1719. Three acts. 

Given on many Italian stages; Padua 12 June 
1778; Venice, S. Ben. 25 November 1784; Rome, 
Arg. 7 January 1786, etc. ; also London 22 January 
1780 and 7 March 1782; Trieste 22 February 
1785. 

naumann: Arnphion 

26 January. Stockholm 

Text by G. G. Adlerbeth (from a French libretto 
by A. L. Thomas). Prologue and 1 act. 

Naumann's first Swedish opera; a German 
vocal score in 3 acts was published in 1784; in 
German (translated by J. L. Neumann), produced 
at Schwedt 22 August 1785. A number of private 
and concert performances in Germany between 
1785 and 1798 are recorded in Englander's bio- 
graphy of Naumann; the opera was last given in 
concert form at Leipzig 12 March 1 8 12. 

Parts of the music of Arnphion were used in the 
English pantomime, The Picture of Paris (text by 
R. Merry and C. Bonnor), produced London, 
C.G. 20 December 1790 (the rest of the score by 
W. Shield). 



piccinni: Roland 



2j January. Paris, O. 
Quinault's text (first set to music by Lully, see 
1685), altered and reduced to three acts by J. F. 
Marmontel. 

Piccinni's first French opera; in Paris given 
until 1793. 

In French also, Copenhagen 1 May 1779 (in 
concert form, parts only); Cassel 178 1 and 1 June 
1784; Lille 5 September 1781 ; Liege 4 June 1782. 

In Swedish (translated by A. F. Ristell, music 
adapted by L. S. Lalin), Stockholm 22 July 178 1 
at Drottningholm Palace and 10 December 178 1 
publicly. 

A German translation, by J. D. von Apell, was 
published at Gottingen in 1802. 

Parodies: La Rage d 'Amour ; by L. F. A. Dor- 
vigny, Paris, CI. 19 March 1778; Romans, by 
J. E. Despreaux, Marly 30 May 1778; Donner- 
pamp (Swedish), by C. I. Hallman, music by C. 
Stenborg and J. D. Zander, Stockholm 26 Jan- 
uary 1783 and Gothenburg 17 December 1784. 

j. e. h art m an n : Baldets Dod 

7 February. Copenhagen 
Text by J. Evald (Heroisk Syngespil). Three acts. 

Given at Copenhagen until 1832. 

German versions by F. MCinter and by C. H. 
Reichel, published 1780 and 1782 respectively. 
Produced in German, Regensburg 27 July 1788 
(by Schikaneder's troupe, in the open air!). 
English version by G. Borrow published 1889. 
There occur in Balders Dod, a hundred years 
before Wagner, ensembles of the Valkyries. 

umlauff: Die Bergknappen 

1 7 February, Vienna, B. 
Text by P. Weidmann. One act. 

Opening opera of the newly-founded German 
Nationalsingspiel at the Burgtheater. There had 
been a private performance for the Emperor 
Joseph n on 16 January. Also given at Hamburg 
1780; Regensburg 1781; Mannheim 4 July 1784; 
Riga Autumn 1785; Prague 1791. 



361 



362 



1778 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1778 



An anonymous Polish translation was pub- 
lished at Warsaw in 1779. 

The score of Die Bergknappen was published in 
191 1 (in the D.T.O. series, edited by R. Haas). 
For a contemporary account of the first season of 
the Nationalsingspiel, sccj. H. F. Miiller, Ahschicd 
von der . . . Schaubuhne (1802), p. 253. 

j. Schuster: Der Alchymist 

March. Dresden 
Text by A. G. Mcissncr (also set by Andre, 
Berlin 1 1 April 1 778 and revived there 5 Novem- 
ber 1787). One act. 

Schuster's most successful work: Hamburg 27 
January 1779; Mannheim 23 March 1779; Vienna, 
Jos. 20 April 1779 (Andre or Schuster?) and Ka. 
17 April 1786 (Schuster); Riga 19 November 
1782, etc. 

Revived at Dresden 14 October 1796; 16 March 
1798; and May 1933 (revised by R. Engliindcr). 

j. c. bach: La Clemenza di Scipione* 

4 April. London, Hm. 
Librettist unknown. Three acts. 

According to the review in the Public Advertiser, 
"The Poetry is said to be the Production of a 
Foreign Minister residing at our Court; a Person 
of Taste and Learning who softens the Cares of 
Ncgociation, by sacrificing in secret to the 
Muses". 

Bach's last Italian opera. Revived London 28 
March 1805 (Elizabeth Billington's benefit). 

(First production 1778, not 1775, as wrongly 
stated by Pohl, Schwarz, and others.) 

traetta: II Cavaliere errante* 

Spring. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by G. Bcrtati [Dramma eroicomico). Two acts. 

Traetta's last preserved opera. Successful in 
Italy: Florence, P. 20 April 1778; Parma 26 De- 
cember 1779; Turin, T. Carignano 1785 (asStordi- 
lano, Principe di Granata) ; Padua, 22 July 1 786, etc. 

In Italian also, Vienna 1779; Paris, O. 5 August 
1779; Dresden 1780; Eszterhaza Summer 1782 
(as II Cavaliere errante nelF Isola incantata). Ac- 
cording to A. Schatz (Vkrteljahrsschriftfiir Musik- 



wissenschaft, v, p. 251) revived at Dresden as late 
as 16 May 1804 (in German, as Amanda, die niach- 
tigc Fee, oder: Zauberey iiber Zauberey). 

s A c c h I n i : L'Amore Soldato 

$ May. London, Hm. 
Text by A. Andrei (altered from an earlier lib- 
retto by N. Tassi, originally called VAmor tra 
I'Armi and first set by G. M. Rutini in 1768). 
Three acts. 

In Italian also, Paris, O. 8 July 1779; Eszterhaza 
1779; Florence May 1 78 1. 

GAzzANiGA:Lrt Vendemmia 

15 May. Florence, P. 
Text by G. Bcrtati (partly founded on an earlier 
libretto of the same title by Goldoni). Two acts. 

Originally given earlier in the same year, Jan- 
uary 1778, as an intermezzo, 7/ Marchese di Verde 
Antico, at the T. Capr., Rome, with music by 
Gazzaniga and Piticchio. 

One of Gazzaniga's most successful works; in 
Italy given until 1804. 

In Italian also, Trieste 26 December 1778; 
Eszterhaza Spring 1780; Prague 1780; Bruns- 
wick 1782; Dresden 1783; Warsaw 7 September 
1785; London 9 May 1789 1 ; Paris, Th. Fcydcau 
1 June 1 79 1 (with additional music by Chcrubini 
and Mcngozzi); Madrid 1792; Barcelona 13 Sep- 
tember 1792; Lisbon 24 June 1794. Revived 
Milan, Sc. 4 November 1796 and Autumn 1804. 

In German, Casscl 23 October 1790; Hanover 
4 February 1791 and perhaps Prague 1791 (anon- 
ymous opera, Die Weinkse performed in that 
year). 

G R E t r y : Lejugement de Midas 

27 June. Paris, C.I. 
Text by T. d'Hele. Three acts. 

In French also, Liege 28 May 1779; Hague 
1779; Cassel 1779; Vienna 1780; Parma, atComte 

1 At the London production of La Vendemmia, the 
duet (Count-Susanna) Crudel perchefinora from Mozart's 
Le Nozze di Figaro was sung by Benucci and Anna 
Storacc; probably the first piece of any Mozart opera 
which was heard on the London stage. 



363 



364 



1778 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1778 



de Flavigny's Carnival 1784; Hamburg 1795; 
New Orleans 11 June 1808. 

In German (translated by C. G. Ncefe), Bonn 
21 February 1781 ; Riga 19 May 1783 ; (translated 
by C. F. von Bonin and J. Andre), Berlin 9 July 
1 78 1. There are two more German versions, by 
J. N. Rothmann (published 1781) and by B. C. 
d'Arien. 

The opera was revived at Paris, Petite Scene 
18 May 1924; Amsterdam Conservatoire Jan- 
uary 1938. 

K A M i E N s K I : Nedza Uszczesliwiona 

(Misery Made Happy) 

1 1 July. Warsaw 

Text by W. Boguslawski (from a "cantata" by 

F. Bohomolec). Two acts. 

The first Polish opera. Music (consisting of 11 
airs and 2 duets) extant. Date (differently given 
in most books) according to L. Bernacki. 

aspelmayr: Die Kinder der Natur 

15 July. Vienna, B. 
Text (according to Goedeke, v, p.323) by L. A. 
Hoffmann (founded on C. C. de Marivaux's 
comedy, La Dispute, 1747). Two acts. 

Aspelmayr was the second German composer 
represented in the repertory of the Vienna Natio- 
nalsingspiel (after Umlauff, see above). 

s A L I e r i : Europa riconosciuta 

3 August. Milan, Sc. 
Text by M. Verazi. Two acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the new 
"Teatro alia Scala" (its predecessor, the Teatro 
Regio-Ducal, inaugurated 26 December 1717 
with Gasparini's Costantino, having burnt down 
on 25 February 1776). Gluck had been invited to 
write the opening opera, but had refused. 

mysliveczek: Olimpiade 

4 November. Naples, S.C. 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733)- Three acts. 

Regarded as the chief work of the Czech com- 



poser. This was the first opera Michael Kelly 
heard at Naples; see his Reminiscences , I, p.44, 
where he spells the name of the "German" com- 
poser "Metzlevisic". 

sarti: I Contrattempi 

November. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by N. Porta. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy; Florence Spring 1781; 
Monza Autumn 1781; Turin, T. Carignano 
Autumn 1781; given at Novara Carnival 1782, 
Padua Autumn 1786 and Vicenza 26 December 
1786 as Gli Equxvoci svelati. 

In Italian, also, Dresden 10 January 1782; 
Vienna 26 April 1784. 

In German, Pressburg 1788; Budapest 9 June 
1789- 

gretry: Lesfausses Apparences ou 
U Amant jaloux* 

20 November. Versailles 
Text by T. d'Hele, versification by F. Levasseur. 
Three acts. 

Paris, C.I. 23 December 1778. 

In French also, Hague 1779; Liege 27 Novem- 
ber 1779; Vienna Summer 1 780; Cassel 1780; 
Parma Carnival 1781 ; Smolna 5 July 1781 ; Brus- 
sels 18 May 1795; Hamburg 1795; St. Petersburg 
28 September 1795. 

In German: Vienna B. 12 October 1780 (trans- 
lated by G. Stephanie); Berlin 17 December 1781 
(translated by J. Andre and C. F. von Bonin) ; 
Bonn 10 February 1782; Miinstcr 10 August 
1782; Mannheim 8 September 1782 (translated 
by F. W. Gotter, music adapted by C. G. Neefe) ; 
Hamburg 6 February 1783 (translated by B. C. 
d'Arien); Carlsruhe 28 December 1785. 

In Polish (translated by L.Pierozyiiski), Warsaw 
7 Scptembre 1787. 

In Danish (translated by J. H. Wessel), Co- 
penhagen 23 November 1787. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 26 March 1790. 

Dutch version by A. K. published 1797. 



365 



366 



1778 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1778 



Gretry's opera was revived at Paris, O.C. 18 
September 1850; and, lately, at Liege 16 May 
1930 and at the Conservatoire, Geneva 16 April 
1931. 

bortnyansky: Quinto Fabio 

26 December. Modena, T. di Corte 
Text: the same version of Zeno's Lucio Papirio, 
which Bertoni had set to music earlier in 1778 
(see above). Three acts. 

Bortnyansky 's second and last Italian opera. 
He afterwards wrote two French operas-comiques 
(librettos by De La Fermiere) for the Russian 
court, viz. he Faucon (Gachina 22 October 1786) 
and he Fils rival on La moderne Stratonke (Pavlovsk 
22 October 1787), the scores of which are extant. 

salieri: La Scola de'Gelosi 
27 December. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by C. Mazzola. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy; Bologna November 1779 
and Autumn 1780 (as VAniore in contrasto); Flo- 
rence April 1780 and January 1787; Turin, T. 
Carignano Autumn 1780; Macerata Carnival 
1 781; Modena, T. di Cortc 13 June 1781 ; Venice, 
S. Sam. Carnival 1783, etc.; given at Naples, 
T.N. Carnival 1785 in a new version (text altered 
by G. Bonito, additional music by F. Cipolla). 

Revived Milan, Sc. 15 November 1798. 

In Italian also, given at: Trieste 26 December 
1779; Eszterhaza Summer 1780 (with one addi- 
tional air by Haydn); Warsaw 20 January 178 1; 
Dresden 17 February 178 1 ; Brunswick c.Summer 
1782; Frankfort February 1783; Vienna 22 April 
1783; Prague T783; London 11 March 1786; 
Cracow 16 April 1789; Madrid 1 March 1791; 
Paris 20 May 1791 ; Lisbon Spring 1795. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 28 January 1783; Cracow 27 June 1790; 
Wilna 2 December 1798. 

In German (translated by L. Zchnmark), Riga 
19 September 1783; Vienna, Ncustift Th. 4 De- 
cember 1783 and Ka. 19 November 1784; Buda- 
pest Summer 1784 (first opera ever given there); 
Hamburg 23 November 1785 (translated by C. F. 



Bretzner) and 9january 1787 (in a new translation 
as Das Narrenhaus); Schleswig 1786; Pressburg 
January 1787; Berlin 13 February 1787, etc. 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 26 June 1789; 
Moscow 5 September 1797 (revived 2 February 
1809). 

In Spanish (translated by L. F. Cornelia), 
Madrid 12 November 1797. 

cimarosa: Ultaliana inLondra* 

28 December. Rome, Valle 
Text (according to Gazzetta Toscana, 1 January 
1780) by G. Petrosellini. Two acts. 

Cimarosa's twelfth opera and his first great 
success. Turin, T. Carignano Autumn 1779; Flo- 
rence Carnival 1780; Novara Carnival 1780; 
Parma Summer 1780; Milan, Sc. 10 July 1780 
and all over Italy. 

In Italian also produced at: Pillnitz 20 Septem- 
ber 1780 and Dresden 4 October 1780; Gorizia 
i78i;Graz Carnival 1781; Prague 178 1; Warsaw 
14 May 1781 and Cracow 7 February 1788; 
Trieste 27 September 1781; Ghent September 
1782; Lugano 28 September 1782 (first opera 
ever given there, announced as by Paisiello); 
Aachen 7 November 1782; Barcelona 8 May 
1783; Madrid 19 January 1785; Lisbon Carnival 
1788; Cadiz 1792; Vienna 5 May 1783 ; Versailles 
July 1787; Paris, Th. de M. 9 September 1790 
(with additions by Cherubim and Mingozzi; 
revived 17 October 1801). London 15 January 
1788 (as La Locandiera, the scene changed from 
London to Amsterdam); St. Petersburg 1797. 

In German (translated by C. F. Pleissner): 
Bonn 25 May 1783; Frankfort 13 September 
1783; Nuremberg 31 August 1784; Salzburg 19 
September 1784; Riga 18 May 1785 (as Nantchen 
oder Das dcutsche Madchen in London); etc. New 
German version by J. C. Bock: Pressburg 21 Au- 
gust 1786; Weimar 7 October 1786; Cologne 
5 November 1786; Hanover 7 May 1787; Ham- 
burg 3 July 1789, etc. Never given at Berlin. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 16 January 1783 ; Wilna 3 January 1799. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Co- 
penhagen 14 October 1786. 



367 



368 



1778-79 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1779 



In French (as Livia, ou Vltalienne h Londres, 
adapted by Pigeon de Saint-Pateme), Paris, Th. 
Montansier 13 April 1790; (translated by Neu- 
ville), Amsterdam December 1792. 

In Swedish {translated by C. Envallsson), Stock- 
holm 13 November 1795. 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 4 June 1810. 

The opera was revived at Geneva (seventh 
Festival of the I.S.C.M.) 8 April 1929 (reduced 
1 -act version by A. Lualdi). 

1779 

Melnik, Koldun, Obmanshchik i Svat 
MejiBHHK, KojijjyH, 06MaHmHK h CBaT 

31 January. Moscow 
Text by A. O. Ablesimov. Three acts. 

(The title means Miller, Wizard, Deceiver, and 
Marriage-Broker.) 

Frequently misattributed to Fomin. Ablesimov 
indicated in the libretto various popular melodies 
to be used in the work and these were harmonised 
for the performance at Moscow by an otherwise 
unknown violinist named Sokolovsky. Additions 
were made from time to time and it is possible 
that Fomin was responsible for the overture and 
a few new numbers added at St. Petersburg. 

First given at St. Petersburg 14 February 1781. 
Very popular comic opera, frequently revived in 
Russia during the 19th century. Vocal score re- 
printed in 1894 (misattributed to Fomin). 

Revived in Paris, Petite Scene 14 June 1929 (in 
French, translated by O. Choumansky, G. Al- 
phaud, and X. de Courville, music revised by 
Cherepnin). 

paisiello: Gli Astrologi immaginari* 
14 February. St. Petersburg 
Text by G. Bertati (founded on Marmontel's tale 
he Connoisseur), originally in 3 acts and called 
I Visionari (first composed by Astaritta, Venice 
Autumn 1772; Dresden 3 September 1774; Lis- 
bon Carnival 1775). Two acts. 

Very successful all over Europe. Sometimes 
given under the original title, or as I Filosoji im- 



maginari. Not to be confounded with II Socrate 
immaginario (see 1775) which is a different work. 
Apart from II Barbiere di Siviglia (see 1782), the 
most important opera Paisiello wrote for the 
Russian Court. 

(The date of the first performance is given by 
the Empress Catherine n in a letter dated 5/16 
February 1779. Schatz-Sonneck and other sources 
give 18 February 1779.) 

In Italian also produced at Warsaw 30 April 
1781; Moscow 25 April 1782; Venice, S. Sam. 
Autumn 1782; Ghent May 1783; Vienna 8 Oc- 
tober 1783; Naples, Fior. 1784; Eszterhdza 1784; 
Salzburg 1785; Barcelona 16 June 1785; Paris, 
Th. de M. 24 March 1789; Lisbon 1790; Dresden 
December 1793 ; Trieste Spring 1796; Milan, Sc. 

5 November 1798. 

In German (translated by G. Stephanie), Vien- 
na, B. 22 May 1781 ; Frankfort 30 October 178 1 ; 
Hamburg 29 January 1782; Berlin 27 March 
1783; Munich 29 July 1783; Salzburg Autumn 
1783; Trieste July 1784 (first opera ever sung in 
German there); Cologne Autumn 1784; Carls- 
ruhe 5 October 1784; Riga 10 November 1784; 
Budapest 13 May 1786; Hanover 27 April 1787; 
Pforzheim 1 June 1787; Prague 1787; Pyrmont 
8 July 1790; Cassel 13 November 1790; Pressburg 
8 September 1792; Bremen 28 October 1792; 
Osnabriick 4 March 1793 ; Warsaw 17 September 
1793; Cracow September 1796 (as Der verjiingte 
Greis, according to Journal des Luxus und der Mo- 
den); Agram 22 January 1799; Berne Spring 
1804. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 21 December 1784. 

In French (translated by P. U. Dubuisson), 
Paris, Th. Beaujolais 15 January 1789. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 18 April 1790. 

In Hungarian (translated by A. Szerelemhegyi), 
Budapest 27 September 1793; Clausenburg 14 
September 1806. 

In Russian, Moscow 26 February 1794; St. Pe- 
tersburg 19 September 1796. 

The latest recorded productions were at Vienna 

6 April 1802; Berlin 12 December 1806; Milan 



369 



370 



1779 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1779 



Spring 1807; Parma Summer 1807; Padua Au- 
tumn 1808; Venice u June 1809; Stuttgart 21 
June 1809; Moscow 18 September 1819 (in Ger- 
man); Lucerne 1819 (in German, by students). 

seydelmann: Arsene 

3 March, Dresden 
Text by A. G. Meissner (translated from Favart's 
French libretto, see 1773). Four acts. 

The best work of the Saxon composer. Date 
of first performance according to Schatz; R. 
Cahn-Speyer gives Leipzig 15 April 1779 and 
Dresden 26 November 1781. Also given at Co- 
logne 1785-86. 

haydn:La vera Costanza* 
April Eszterhaza 
Puttini's text (first set to music by Anfossi, see 
1776). Three acts. 

Haydn's setting was originally written for the 
Vienna Hoftheater, but it was never produced 
there. It became fairly popular in a German ver- 
sion by F. X. Girzik: Der flattcrhafte Licbhabcr oder 
Der Sieg dcr Bestdndigkcit, given at Prcssburg 30 
January 1786; Budapest 7july 1789; Vienna, Th. 
a.d.Landstrassc 13 April 1790; Brunn 14 January 
1792. 

In a French version by P. U. Dubuisson, as 
Laurette, given at Paris, Th.d.M. 21 January 1791. 
Probably translated from this French version it 
was then performed as Laurcttc at Cologne in July 
1796 (in German). 

According to O. Chayanova (sec also Der Frei- 
muthige, 1, P.T99) an opera of this title (which may 
have been Haydn's) was performed in Russian at 
Moscow in 1802. 

gluck: Iphigenie en Tauride* 

18 May, Paris, O. 
Text by N. F. Guillard.,Four acts. 

Very successful in France; given at the Opera 
408 times until 1829; revived Th.L. 26 Novem- 
ber 1868; Ren. 7 December 1899; O.C. 18 June 
1900; 20 April 1914; and 18 April 1931. 

Parodies: (1) Les Reveries renouuelees des Grecs, 
by C. S. Favart and J. N. Guerin de Frcmicourt, 



music by F.J. Prot, Paris, C.L 26 June 1779; also 
Cassel 1782; Toulouse 1784; Liege 7 January 
1789; Brussels 22 August 1798; Stockholm 25 
February 1800 (in Swedish, translated by C. En- 
vallsson); Moscow 24 October 1807 (in French). 
Revived Ghent 19 February 1822; Paris, Varictcs 
6 December 1822. (Favart used for Les Reveries an 
earlier piece of his, written in collaboration with 
C. H. F. de Voisenon, called La petite Iphigenie 
and produced in Paris, C.L 21 July 1757 as a 
parody of C. Guymond de Latouche's tragedy 
Iphigenie en Tauride) ; (2) Les bons Amis ou II etait 
Temps, by L. F. A. Dorvigny, Varictcs- A mu- 
santcs 2 July 1779 (no music); (3) Iphisc aux Bou- 
levards (anonymous), Th. des Eleves August 1779- 

Early productions of Gluck's opera were at: 
Vienna, b. 23 October 1781 (in German, trans- 
lated by J. von Alxinger) and 14 December 
1783 (in Italian, translated by L. da Ponte); 
also at Prince Aucrsperg's, February 1786. 
lille 3 March 1782. 
Stockholm 5 May 1783 (in Swedish, translated 

by A. F. llistcll). 
rheinsberg 9 May 1783 (in French). 
cassel 26 March 1784 (in French). 
Copenhagen 6 February 1785 (concert pcrform- 

mancc, in French). 
Berlin 21 February 1788 (in concert form, in 
French) and 24 February 1795 (on the stage, 
new German version by J. D. Sander). 
mayence 24 May 1790 (in German). 
frankfort 27 July 1790 (in German). 
mannheim 18 January 1791 (in German). 
Hamburg 22 December 1793 (the first act only, 
in concert form); on the stage, complete, 21 
June 181 1. 
hanover 7 February 1794 (in German). 
Bremen 18 December 1794 (in German). 
London 7 April 1796 (in Italian, Da Ponte's ver- 
sion). 
weimar 27 December 1800 (in German, trans- 
lated by C. A. Vulpius). 
Brunswick 1802 (in French). 
stuttgart i October 1805 (in German). 
Munich 21 October 1S08 (in German). 
breslau 22 March 1S10 (in German). 



371 



372 



1779 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1779 



danzig 31 March 181 1 (in German). 
Budapest 15 September 1814 (in German). 
Amsterdam 1821 (in German). 

Later productions: 
London, prince's 9 Jul v i S40 (in German) and 

H.M's 8 May 1S66 (in kalian, translated by S. 

de Castronc, Marcliesc dclla Rajata; in English 

much later, see below). 
Prague 10 February 1843 (in German) and 6 June 

1890 (in Czech, translated by V.J. Novotny). 
Copenhagen 20 October 1847 (in Danish, trans- 
lated by A. Hertz). 
Manchester ii January i860 (at a Halle concert, 

for the first time in English, translated by H. F. 

Chorlcy). 
basle 15 March 1877 (in German, for the first 

time in Switzerland?). 
Brussels 25 February 1883 (in concert form). 
Barcelona 1 5 April 1900 (in Italian). 
weimar 9 June 1900 in new orchestration by 

Richard Strauss. 
orange 12 August 1900 (open air performance 

at the Roman Theatre). 
Algiers March 1901 (in French). 
hague January 1902 (in French). 
London, h.m's 18 February 1910 (in English, by 

R.C.M.). 
new york, m. 25 November 1916 (in German; 

for the first time in America). 
vicenza 28 August 1922 (at the T. Olimpico, for 

the first time in Italy). 
basle 5 September 1929 (in a German version, by 

G. Bundi). 
Falmouth \6 February 1933 (in English, trans- 
lated by M. and E. Radford). 
London, century th. 3 February 1934 (same 

version). 
christiansund ^.December 1934 (in Norwegian). 
milan, sc 11 March 1937 (in Italian). 
buenos aires 24 September 1937 (in German). 

umlauff: Die puecefarbnen Schuhe 
oder Die schone Schusterinn 

22 June. Vienna, B. 
Text: a German version, by G. Stephanie, of 
Ferrieres's French libretto (see 1776). Two acts. 



Successful in Germany: Hamburg 16 Decem- 
1779, etc.; also Salzburg 24 September 1780; 
Warsaw t8 September 1781; Dresden 5 Decem- 
ber 1781; Riga 19 August 1783; Vienna, Leop. 
9 June 1783 ; Breslau 22 April 1785 ; Berlin 4june 
1785 (German version by J. Andre); Schwedt 
6 February 1786; Carlsruhe 14 March 1786; 
Prague 5 September 1790; Budapest 11 Septem- 
ber 1 791. 

Revived Vienna, Ka. 31 January 1785 and W. 
27 April 1795; Berlin 26 July 1825, 

c 1 m A r o s A : V Infedeka fedele 

20 July. Naples, Fondo 
Text by G. B. Lorcnzi. Three acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the new "Real 
Teatro del Fondo di Separazionc", Naples. Ac- 
cording to the preface, Lorenzi tried to create a 
new genre half-way between opera scria and 
opera buffa. 

Outside Italy only given at Dresden 5 October 
1782. 

da silva: La Galatea 

2t August. Lisbon, Th. di Qucluz 
Text by P. Mctastasio (written in 1722; first com- 
poser unknown). Two acts. 

Da Silva's setting was written for the celebra- 
tion of the birthday of "Don Giuseppe, Principe 
del Brazilc" (son of Maria 1, Queen of Portugal). 
The score of this early opera by a Portuguese 
composer is extant. 

G. bend a: Pygmalion 

20 September. Gotha 
Text: a German version, by an unknown trans- 
lator (Gotter?), of Rousseau's scene lyrique (see 
1770). One act. 

The vocal score of Benda's setting was pub- 
lished in 1780. 

Also produced at Bonn 24 February 1780; 
Mannheim 28 January 1783; Weimar 29 January 
1 791; Prcssburg March 1794 (Benda's?); Berlin 
25 November 1797; Leipzig 2 June 1799; Breslau 
2july 1799; Vienna, Ka. I2june 1801, etc. Given 
at Berlin until 1835. 



373 



374 



1779 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1779 



In Russian, Moscow 24 February 1794. 

In French, Poznan 17 February 1806. 

Revived in Czech, Brno 1935. 

Previously to Benda, two other German com- 
posers had tried their hands at a new setting of 
Rousseau's Pygmalion. First Aspelmayr, whose 
version in a German translation by J. G. von 
Laudes was performed at Vienna 19 February 
1772 (and perhaps even earlier with the original 
French text) ; probably at Prague 1 October 1772 ; 
and, according to G. Becker, also on some Italian 
stages. Secondly Schweitzer, whose setting (trans- 
lator probably J* F. Schmidt) was first performed 
at Weimar 13 May 1772 and subsequently at 
Leipzig 3 November 1774 and Gotha.15 Novem- 
ber 1774. The music of both Aspelmayr's and 
Schweitzer's versions seems to be lost. 

G l u c K : Echo et Narcisse 

24 September. Paris, O. 
Text by L. T. dc Tschudy. Three acts. 

Gluck's last opera. Unsuccessful; after a few 
performances in 1779 and 1780, revived in Paris 
only on 25 March 1806 in a reduced 2-act ver- 
sion by A. L. Bcaunicr, music arranged by H. M. 
Berton (10 performances until 18 14). Given at 
Lille 17 March 1782. 

Revived in the 20th century by the Elizabeth 
Duncan School at Darmstadt 11 October 191 3 
(revised by E. Duncan and M. Merz); and sub- 
sequently on some other German stages and at 
Zurich 27 October 1913 (German version by T. 
Rehbaum). 

Revived in French privately, at Malmaison 4 
July 1926 (under F. Raugel). 

k o s p o t h : Adrast und Isidore, 
oder Die Serenate 

16 October. Berlin 
Text by C. F. Brctzner (founded on Molicre's 
Le Silicien). Two acts. 

Given in Berlin until 1802; Schwcdt 7 January 
1785; Brcslau 23 July 1790. Brctzner's text was 
also composed by F. Preu (Dresden 22 February 
1779; Hamburg 23 August 1779; Budapest 6 No- 



vember 1786) and by F. A. von Mitscha (Vienna, 
B. 26 April 1781). 

p. GUGLiELMirLa Villanella 
ingentilita 

8 November. Naples, Fior. 
Text by S. Zini. Three acts. 

After 12 years (see La Sposafedele, 1767) in the 
course of which Guglielmi wrote no less than 25 
unsuccessful works, this was the first opera of a 
more fortunate period lasting until 1790. 

Given at Florence, P. Spring 1782 as / due Fra- 
telli sciocchi; new 2-act version Milan, Sc. 9 Au- 
gust 1783 (I Fratelli Pappamosca) ; revived Naples 
Autumn 1784; Rome, T. Pallacorda Carnival 
1790 (as La Villanella incivilita). 

Outside Italy: Lisbon Carnival 1786; Mar- 
seilles Autumn 1789. Probably identical with an 
opera La Villanella fortunata, which was produced 
by a travelling company at Breslau 6 January 
1792; Liibeck 8 July 1792; Gothenburg 23 April 
1793; Stockholm 1 October 1793; and Christia- 
nia 20 May 1794. 

gretry: Les £venements imprevus 
1 1 November. Versailles 
Text by T. d'Hcle. Three acts. 

Paris, C.I. 13 November 1779 and, with altera- 
tions, 12 October 1780. 

In French also, Cassel 1781; Liege 31 Decem- 
ber 1781; Amsterdam 12 April 1791. 

In German (as Die unvermutheten Zufaelle, 
translated by G. Stephanie), Vienna, B. 1 Sep- 
tember 1781; Frankfort 2 January 1783; (as Un- 
verhofft kommt oft, translated by J. Andre), Berlin 
17 April 1782; Hamburg 6 December 1782; 
Mannheim 29 June 1783 ; Bonn 23 July 1783, etc. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 2 January 1784. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Stenborg), Stock- 
holm 27 October 1800. 

An English adaptation by G. Colman, addi- 
tional music by M. Kelly and W. Hawes, Gay 
Deceivers; or More Laugh than Love, was given in 
London, Little Hm. 22 August 1804 (revived 10 



375 



376 



1779 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1779-80 



May 1828) and in New York on 5 November 
1 8 19. An English translation of the original, Un- 
foreseen Events, was published in T. HolcrofYs 
Theatrical Recorder, n (1806). 

haydn: V Isola disabitata* 

6 December. Eszterhiza 
Metastases text (first set to music by Bonno in 
1754). Two parts. 

In Italian also, Vienna 19 March 1785 (in con- 
cert form); Berlin 1786. 

In German, perhaps Pressburg 24 April 1780 
(Haydn's setting? The anonymous performance 
is recorded in A. Heppner*s book on the Press- 
burg stage; considering the place and the year it 
seems not unlikely that it was Haydn's opera. A 
German translation of Metastasio's text, by A. 
G. Meissner, had been published in 1778 and 
might have been used). 

Revived Vienna 29 May 1909 (in German, re- 
duced to one act, scoring revised) ; Washington, 
Library of Congress 9 March 1936 (in Italian); 
Florence, P. 21 May 1938 (in Italian). Vocal score 
published 1938. 

j. c. bach: Amadis de Gaule 

14 December. Paris, O. 
Quinault's text (first set to music by Lully, see 
1684), reduced to three acts by A. M. D. de 
Vismes. 

Bach's last (unsuccessful) opera, the only one 
he wrote for Paris. "Les Gluckistes ont trouve*s 
qu'il n'avait ni Toriginahtd de Gluck, ni ses su- 
blimes elans; les Piccinistes, que son chant n'avait 
ni le charme, ni la varie*te* de la melodie de 
Piccini" (Grimm, Corresp. litt. X, p.236). 

mysliveczek: Artnida 

26 December., Milan, S.C. 
Text: an Italian version, by G. A. Migliavacca, 
of Quinault's Armide (first set to music by Lully, 
see 1686). Three acts. 
Mysliveczek's last opera. 



gretry: Aucassin et Nicolette, ou 
Les Moeurs du bon vieux Temps 

30 December. Versailles 
Text by J. M. Sedaine (founded on the French 
13th century story). Four acts. 

Paris, C.I. 3 January 1780 and repeated there 
7 January 1782 in a reduced 3-act version with 
some new music. 

In French also, Liege 25 February 1783; Cassel 
27 August 1784; Geneva 22 June 1785; Cologne 
1796-97; Berne 3 October 1801, 

In German (translated by J. Andrd), Hamburg 
17 September 1787; Berlin 3 August 1791. There 
was another German translation by C. G. Neefe, 
1785. 

I78O 

caruso: L'Albergairice vivace 

Carnival. Venice, S. Sam. 
Librettist unknown. Two acts. 

The most successful of Caruso's more than 50 
operas. Given on many Italian stages (Milan, 
Sc. 25 July 1 78 1, etc.) and at Warsaw 24 January 
178 1 ; Dresden 1782; London 16 December 1783 
(with additions by other composers); Hanover 
1783 or 1784; Potsdam 20 September 1785. 

s alieri : La Dama Pastorella 

January. Rome, Valle 
Text by G. Petrosellini. Two acts. 

This opera became more popular 10 years later 
when Da Ponte revised the libretto for Vienna. 
Produced there under the new title La Cijra 11 
December 1789. 

In Italian also given at Dresden 1790; Milan, 
Sc. 16 October 1790; Barcelona 30 May 1791; 
Warsaw 2 March 1793; Lisbon Spring 1796; 
London 10 March 1798. 

In German (as Der Aufschluss or as Die Ent- 
zifferung, translated by H. G. Schmieder), Han- 
over 5 June 1792; Mannheim 24 June 1793 
(translated by H. Beck); Hamburg 7 October 
1793; Vienna 19 December 1805; Frankfort 1 



377 



378 



1780 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1780 



June 1807; (as Das Kastchen mit der Chiffer, trans- 
lated by C. A. Vulpius), Berlin 25 February 
1793 ; (as Das entdeckte Geheimnis, translated by 
K. L. Gieseke), Vienna, W. 8 April 1795. 

In Spanish (translated by L. F. Cornelia), 
Madrid 8 July 1799. 

Schweitzer: Rosamund 

20 January. Mannheim 
Text by C. M. Wieland. Three acts. 

Schweitzer's last work. The opera was ready 
to be performed on 11 January 1778 when the 
sudden death of the Bavarian Elector, Maximilian 
Joseph, on 30 December 1777, and the departure 
of his successor, Carl Theodor, to Munich 
frustrated the production. Two years later the 
interest in the new development of German 
national opera raised by Alceste and Gunther von 
Schwarzhurg had somewhat diminished; Rosa- 
mund was given at Mannheim four times only 
and did not reach any other stage. 

j. e. hartmann: Fiskerne 

31 January. Copenhagen 
Text by J. Evald. Three acts. 

Very successful at Copenhagen; given there 
until 1 814 and revived 31 January 1880 (in con- 
cert form, by the Caciliaforeningen). 

In this opera occurs the Danish National An- 
them Kong Christian. 

There are printed German versions of the 
libretto by C. F. Cramer (1780) and C. F. Sander 
(1786); Swedish translation by G. E. Lundgren 
published 1875. 

picciNNir^ys 

22 February. Paris, O. 
Quinault's text (first set to music by Lully, see 
1676), altered and reduced to 3 acts by J. F. 
Marmontel. 

Given in Paris 64 times until 1792. 

In French also, Copenhagen 1795 (parts, in 
concert form); St. Petersburg 1798. 

In Swedish (translated by A. F. Ristell), Stock- 
holm 1 November 1784 (music adapted by L. 
S. Lalin). 



paisiello: Lajinta Amante 

4 June. Mogilev 
Librettist unknown. Two acts. 

The opera was written for a meeting of 
Catherine 11 and Joseph 11 which took place at 
Mogilev, on the Dnieper,White Russia, on 4 June. 
The opera was probably produced on that night. 

In Italian also given at: Moscow 24 May 1782; 
Vienna, Laxenburg Palace 20 June 1784 and B. 
7 July 1784; Cracow 3 April 1788; Naples, Fior. 
August 1788 and S.C. 13 August 1788 (revived 
Fondo Autumn 1825); Palermo 1793; St. Peters- 
burg 19 September 1799; Paris 19 May 1804. 

In Russian (translated by Z. Krizhanovsky), 
St. Petersburg 1784; Moscow 15 April 1787. 

In German (translated by J. Andr£) perhaps 
Carlsruhe 22 March 1786 (see L. Schiedermair, 
Die Oper an den Badischen Hbfen, p.533); Mann- 
heim 8 April 1788; Baden 1789; Frankfort 14 
September 1793. 

gretry: Andromaque 

6 June. Paris, O. 
Text by L. G. Pitra (founded on Racine's trage- 
dy). Three acts. 

Gretry 's first tragidie-lyrique (unsuccessful). Ac- 
cording to Grimm, a parody on Andromaque t by 
J. B. Henri Gourgault Dugazon, was performed 
at Mile Guimard's private theatre in August 1780. 

In Swedish (translated by A. F. Ristell, J. H. 
Kellgren, and A. N. Edelcrantz), Drottning- 
holm Palace 22 July 1785 and Stockholm 3 No- 
vember 1785. 

beecke: Claudine von Villa Bella 

13 June. Vienna, B. 
The first of the numerous settings of Goethe's 
Schauspiel mit Gesang (1776). Three acts. 

Frankfort 3 February 1784; Bonn 10 February 
1784, etc. 

cimarosa: IlFalegname 

Summer. Naples, Fior. 
Text by G. Palomba. Three acts. 
Milan, Sc. n August 1781; Florence Carnival 

1782; Mantua Spring 1782; Bologna October 
1782; Venice, S. Moise Autumn 1784; Turin, T. 



379 



380 



1780 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1780 



Carignano Autumn 1785, etc. (Given at Treviso, 
Zara, and Udine, Summer 1789 as L'Artista; in 
Italy until 1 803 , mostly in a reduced 2-act version). 
In Italian also: Prague 1782; Graz Carnival 
1783; Vienna 25 July 1783 (revived with altera- 
tions 15 July 1789); Brunswick 1784; Dresden 
1787; Chariottenburg July 1789; Warsaw 31 
December 1792; Madrid 12 November 1793. 

neefe: Adelheit von Veltheim 

23 September, Frankfort 
Text by G. F. W. Grossmann. Four acts. 

The most successful work of Neefe who was 
Beethoven's first teacher at Bonn. Given at Bonn 
n October 1780; Pyrmont 19 July 1781; Cassel 
20 August 1 781; Vienna, B. 31 August 1781 (by 
a company of children); Berlin 2 July 1782; 
Miinster 8 July 1782; Bremen 17 December 
1783; Breslau 2 December 1784, etc. (in Ger- 
many given until about 1800). 

In German also, Trieste 17 June 1787 (with 
music?); Schlcswig 1789. 

One of the earliest German operas on a Turk- 
ish subject and in that respect the immediate fore- 
runner of Mozart's Entfuhrung (see 1782). 

kospoth: Der Irrwisch oder 
Endlichfandersie 

2 October, Berlin 
Text by C. F. Bretzner. Three acts. 

One of the favourite German Singspiel lib- 
rettos of that time ; there are settings by Holly, 
Preu, Miihle, Dieter, all c.1780; see also UmlaufPs 
setting, 1782. 

Kospoth's opera was given in Berlin until 1796. 
In German also, Bremen 26 August 1784; Riga 
Autumn 1785; Schwedt 30 September 1785; 
Hanover 27 December 1787. 

haydn : La Fedelta premiata* 

13 October, Eszterhaza 1 
Text: an altered version of G. B. Lorenzi's Vln- 
fedeha fedele (see 1779). Three acts. 

1 H. Robbins Landon's recent authoritative researches 
showed that although the opera was announced for 
production on this date, the first performance did not, 
in fact, take place until 25 February 1781. H.R. 



Written for the inauguration of the new 
theatre at Eszterhaza. In German (as Die belohnte 
Treue; translator unknown), Vienna 18 Decem- 
ber 1784; Prcssburg 3 June 1785; Budapest 5 June 
1789; Graz 11 October 1792. 

A n f o s s i : I Viaggiatori felici 

October. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by F. Livigni. Two acts. 

One of Anfossfs most successful comic operas. 

Given on many Italian stages: Florence, P. 17 
April 1781; Turin, T. Carignano Autumn 1781; 
Bologna Autumn 1781; Milan, Sc. Carnival 
1784 and Autumn 1787, etc. In Italian also at 
Trieste 23 May 1781; Prague December 1781; 
Dresden 21 November 1781; London 11 Decem- 
ber 1781 (revived 28 May 1785 and 1 March 
1803); Brunswick 1782; Hanover 1782; Vienna 
29 December 1783 ; Corfu Autumn 1784; 
Madrid 1787; Paris, Th. dc M. 3oJune 1790 (three 
additional airs by Cherubini); Warsaw 18 Sep- 
tember 1790; Lisbon Spring 1794. 

In German (translated by F. X. Girzik), Press- 
burg 27 May 1785 and Budapest 16 October 
1789; (translated by K. L. Giescke), Graz 1788; 
(translated by C. F. D. Schubart), Stuttgart 1 
September 1789. 

FLOQUET:Le Seigneur bienfaisant 

14 December. Paris, O. 
Text by M. A. J. Rochon de Chabannes. Three 
acts, called Le Pressoir ou Les Fetes de I'Automne; 
L'Incendie; and Le Bal; a prologue or first act Le 
Retour du Seigneur dans ses Terres was added for 
a revival on 23 December 1782. Given at Bor- 
deaux 1794 as Le Ginfaal bienfaisant. 

Floquct's most successful work and of some 
historical interest as an attempt to introduce a 
bourgeois subject into the heroic repertory of 
the Paris Opera. 

jackson: The Lord of the Manor 

27 December. London, D.L. 
Text by J. Burgoyne (founded on Marmonters 
Silvain, see 1770). Three acts. 



38i 



382 



1780-81 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1781 



Successful on English stages. First given at 
Dublin 23 March 1781; Edinburgh 24 July 1781. 
Libretto also published Philadelphia 1 790 and 1 79 1 . 

Given in New York 2 February 181 8 and 27 
December 1826; revived in London, C.G. 24 Oc- 
tober 1 812 (with additional music by J. C. Doyle, 
Bishop, Welsh, Reeve and Davy) ; D.L. 20 De- 
cember 1820; Ly, 12 November 1834; and Strand 
21 November 1853. 

(Burgoyne's preface contains interesting ideas 
on the development and possibilities of English 
opera.) 

I78I 

cimarosa:!/ Pittor Parigino 

4 January. Rome, Valle 
Text by G. Petrosellini. Two acts. 

Originally in two acts; a later, 3-act version, 
It Barone burlato was first given at Naples Winter 
1784 (text altered by G. Bonito, additional mu- 
sic by F. Cipolla. 

Very successful in Italy; Bologna Autumn 
1781; Parma Carnival 1782; Turin Spring 1782; 
Milan, Sc. 10 August 1782; Venice, S. Sam. Au- 
tumn 1783, etc. In Italy until 1808. 

In Italian also given at Prague and Dresden 
1782; Leipzig Summer 1782; Barcelona 20 April 
1783; London 25 January 1785 (text altered by 
A. Andrei); Vienna 18 May 1785 (revived 24 
May 1792, "die Musik verbessert und vermehrt", 
probably the 1784 version); Warsaw 25 Novem- 
ber 1785; Corfu Carnival 1787; Eszterhaza 1789; 
Antwerp 30 August 1804; Paris 1 August 1805. 

In German (as Der Maler von Paris, translated 
by F. X. Girzik), Pressburg 28 July 1786; Han- 
over 4 July 1788; Budapest 8 August 1792; (as 
Der Onkcl aus Amsterdam, translated by G. C. 
Claudius), Ocls 13 May 1797. 

sarti: Giulio Sabino 
January. Venice, S. Ben. 
Text by P. Giovannini. Three acts. 

The most successful of Sard's serious operas. 
Florence, P. Autumn 1781; Pisa Spring 1782; 
Imola Summer 1782; Bologna September 1782; 



Forli Spring 1783; Modena 1 January 1784; 
Reggio 1784; Perugia Carnival 1784; Naples, 
S.C. 13 August 1786, etc. 

In Italian also given at: Esterhaza, Brunswick 
and Barcelona in 1783; Hanover January 1784; 
Warsaw 15 March 1785; Vienna, Ka. 4 August 
1785 (revived 14 September 1805 with additional 
music by Weigl, Salicri and Gyrowetz) ; Trieste 
1 March 1788; London 5 April 1788; Madrid 

16 December 1797; Lisbon 13 May 1798; Berlin 
3 January I803 (as Epponina, with additions by 
Gurrlich). 

In German (translated by J. N. Schueller), 
Pressburg 2 January 1786 and Budapest 26 No- 
vember 1792; another German translation, by N. 
A. Heiden, was published at Nuremberg in 1781 
(performed?). 

The opera contains a famous funeral march 
which has been compared to the one in Beet- 
hoven's Eroica. 

kamienski: Zoska czyli 
Wiejskie Zaloty 
(Sophia, or Country Courtship) 
21 January. Warsaw 
Text by S. Szymariski. One act. 

Popular Polish ballad-opera, Kamieriski's most 
successful work; given 76 times until 1859 (but 
not "consecutively". Riemann's Musiklcxihon 
and many other books of reference repeat a slip 
in L. von Trocki's pamphlet, Die Entwicklung der 
Opcr in Pokn, 1867, p.24; see ibid., p.n). Text 
printed 1784. Music extant. 

The year of the first performance was 1779 
according to Dmuszewski-Karasowski ; 1780 ac- 
cording to A. Zalewski's Kronika (1807). 21 Jan- 
uary 1781 is the date of the first recorded per- 
formance (advertisement). Given at Cracow on 

17 October 1790. 

piccinni: Iphigenie en Tauride 

23 January. Paris, O. 
Text by A. Du Conge DubreuiL Four acts. 

The opera seems to have been commissioned 
by the management of the Opera at the same 



383 



384 



1781 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1781 



rime as Gluck's Iphighie en Tauride (see 1779), 
taking advantage of the struggle between 
Gluckistes and Piccinnistes. According to La- 
jarte, "le pauvre Piccinni a ix£ encore une fois 
dupe des intrigues et du mauvais vouloir de 
radministration". Still, his opera was performed 
more than 30 rimes (revived 17 June 1785 and 
6 November 1790). 

In French also given at Copenhagen 25 Feb- 
ruary 1787 (in concert form); in concert form 
also St. Petersburg 29 December 1791. Parts of 
it were revived at Paris, O. on 26 March 1916. 

CHAMPEiNiLa Melomanie 

23 January, Paris, C.I. 
Text by Grenier and Duveyrier. One act. 

Champein* s best work, given at the O.C. 
until 1829. 

In French also, Liege 27 November 1783; 
Hague 27 March 1784; Rouen 29 March 1784; 
Cassel 25 September 1784; Marseilles 31 October 
1787 (at the inauguration of the Grand-Theatre) ; 
Aachen 10 August 1794; Hamburg 1795 ; Charles- 
ton, S.C. 16 June 1795; St. Petersburg 31 August 
1795; Baltimore 14 March 1796; Philadelphia 30 
December 1796; Cologne 1796-97; Moscow 8 
February 1809; Berne 23 April 18 10. 

In German (translated by H. G. Schmieder), 
Frankfort 5 August 1785; (translated by C. G. 
Neefe), Hanover 7 September 1790; Hamburg 
1799; (translated by C. A. Herklots), Berlin 1 
June 1813. 

In Dutch, Amsterdam 1786 (revived Hague 
1814); in Flemish, Oudenarde 1795. 

In Danish (translated by A. G. Thoroup), Co- 
penhagen 15 February 1791. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 15 December 1796. 

A Russian version of the libretto by A. V. 
Khrapovitsky was set by Martin y Soler: 
produced St. Petersburg 18 January 1790. 

mozart: Idomeneo* 
29 January. Munich 
Text by G. B. Varesco (founded on Danchet's 
French libretto, see 1712). Three acts. 

385 



In Mozart's lifetime, the opera was, after 
Munich, only given once more; (private) perform- 
ance at Prince Auersperg's, Vienna, in March 
1786. The duet K.489 and the rondo K.490 were 
added for that occasion. A private performance, 
in Italian, presumably in concert form, took place 
at Budapest in 1803 ; see Bibliographia Hungariae, 
Vol. n, p.201. 

Next, Idomeneo was produced in German on a 
few stages in the beginning of the 19th century: 
Cassel 1 January 1802 (translated by J. D. von 
Apell); Nuremberg 1803; Hamburg 31 March 
1804 (in concert form); Vienna 13 May 1806 
(translated by G. F. Treitschke) ; Berlin 3 August 
1806; Frankfort 4 November 1807; Stuttgart 14 
November 18 10; Leipzig 1811 (in concert form) ; 
Bucharest 1818; Konigsberg 12 December 1821; 
Riga 1825 (in concert form). 

On many important stages the opera was pro- 
duced about the middle of the 19th century: 
Weimar 16 February 1840; Munich 12 January 
1845 (translated by L. Lenz; announced as first 
performance at Munich!); new German trans- 
lation by K. F. Niese: Dresden 15 January 1854; 
Berlin 15 October 1855; Mannheim 27 January 
1 861; Leipzig 3 February 1869; Darmstadt 22 
October 1871; Cassel 28 November 1877. 

New arrangement by J. N. Fuchs: Vienna 25 
October 1879; Hamburg 17 January 1880; Rot- 
terdam 4 December 1880; Prague 17 October 1887. 

The opera was revived in a new arrangement 
by E. Lewicki at Carlsruhe 4 April 1917 and 
Dresden 4 March 1925, 

Many revivals took place in 193 1, celebrating 
the 150th anniversary of the first performance. 
It was given in new arrangements by A. Rother 
at Dessau 19 February 193 1; by Richard Strauss 
and L. Wallerstein at Vienna 16 April 193 1; 
Zurich Spring 1932; Berlin 11 November 1932, 
etc. ; by W. Meckbach, Brunswick 3 1 May 193 1 ; 
and by E. Wolf-Ferrari and E. L. Stahl at Munich 
15 June 193 1. 

The Italian original was revived at the Mozart 
Festival, Basle 13 May 1931. 

Idomeneo was very seldom given outside the 
German speaking countries. Parts of the music 

386 



1781 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1781 



were used in a French pasticcio, Louis xn ou La 
Route de Reims by J. F. S. Maizony de Laur^al 
and J. H. Vernoy de Saint-Georges, music from 
Idomeneo, Tito y etc., arranged by P. Cremont and 
A. Vergne, produced at Paris, Odeon 7 June 1 825 
(A Voccasion du Sacre de Sa Majesti Charles x) and 
in an English pasticcio The Casket by M. R. Lacy, 
produced in London, D.L. 10 March 1829. 

In Paris, parts of Idomeneo were heard at the 
Conservatoire in February 1846; the whole opera 
at a Schola Cantorum concert 27 November 
1902 and, recently, in Italian, Conservatoire 21 
February 193 1 and Th. des Champs-Elysdes 28 
October 1933 (by the Societe* des Etudes Mozar- 
tiennes). 

The third act was staged at the Th. des Arts, 
12 December 1912 (in French, translated by L. 
Laloy). 

Recent productions: 
Prague 5 December 193 1 (in Czech, translated 

by J. Fiala). 
Brussels 25 January 1932 (the Strauss- Waller- 
stein version in French, translated by P. 
Spaak). 

Glasgow 12 March 1934 (in English, translated 
by M. and E. Radford). 

LONDON, TWENTIETH CENTURY TH. 12 March 1 93 8 

(in English, M. and E. Radford's version). 
Cambridge 2 May 1939 (in English, M. and E. 
Radford's version). 

The opera does not seem to have been pro- 
duced in America. 1 Nor was it ever given 
in Italy, although P. Lichtenthal made an arrange- 
ment for Italian stages as early as 1843 (see AM. 
Z., Vol. xlv, p.809). 

NAUMANN-.E/lSfl 
21 April Dresden 
Text by C. Mazzola. Two acts. 

In Italian also given at Prague 1788 ; at Dresden 
until 1790. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 30 January 1795. 
1 American and Italian productions in 1947. 



s a l i e r i : Der Rauchfangkehrer 

30 April. Vienna, B. 
Text by L. von Auenbrugger. (Sub-title: Die 
unentbehrlichen Verrdther ihrer Herrschaften aus 
Eigennutz.) Three acts. 

Salieri's contribution to the "Narional-Sing- 
spiel" ; the first of his two German operas. Also 
given at Frankfort 14 November 1782; Berlin 
12 August 1783 (adapted); Prague Summer 
1783; Salzburg Autumn 1783; Mannheim 10 
April 1785; Riga October 1785; Carlsruhe 2 
May 1786; Hanover 29 May 1787; Budapest 14 
July 1787; Pressburg 1788; Munich September 
1788, etc. 

Revived Vienna, Leop. 9 October 1786 (with 
original title) and Th.a.d. Landstrasse, 10 May 
1790, as Die listigen Kaminfeger oder Die bestraften 
Sproden. 

andre: Belmont und Constanze oder 
Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail 

25 May. Berlin 
Text by C. F. Bretzner (according to W. Prei- 
bisch founded on G. Martinelli's Italian libretto, 
La Schiava liberata, performed with music by 
Jommelli at Ludwigsburg 18 .December 1768, 
with music by Schuster at Dresden 2 October 
1777; according to E. J. Dent founded on the 
English pasticcio, The Captive,, text by I. Bicker- 
stafFe, performed London, Hm. 21 June 1769). 
Three acts. 

Bretzner's text was written for Andre. When 
Stephanie and Mozart used his libretto in 1782, 
Bretzner published his notorious protest in the 
Berliner Litteratur und Theater-Zeitung ("Ein ge- 
wisser Mensch namens Mozart . . ,"). 

Andre's setting was also given at Munich 16 
November 1781; Leipzig 1781; Hamburg 13 
June 1782; Carlsruhe 16 October 1784; Schwedt 
14 January 1785. 

zingarelli: Montezuma 
13 August Naples, S.C. 
Text by V. A. Cigna-Santi (first composed by 
Majo in 1765). Three acts. 



387 



388 



1781 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1781 



Zingarelli's first opera. There is no record of a 
later production at Vienna (as claimed by all 
writers on Zingareili) when the opera "was high- 
ly praised by Haydn"; but there possibly was 
one at Eszterhaza in 1786. 

paisiello: La Serva Padrona* 

10 September. St. Petersburg 

G. A. Federico's text (first set to music by Pergo- 
Iesi, see 1733). Two parts. 

Paisiello's setting was written in order to 
celebrate the name-day of the Grand Duke 
Alexander of Russia, and produced at the Ermi- 
tage. 

"Per non avcre qui ne poeta ne libri sono stato 
costretto di mettere in musica la Serva padrona 
fatta tanti anni fa del fu Pergolesi, come lei sa; e 
ando in scena il di trenta dello scorso con un 
successo mirabile, per il quale S.M.L l'lmpera- 
trice ha fatto un presente alii due attori : cioc alia 
donna che ha fatto la parte di Serpina eccellente- 
mente le ha donato un fiore da testa di brillanti, 
all uomo che ha fatto la parte di Uberto (che con 
dimcolta si pu6 far meglio) gli ha donato un 
anello di brillanti, e a me una scatola con un 
contorno di brillanti" (letter by Paisiello to F. 
Galiani, published by S. Panareo in 1910). 

In Italian also given at Moscow 26 June 1782; 
Warsaw 9 January 1785 1 ; Vienna 26 March 
1786 (privately, at Prince Auersperg's) and Ka. 
18 June 1794; Madrid 25 September 1786; Bo- 
logna Autumn 1786; Lille 6 November 1786; 
Cracow 9 November 1788; Paris, Th. dc M. 12 
March 1789 (revived Th. I. 21 November 1801); 
Lisbon 1790; Prague 1791 (according to O. 
Kamper by "Passetto"); Trieste 6 August 1793; 
London 29 May 1794; Schwerin 1794; Breslau 
7 November 1799; Lyons 18 July 1805. 

In French St. Petersburg 7 November 1782. 

In Russian (translated by Prince A. I. Golint- 
sin), St. Petersburg 31 July 1789; Moscow 1789 
(revived 12 September 1817). 

1 An earlier performance on 28 May 1781, as record- 
ed by L. Bernacki, Teatr, Dramat i Muzyka za Stanislawa 
Augusta, Vol. 11, p. 300, must have been Pergolesi's opera. 



In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 30 October 1791. 

Said to have been sung in Czech, by Italian 
singers, at Prague 1795. 

In German, Bremen December 1803 (as Das 
Dienstmddchen als Gebieterin; see note on the Ger- 
man productions of Pergolesi's Serva Padrona, 

1733)- 

Revivals: Milan 27 October 1826; London, 
H.M/s 21 June 1858 (in concert form) and 5 July 
1858 (on the stage); New York 13 November 
1858; Philadelphia 29 January 1859; Dublin 10 
March i860; Paris 25 December 1868; Padua, T. 
Concordi Spring 1871; Naples 26 May 1878 (by 
the Societa Filarmonica) ; and lately, Rome, T. 
Eleonora Duse 10 June 1927 and Cairo 1936. 

alessandri: II Vecchio geloso 

Autumn. Milan, Sc. 
Text (according to U. Rolandi) by G. Bertati 
(partly founded on Moliere's Vi.cole des Maris). 
Two acts. 

The most successful of Alessandri's comic 
operas; given at Padua 1782 and Leghorn 1784 
as II Marito geloso. 

In Italian also, Trieste Carnival 1783; Fiume 
1783; Vienna 7 May 1784; Prague 1784. 

In German (translated by F. X. Girzik), Press- 
burg 26 July 1785; Linz 5 June 1786; Budapest 
19 July 1789; Briinn 12 July 1792. 

cimarosa: Giannina e Bernadone 

November. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by F. Livigni. Two acts. 

Very successful in Italy and abroad; Varese 
Autumn 1782; Leghorn Carnival 1783; Novara 
Spring 1783; Turin Autumn 1783; Bologna 
Spring 1784; Siena Summer 1784; Palermo 
1784; Parma Carnival 1785; Naples, T.N. Spring 
1785, etc.; given at Venice, S. Angelo Carnival 
1786; reduced to an intermezzo as II Villano 
geloso. First given at Milan, Sc. 24 June 1790. 

In Italian also produced at Prague Autumn 
1783; Trieste January 1784; Vienna 24 Septem- 
ber 1784; Dresden 4 January 1785; Warsaw 6 



389 



390 



1781 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1781-82 



January 1785; Barcelona 25 August 1786; Drott- 
ningholm 17S6 and Stockholm 20 February 1787; 
Malta Carnival 1787; London 9 January 1787; 
Versailles Summer 17H7; Madrid 18 October 
1788; Marseilles i79o; N Lisbon Spring 1791; St. 
Petersburg 1794; Paris, Th.I. 18 July 1H01; Corfu 
Autumn 1824. 

In Polish (translated by L. Pierozyriski), 
Warsaw 10 January 1787; Wilna 21 February 
1799. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Stenborg and C. 
Envallsson), Stockholm 15 December 1796. 

A German translation, Hanchen und Bcrnardon, 
was published at Salzburg in 1788. 

Frequently revived in Italy; Florence, T. dcgli 
Arrischiati 18 May 1870; Naples January 1882, 
by the Socicta Filarmonica dci Nobili; 23 Sep- 
tember 1882 at the T. Fior. and 14 December 
1895 at the T. Mcrcadantc; Rome May 1905 
(privately at Villa Torlonia); and lately, Turin, 
T.R. 2 March 1932. 

Arnold: The Banditi ; or 
Love's Labyrinth 

28 November. London, C.G. 
Text by J. O'Kecffc. Two acts. 

Given at the same theatre one year later, 2 No- 
vember 1782, in an enlarged 3 -act version as The 
Castle of Andalusia, which is the better known 
title of this successful comic opera (music, as 
usual, partly compiled, partly composed). Also 
given at Dublin 11 January 1782 (with additional 
songs by F. Tcnducci); Edinburgh 12 July 1783; 
New York 21 April 1788; Philadelphia 5 No- 
vember 1788, etc. Revived London, C.G. 15 May 
1807 (in 2 acts, as Which is the Master?)', Hm, 26 
July and C.G. 1 November 1817 (reduced to 2 
acts by J. Winston, additional music by Bishop); 
again C.G. 20 June 1826. 

cimarosa: IlConvito 

27 December. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by F. Livigni. Two acts. 

Revived Milan, Sc. 4 November 1796. In 
Italy given until after 1800. 



In Italian also, Trieste Carnival 1783; Dresden 
1783; Warsaw 27 January 1785; Marseilles Au- 
tumn 1790; Lisbon Autumn 1796; Paris, Th.I. 
3 June 1803. 

In German (as Der Schmaus, translated by J. H. 
Burmann), Frankfort 2 October 1784; Maycnce 
14 December 1785; Mannheim 27 April 1786; 
Carlsruhe 28 October 1786; Salzburg 1787 (as 
Das Gastmahl); Hanover 13 November 1789; 
Berne Spring 1 804. 

(In London the opera was performed with new 
music by Bcrtoni, text altered by A. Andrei, on 
2 November 1782.) 



1782 

gretry: La double Epreuve ou 
Colinette a la Cour 

1 January. Paris, O. 

Text by J. B. Lourdct de Santerrc (cowedie- 
lyrique). Three acts. 

A new successful version of Favart's Ninette a 
la Cour (sec 1755). Revived Paris 2 August 1791 ; 
24 January 1810; 115 performances until 1816. 

In French also, Ghent 29 March 1783; Casscl 
22 December 1783; Liege 14 February 1784; 
Geneva April 17S5; last revived Paris, O. 24 
January 18 10. 

In German (as Die doppelte Erkctmtlichkeit, 
translated by F. X. Huber, additional music by 
Siissmayr), Vienna 28 February 1796. 

umlauff: Das Irrlicht oder 
Endlichfand er sie 

17 January. Vienna, B. 

Bretzncr's text (first published 1779 and already 
set by Kospoth, sec 1780, and by at least three 
other composers, with alterations). Three acts. 

UmlaurFs setting was also given at Mannheim 
5 February 1786; Riga 25 May 1786; Hamburg 
Autumn 1787; etc., and revived at Vienna, W. 
2 April 1796; Poznan 31 October 1803. 



391 



392 



1782 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1782 



winter: Helena und Paris 

5 February. Munich 

Text by C. J. Forg. Three acts. 

Winter's first greater success: given at Vienna 
20 November 1784; Carlsruhe 9 May 1785; 
Mannheim 5 December 1786; Prcssburg 1788; 
Budapest 2 October 1789; Frankfort 30 June 
1792; Berlin 6 February 1797, etc. In Italian, 
Florence, P. Carnival 1784. In the preface to the 
libretto Winter pays tribute to Holzbauer as one 
of the first German composers to have achieved 
glory "in dem erhabnen Fache von Theater- 
musik". 

cimaros a: La Ballerina amante 

Summer. Naples, Fior. 
Text (according to the MS score at Naples) by 
C. A. Casini. Two acts. 

Milan, Sc. August 1783, etc. Given at Rovigo 
Autumn 1789 as L' Amante ridicolo; in Italy until 
about 1804. 

In Italian also, Malta Carnival 1784; Trieste 
26 December 1784; Prague Spring 1785; Barce- 
lona 14 October 1785; Dresden and Eszterhaza 
1786; Madrid 24 October 1787; Lisbon 30 June 
1793 (inauguration of the Real Theatro de San 
Carlos); St. Petersburg 23 January 1796. 

mozart: Die Entfuhrung aus 
dem Serail* 

16 July. Vienna, B. 
Bretzner's text (first set to music by Andre, see 
1781), altered by G. Stephanie. Three acts. 

Mozart's first German opera on a larger scale 
and his first great success. There were 34 per- 
formances at Vienna until 4 February 1788 when 
the "National-Singspiel" at the Burgtheater came 
to an end. 

The first productions in German outside 
Vienna were at: 
Prague Autumn 1782. 
Warsaw 8 May 1783. 
bonn 22 June 1783. 

FRANKFORT 2 AugUSt 1 783. 

Leipzig 25 September 1783. 



MANNHEIM 1 8 April I784. 

carlsruhe 1 6 October 1784. 
cologne 24 October 1784. 
salzburg 17 November 1784. 
Dresden 12 January 1785. 
RIGA 1 March 1785. 
Munich i April 1785. 
weimar 4 April 1785. 
aachen 24 April 1785. 
cassel 26 May 1785. 
pressburg 13 June 1785. 

AUGSBURG 19 AugUSt I785. 
NUREMBERG 2$ AugUSt I785. 

mayence 3 December 1785. 
rostock 5 July 1786. 
alton a i 7 July 1786. 

HANOVER 12 April 1 787. 

Hamburg 1 8 June 1787. 

BRESLAU 24 AugUSt 1 787. 

carlsruhe 17 September 1787. 

coblenz 23 November 1787. 

graz 15 June 1788. 

Berlin 16 October 1788. 

lubeck 7 January 1789; Bamberg 14 April 1789 

(in concert form). 
Amsterdam January 1791 (privately, according 

to H. C. Rogge, already 1789). 
Budapest 19 June 1 791; Hermannstadt and Te- 

mesvar 1792, etc. 
stuttgart 19 September 1795 (Stuttgart was the 

last of the greater German stages, where the 

Entfuhrung was given because Dieter's setting 

of the same text, see 1784, barred its way). 
berne 1803; Basle 13 January 1809; Winterthur 

21 August 1826. 

Translated into other languages the Entfuhrung 
was given at: 
Warsaw 25 November 1783 (in Polish, translator 

unknown; in German earlier, see above). 
Amsterdam 1797 (in Dutch, translated by G. 

Brender a Brandis; in German earlier, see 

above). 
paris 26 September 1798 (at the Lycee des Arts, 

French version by P. L. Moline); Th. de la 

Cite 16 November 1801 (in German, first 

opera ever sung there in that language; see 



393 



394 



1782 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1782 



note on Das Sonncnfcst der Braminen, 1 790) ; Th. 
L. 11 May 1K59 (in French, translated by 
Prospcr-Pascal); O. 4 December 1903 (the 
Brussels 1902 version, sec below, recitatives by 
P. Vidal) ; Opera-Comique 1 8 February 1937. 

Moscow 8 February 18 10 (in Russian, translated 
by S. Kuvichinsky) and St. Petersburg 30 De- 
cember 1816 (translated by A. I. Shelter); 
Moscow 29 June 1820 (in German); revived 
Leningrad 28 March 1925. 

Copenhagen i April 1813 and Christiania 1832 
(in Danish, translated by N. T. Bruun). 

Stockholm 2i September 1814 (in Swedish, 
translated by M. Alton). 

London, c.G. 24 November 1827 (in English, as 
The Seraglio, translated by W. Dimond, with 
additional airs by C. Kramer); D.L. 23 June 
1 841 (in German); H.M.'s 30 June 1866 (in 
Italian, translator not mentioned; with recita- 
tives by Arditi); C.G. 9 June 1881 (in Italian, 
with recitatives by Benedict); H.M.'s 20 June 
19 10 (in English, translated by J. Troutbeck 
and P. Grccnbank). 

ghent 14 June 1829 (in German) and 27 January 
i860 (in French); Brussels August 1829 (in 
German) and 15 February 1902 (in French, 
translated by M. KufFerath and L. Solvay). 

Prague 8 November 1829 (in Czech, translated 
by J. Jungmann; in German much earlier, see 
above). 

new york 16 February i860 (by the Brooklyn 
Operatic Circle, in Italian according to J. Matt- 
feld who gives the title as Behnontc and Cons- 
tanze; Odell gives the title as II Seraglio and 
does not mention the language. But since no 
Italian version of Die Entfiihrung had been 
staged yet anywhere at that date and the con- 
ductor was Carl Anschiitz and the singers 
American or German, and as other produc- 
tions of the "Operatic Circle" included Der 
Freischiitz and Fidclio, both in German, it seems 
much more likely that Die Entfiihrung, too, was 
sung in German). Subsequently given at the 
German Opera House, New York 10 October 
1862; Philadelphia 4 March 1863; in English: 
New York, Hotel Astor 8 January 1910; 



Rochester, N.Y. 1 November 1926; New 
York, Guild Th. 4 April 1927. 

Budapest 21 March 1882 (in Hungarian, trans- 
lator not mentioned; in German much earlier, 
see above) ; revived 1 5 March 1 9 1 3 (new 
Hungarian version by S. Hevcsi). 

Alexandria 6 February 1889 (in Greek, accord- 
ing to reports in contemporary journals). 

Dublin n July 1921 (in English; for the first 
time in Ireland). 

Zagreb 2 March 1922 (in Croatian). 

riga 18 March 1924 (in Lettish; in German much 
earlier, see above). 

Helsinki 5 February 1926 (in Finnish). 

Bucharest December 1927 (in Rumanian). 

Barcelona 3 January 1928 (in German; for the 
first time in Spain). 

Sofia 14 March 1928 (in Bulgarian). 

Ljubljana 20 November 1929 (in Slovenian, 
translated by F. Bucar). 

tel-aviv 2 May 1935 (in Hebrew, translated by 
Z. Israel). 

Florence, p. 18 May 1935 (in German; for the 
first time in Italy). 

buenos aires 23 August 1938 (in German). 

haydn: Orlando Paladino* 

August. Eszterhaza 
Text by N. Porta after Ariosto (an altered ver- 
sion of a libretto by C. F. Badini, called Le Pazzie 
d'Orlando and performed with music by Gugliel- 
mi in London 23 February 1781. Porta altered 
the text for Prague, where Guglielmi's opera was 
produced as Orlando Paladino in 1775). Three acts. 
The most successful of Haydn's operas. Full 
list of performances: In the original Italian Dres- 
den 28 November 1792. In German (as Roland 
der Pfalzgraf translated by F. X. Girzik): Press- 
burg 22 May 1786; Prague 1791; Briinn 26 Oc- 
tober 1791; Vienna, W. 9 January 1792; Buda- 
pest 21 May 1792; Mannheim 5 August 1792; 
Donaueschingen 13 January 1793; Frankfort 22 
September 1793; Cologne 18 November 1793; 
Graz 26 November 1793; Nuremberg 14 Jan- 
uary 1796 (as Der wt'itende Roland); Berlin 18 



395 



396 



1782 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1782 



April 1798; Hanover 28 June 1798; Bremen 4 
October 1798; Oels 29 October 1799; Leipzig 
January 1800; Munich 5 December 1800; Augs- 
burg 1802; Ballenstedt 3 October 1802; Kdnigs- 
berg 2 December 1803; Hamburg 22 March 
1805; Breslau 20 December 1805 (new transla- 
tion by J. G. Rhode) ; St. Petersburg c. Decem- 
ber 18 13 (in German). Revived Leipzig 31 March 
1932 (as Ritter Roland, revised by E. Latzko). 

andre: Der Liebhaber als Automat 
oder Die redende Maschine 

1 1 September. Berlin 
Text by the composer (founded on a French lib- 
retto by Cuinet Dorbeil, set to music by Rigel in 
1 781). One act. 

Andre's most successful Singspiel. Given in 
Berlin until 1796; also on many other German 
stages and Riga 1790; Prague 1791; Amsterdam 
1792; Vienna, W. 19 April 1793. 

sarti: Fra due Litiganti il terzo gode* 

14 September. Milan, Sc. 
Text: an altered version of C. Goldoni's Le 
Nozze (first set to music by Galuppi, see 1755). 
Three acts. 

Sard's setting became very popular and will 
always be remembered because of Mozart's quot- 
ing it in the last act of Don Giovanni. 

Given at Venice, S. Moisc Autumn 1782 as 
7 Prctendenti dehtsi; Naples, T. Fondo 10 Decem- 
ber 1784 zsLe Nozze di Dorina; Padua Carnival 
1792 as I due Litiganti; Naples 1798 as Dorina 
contrastata (pasticcio). In Italian also produced at 
Vienna 28 May 1783 (German translation in the 
libretto by Schonborn); Leipzig 10 June 1783; 
Prague 1783; Trieste 27 December 1783; Lon- 
don 6 January 1784 (as I Rivali delusi) and 26 
February 1793 (as Le Nozze di Dorina, with addi- 
tional airs by Martin and Storace); Dresden 1784; 
Barcelona 9 December 1784; Warsaw 2 January 
1785; Stuttgart 1785; Graz Winter 1785; Fiume 
Carnival 1786 (as Fra tre Litiganti alcun non gode); 
Regensburg 1786; Lille 8 November 1786; Ber- 
lin Autumn 1787; Madrid 5 June 1789; Paris, 
Th.d.M. 14 September 1789 (with additions by 



Zingarelli, G. G. Ferrari and Viotti); (revived 
6 January 1791 at the inauguration of the Th. 
Feydeau; Th.I. 13 April 1802 and 2 August 1809 
as Le Nozze di Dorina ossia I tre Prctendenti) ; Lis- 
bon Autumn 1793. 

In German (as Wenn sich zwey streiten, jreut 
sick der dritte, translated by L. Zehnmark) Vienna, 
Fasan Th. 10 May 1784 and Ka. 27 November 
1784 and Leop. 17 January 1789; Cologne 2 Jan- 
uary 1785 and 8 October 1786; Pressburg 4 July 
1785; Mayence 12 November 1785; Munich 4 
August 1786; Schwedt 3 November 1786; Stras- 
bourg 14 July 1787; Salzburg 1787; Budapest 
9 August 1787; Warsaw 23 October 1793; (as 
Wer's Gluck hat fuhrt die Braut heim oder Im 
Trubcn 1st gut jischen, translated by J. Andre; see 
Ephemeriden . . ;, 1785, p.199) Hamburg 10 Feb- 
ruary 1785; Frankfort 12 May 1785; Mannheim 
29 December 1785; Carlsruhe 14 October 1786; 
Vienna, Ka. 14 September 1787; Hanover 14 Jan- 
uary 1788; Berlin 14 July 1788; Dresden July 
1788; Riga 1790; Pyrmont 2 July 1790; Cassel 
25 August 1790; Amsterdam 1791; Innsbruck 
1793; Bremen 1803-04; Berne Spring 1804. 
Another German version by P. Trautmann was 
used at Prague 1787. 

Revived Hamburg 3 April 1811 (with new 
dialogue by J. F. Schink; sec K. L. Costenoble, 
Tagebuchcr, Vol. 11, p. 104; the undated libretto 
in the Library of Congress, Schatz no. 9459, prob- 
ably belongs to this revival and not to the 1785 
production); Berlin 5 March 1812. 

In Polish (translated by L. Pierozyiiski) War- 
saw 1789. 

In French as Helene et Francisque, translated by 
P. U. Dubuisson, Paris, Th. Montansier 20 April 
1790 and Th. National 25 September 1793. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen) Copen- 
hagen 7 April 1795. 

edelmann: Ariane dans I' Isle 
de Naxos 
24 September. Paris, O. 
Text by P. L, Moline. One act. 

The best work of the Alsatian composer, who 
was guillotined in 1794. Given at the Paris O. 



397 



398 



1782 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1782 



until 1825. In French also, New York 21 March 
1791 (see Sonneck, Early Opera in America, p.201) ; 
St. Petersburg 1793; Brussels 13 May 1796 (as 
Ariane abandonnie). 

In Russian, Moscow 25 February 1799. 

In German, St. Petersburg 18 10. 

paisiello: IlBarbiere di Siviglia 

owero La Precauzione inutile* 

26 September, St. Petersburg 

Text by G. Petrosellini (founded on Beaumar- 

chais's comedy, 1775). Four acts. 

Written 33 years before Rossini's opera of the 
same title, Paisiello's Barbiere was, in its time, not 
less successful and popular than its follower, and 
recent revivals show that the older setting has not 
been completely obliterated even now. 

The exact date of the first performance at the 
Ermitage, not yet to be found in any book of 
reference, has been communicated by Paisiello 
himself in an (undated) letter, written probably 
in the beginning of 1783 to F. Galiani, his former 
collaborator in It Socrate immaginario (see S. 
Panareo, Paisiello in Russia, 1910, p. 3 7). See for 
further details Music and Letters, Vol. xx, N0.2 
April 1939). 

In Italian also produced at Vienna 13 August 
1783; Caserta 22 November 1783 (at the royal 
palace); Trieste 26 December 1785; Milan, Sc. 
Autumn 1786; Venice, S. Sam. 28 January 1787; 
Naples, Fior. 1787 (reduced to 3 acts and with 
additions by Paisiello) ; etc. Given at Venice, S. 
Moise 5 January 1800 in a reduced i-act version. 

Prague Carnival 1784; Warsaw 2 October 
1785; Barcelona 3 August 1786; London 11 June 
1789 (revived 26 January 1793; 5 June 1798; 9 
June 1807); Paris, Th. de M. 22 July 1789; Lisbon 
Summer 1791 and 21 June 1799; Madrid 16 Jan- 
uary 1796; Mexico 4 December 1806 (first Italian 
opera ever given there). 

In French (translated by N. E. Framery, with 
dialogue from Beaumarchais), Versailles 14 Sep- 
tember 1784; Lille 26 June 1785; Cassel 29 Au- 
gust 1785; Lie*ge 31 January 1786; (in a new 
French version by P. L. Moline) Paris, O.C. 16 



March 1793; Brussels 8 November 1793; St. 
Petersburg 1797; New Orleans ioDecember 1805. 

In German (translated by J. N. Schueller), Press- 
burg 14 October 1785; (translated by G. F. W. 
Grossmann) Mannheim 20 November 1785, etc.; 
Berlin 30 August 1788 (given there until 1826); 
Vienna, W. 2 August 1796. 

In Spanish, Madrid 3 December 1787 (revived 
12 August 1800). 

In Russian (translated by M. V. Popov), St. 
Petersburg 27 August 1790; Moscow 29 August 
1797. 

Anonymous Dutch translation published 1792. 

In Swedish (translated by J. D. Valerius), 
Stockholm 8 June 1797. 

In Polish, Wilna 12 November 1805. 

Productions (in English) at Philadelphia, Char- 
leston, S.C., and Baltimore in 1794 as claimed 
by H. E. Krehbiel, H. C. Lahee, and many other 
writers are very doubtful. 

Revivals: Paris, F.P. 15 May 1868 and O.C. 
27 June 1889 (in French, new translation by V. 
Wilder, re-orchestrated by T. C. Constantin). 
Turin, T. Balbo September 1875; Venice, T. 
Malibran January 1876 and 13 May 1903 ; Genoa, 
Politeama September 1878; Naples 23 June 1879, 
etc. Berlin, KrolTs 19 April 191 3 (in German, 
revised by R. Falk). Antwerp December 191 3 
(in Flemish). Monte Carlo 31 March 191 8 (in 
Italian); Milan, Scala 27 April 1939 (in Italian). 

naumann: Cora och Alonzo 

30 September. Stockholm 

Text by G. G. Adlerbeth (founded on Marmon- 
tel's novel, Les Incas). Three acts. 

The opera had been finished in 1779 and in 
1780 a German vocal score was published (trans- 
lated by J. L. Neumann). Previously to the Stock- 
holm production a concert performance had 
taken place at the Hotel de Pologne, Dresden 
15 March 1780. At Stockholm the opera was 
given at the inauguration of the new opera- 
house; it was frequently revived there until 1832, 
and once more, 30 September 1882, at the 100th 
anniversary of the inauguration. 



399 



400 



178^-73 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1783 



Successful also on German stages: Schwedt 25 
September 1786; Berlin 25 April 1787 (in con- 
cert form); Hanover 4 June i788;Prcssburg 1788, 
etc. To the list of German productions as given 
by Englander in his monograph on Naumann 
may be added performances at Winterthur 18 
November 1789 (in concert form) and Aachen 
31 July 1791. 

In Danish (translated by T. Thaarup), Copen- 
hagen 30 January 1788; previously given there 
in concert form 1784. 

carvalho: Penelope nella Partenza 

da Sparta* 

j 7 December. Lisbon, Real Camara 
(Italian) text by G. Martinclli. One act and li- 
cenza. 

Performed on the birthday of Queen Maria 1. 
One of the best works of the Portuguese com- 
poser. 

shield: Rosina* 

31 December. London, C.G. 
Text by F. Brooke (founded on Favart's Les 
Moissonneurs, see 1768). Two acts. 

Popular ballad opera; Dublin 18 March 1783; 
Edinburgh 24 January 1784; Belfast 1784; Mon- 
tego Bay, Jamaica 23 April 1785; New York 19 
April 1786; Philadelphia 19 January 1787, etc. 
Revived in London until 183 1, and again on 12 
January 1923 by the Mayfair Dramatic Club at 
the Guildhall School of Music. 

1783 

bernardini: II Conte di BeirUmore 

Carnival Rome, Pallacorda 
Text by the composer. Two acts. 

Bernardini's most successful comic opera. 
Given all over Italy; at Varese Autumn 1792 as 
// Conte brillante, with additional music by Carlo 
Uboldi; in Italian also given at Leipzig Summer 
1783; Barcelona 4 September 1783; Prague Au- 
tumn 1783; Lisbon Carnival 1785 and Spring 
1791; Graz Spring 1785; Trieste Summer 1791; 
Madrid 6 May 1795. 



c i m A r o s A : Chi deWaltrui si veste, 
presto si spoglia* 

Carnival Naples, Fior. 
Text by G. Palomba. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy; Milan, Sc. Autumn 1784, 
etc. 

In Italian also produced at Eszterhaza 1786; 
Madrid 2 5 December 1 787 ; Dresden 1789 ; 
Barcelona 9 December 1789; London 7 January 
1790 (as Ninetta, with additional music by F. 
Giardini); Lisbon 1792; St. Petersburg 30 May 
1798; Gachina 11 September 1798; Cagliari, 
Sardinia Carnival 1804. 

Revived at Rome, T. Valle Summer 1813 
(reduced to 2 acts); Naples, T.N. April 1825 (as 
Nina e Martuffo, reduced to one act). 

cimarosa: IdueBaroni di Rocca 
Azzurra 

February. Rome, Valle 
Text by G. Palomba. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy; Milan, Sc. Spring 1786, 
etc. Revived Modcna 11 May 1802 as La Sposa 
in Contrasto. 

In Italian also given at Eszterhaza 1787; Barce- 
lona 27 June 1789; St. Petersburg c.1789 (?); 
Vienna 6 September 1789; Dresden 1790; Lisbon 
Carnival 1791; Warsaw 1 September 1792; 
Corfu, Autumn 1793; Paris 14 July 1802 (with 
additions by Fioravanti); London 1 January 1803. 

For the Vienna production Mozart wrote the 
aria K.578 (Alma grande e nobil Core), 

albertini: Don Juan, albo 
Ukarany Libertyn 

23 February. Warsaw 
Text by W. Boguslawski (translated from an 
Italian libretto) 1 . Three acts. 

Polish Don Giovanni opera, four years before 
Mozart; successful in Poland, given at Warsaw 

1 Perhaps the anonymous text // Convitato di Pietra, 
composed by Righini (see 1777), it being the only three- 
act version on record. I was unable to see a copy of 

Boguslawski's libretto. 



401 



402 



1783 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1783 



until about 1812. Libretto published 1783; parts 
of the music are preserved. 

In Italian, perhaps Florence, P. 9 April 1792 
(see note on Mozart's Don Giovanni, col.454). 

dezede: Blaise etBabet ou 
La Suite des trois Fermiers 

4 April. Versailles 
Text by J. M. Boutet de Monvel (a sequel to his 
Les trois Fermiers, see 1777). Two acts. 

Paris, CI. 30 June 1783; given at the O.C. 
until 1827. 

In French also, Stockholm 1784; Cassel 23 Oc- 
tober 1784; Liege 23 November 1784; St. Peters- 
burg, Ermitage 22 January 1792; Charleston, S.C. 
23 July 1794; Brussels 9 March 1795; Hamburg 
5 June £795 ; Cologne 1795-96; Baltimore 
March 1796; Philadelphia 7 January 1797; Port 
Louis, Mauritius 19 July 1797 (first opera ever 
given there); Hanover 28 December 1803. 

In German (as Blaise und Bahet), Carlsruhe 14 
April 1787; (as Toffel und Dortchen, translated by 
H. von Mayer), Mannheim 10 August 1788; 
Hamburg 13 October 1788, etc.; Amsterdam 
1790; Berlin 9 September 1797. Last revived 
Hamburg 16 January 1814. 

In Dutch (translated by H. J. Roullaud), Am- 
sterdam 1788 (revived Hague 1808). 

In Danish (translated by J. H. Wessel), Copen- 
hagen 18 May 1790. 

In Swedish (translated by C. J. Lindegren), 
Stockholm 29 November 1797. 

In Russian, Moscow 1804. 

Italian translation by G. Piazza published 1801. 

shield: The Shamrock; or, 
The Anniversary of St. Patrick 

7 April London, C.G. 
Text by J. O'KeefFe. A pastoral Romance. Two 
acts. 

Revived at the same theatre some months later 
(4 November 1783) in an altered version as The 
poor Soldier, which proved a great success. Very 
popular on English stages. Dublin 16 January 
1784 and, in a revised version, 1785. Montego 



Bay, Jamaica 9 April 1785; New York 2 Decem- 
ber 1785 (18 times within six months); Phila- 
delphia 22 January 1787; Calcutta 1 May 1789. 

In English also, Hamburg 9 March 1795 (where 
a short-lived English theatre, under the manage- 
ment of one Williamson from Edinburgh, exist- 
ed in that year). Revived in London, C.G. 20 
September 1809 and D.L. 19 February 1816. A 
sequel to The poor Soldier by the same authors 
{Patrick in Prussia; or, Love in a Camp) was pro- 
duced in London, C.G. 17 February 1786 (re- 
vived D.L. 15 February 1814); both Edinburgh 
and New York 9 April 1787; Philadelphia 5 July 
1787, etc. 

The music consists of Irish airs, selected by 
O'KeefFe; overture, accompaniments and addi- 
tional airs by Shield. The original version does 
not seem to have been preserved (although, ac- 
cording to the play-bill, at least the words of the 
songs were printed). 

The music of The poor Soldier was published 
probably in 1783 (1782 according to the British 
Museum Catalogue, which seems unlikely). 

Date of first performance of The Shamrock, 
7 April 1783 (not May 7 as stated by W. J. Law- 
rence in The Musical Antiquary, Vol. iv, p. 185). 

schubaur: Die Dorfdeputierten 

S May. Munich 
G. E. Heermann's text (first set to music by E. W. 
Wolf, see 1772). Three acts. 

The only Singspiel of Schubaur the score of 
which is still extant. Very successful on German 
stages; given until 1815; Mannheim 19 Novem- 
ber 1783, etc.; Salzburg 17 April 1785; Riga 23 
August 1785; Budapest 26 March 1787; Press- 
burg 1788; Amsterdam 1791; Berlin 23 Septem- 
ber 1796; Basle 3 March 1809. 

p. GUGLiELMi:Ld Quaker a spiritosa 

Summer. Naples, Fior. 
Text by G. Palomba. Three acts. 

Reduced to 2 acts: Milan, Sc. August 1785. 

In Italian also produced at Dresden 1785; 
Eszterhaza 1787; Vienna 13 August 1790 (text 
revised by L. da Ponte). 



403 



404 



1783 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1783 



In German (translated by F. X. Girzik), Press- 
burg 1788. 

piccinni: Didon* 

16 October. Fontainebleau 
Text by J. F. Marmontel. Three acts. 

The most successful of Piccinni's French operas; 
publicly performed at Paris, O. 1 December 1783 
(given there until 1836; the 250th performance 
was on 8 February 1826); Lille 27 June 1790. 

In French also, Copenhagen 20 April 1794 (in 
concert form); Rheinsberg 1 October 1795; 
Hamburg 1796; Liege 20 February 1802; St. 
Petersburg 1804; Stockholm 2 April 1805; Ant- 
werp 19 January 1819. 

In German (translated by H. G. Schmieder), 
Maycnce 12 February 1792 and Frankfort 15 
April 1792; (translated by C. A. Herklots), Ber- 
lin 18 March 1799; Breslau 15 August 1800; re- 
vived Berlin 6 November 1807 (with ballet music 
by B. A. Weber); Darmstadt 26 December 1825. 

At Solothurn 1794 adapted to a German lib- 
retto Das siegende Christentum. 

m A r t I n i : Le Droit du Seigneur 

1 7 October. Fontainebleau 

Text by F. G. Dcsfontaincs and Laval. Three acts. 

Paris, C.I. 29 December 1783. In French also, 
Amsterdam 1784; Casscl 9 March 1785; Liege 
21 February 1786; Hamburg 1795-96. 

In German (translation by B. C. d'Aricn), 
Cassel 25 August 1787; Hamburg 13 March 1789; 
Berlin 16 October 1790, etc. 

In Swedish (translated by J. D. Valerius), 
Stockholm 6 June 1799. 

A Danish version by A. G. Thoroup was pub- 
lished in 1790. 

gretry: La Caravane du Caire 

30 October. Fontainebleau 
Text by E. Morel de Chedeville (the King, Louis 
xvi, is said to have had a share in the libretto). 
Three acts. 

Paris, O. 15 January 1784 (given there for 
more than 500 nights, until 1829). 



A parody Le Marchand d'Esdaves, by J. B. 
Radet, P. Y. Barre and J. R. Lecouppey de la 
Roziere, was produced at the C.I. 27 January 
1784; another, Les Reconnaissances ou La Voire de 
Beaucaire, at the Varietes Amusantes 2 August 
1784. 

In French also, Geneva 22 June 1785; Charle- 
ston, S.C. 3 August 1795; Hamburg 1796; Co- 
logne 1796-97; Liege 15 December 1796; Bruns- 
wick 1803; Hanover 14 August 1803; St. Peters- 
burg November 1804; Berne 12 February 1806. 

In Italian (translated by G. Carpani), Monza 
Autumn 1795 (with additional music by W. 
Pichl); Lisbon 14 May 1807 (with one air by 
A.J. do Rego). 

In Swedish (translated by J. M. Lannerstjerna), 
Stockholm 1 November 1796 (with a prologue 
by L. Piccinni). 

In German (translated by F. X. Huber), 
Vienna, W. 4 October 1804; Briinn 16 March 
1812. 

In Russian (translated by I. F. Timkovsky), 
Moscow 28 November 1816; St. Petersburg 17 
November 1817. 

A Dutch version by P. Pijpers was published 
in 1788. 

cherubini: Lo Sposo di tre, Marito 
di Nessuna 

Autumn. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by F. Livigni. Two acts. 

Cherubini's first comic opera. Apparently not 
given on any other stages then, but revived 143 
years later at Dresden 27 November 1926 (as 
Don Pistacchio, der dreifach Verlobte, German ver- 
sion by H. Tessmer and A. Reucker). 

bianchi: La Villanella rapita 

Autumn. Venice, San Moise 
Text by G. Bcrtati (founded on Favart's Le 
Caprice amoureux, see 1755). Two acts. 

Bianchi's most popular work; Milan, Sc, Sep- 
tember 1785, etc. 

In Italian also given at Trieste January 1785; 
Dresden 1785 ; Prague Autumn 1785 (as La Sposa 



405 



406 



1783 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1784 



rapita); Vienna 25 November 1785; Eszterhaza 
1786; Barcelona 27 April 1787; Madrid 29 April 
1788; Paris, Th. de M. 15 June 1789 (pasticcio; 
revived 18 February 1802); London 27 February 
1790; St. Petersburg 1795; Lisbon Spring 1796. 

In French (translated by P. U. Dubuisson), 
Paris, Th. Francais Comique et Lyrique Summer 
1790. 

In Swedish (translated by G. G. Adlerbeth), 
Stockholm 24 July 1802 (pasticcio). 

In Russian (translated by A. I. Sheller), St. 
Petersburg 16 December 1816. 

In German, Budapest 1 February 1792. 

In Vienna, Bianchi's opera was performed with 
two inserted pieces by Mozart, a quartet and a 
trio (K. 479, 480). Mozart's additions were alsc 
used in Paris, London, Madrid and St. Petersburg, 
and, probably, elsewhere as well. 

viccinni: Lefaux Lord 

6 December, Paris, C.I. 
Text by G. M. Piccinni, the son of the composer. 
Two acts. 

Piccinni's last greater success. 

In French also given at Cassel 17 January 1785 ; 
Amsterdam 1785; Liege 31 October 1796. 

In Danish (translated by C. D. Biehl), Copen- 
hagen 4 October 1785. 

In German (translated by J. Andr£), Hamburg 
August 1787; Mannheim 24 February 1788. 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 28 July 1790. 

In Swedish (translated by J. D. Valerius), 
Stockholm 16 November 1798. 

caruso: Gli Amanti alia Prova 

26 December. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by G. Bertati. Two acts. 

One of the best-known of Caruso's numerous 
operas and one of the few extant ones. 

Successful in Italy. Given at Ancona Carnival 
1786, as Itre Amanti in Prova; Naples, T. Fondo 
Autumn 1787 as Gli Amanti dispettosi; revived 
Milan, Sc. 5 March 1796. In Italian also, Barce- 
lona 9 December 1786; Madrid 8 April 1798. 



1784 

p. guglielmi: Le Vicende d'Amore 

Carnival. Rome, Valle 
Librettist unknown. Two acts. 

In Italian also, Vienna 16 June 1784; Prague 
Autumn 1784; Dresden 1785 ; Liibeck July 1787; 
Brunswick Carnival 1791. 

In German (as Der verliebte Zwist, translated by 
G. F. W. Grossmann), Cassel 2 April 1791 ; Hano- 
ver 4 May 1791. 

zander: Niugg spar och Fan tar, 
eller Aldrarnes Darskaper 

17 February. Stockholm 
Text by C. Envallsson (partly founded on Plau- 
tus's Mostellaria). Two acts. 

The proverbial title means The Niggard Saves, 
the Devil Takes, or The Follies of Old Age. 

Zander's best comic opera, given at Stockholm 
40 times until 1819 (revived 14 September 1819). 
Given at Gothenburg 21 February 1792; at Mal- 
mo 6 December 1805. 

haydn: Armida* 

26 February. Eszterhaza 
Text by J. Durandi (first set to music by Anfossi in 
1770), after Tasso. Three acts. 

Durandi's authorship has been doubted by 
some authorities; but see G. de Gregory, Vita di 
Jacopo Durandi (1817), p.24: ". . . per il nuovo 
dramma del carnovale del 1770, aderi egli replicate 
instanze, e compose l'Armida, dramma con mu- 
sica del maestro Anfossi, stampato in Torino nell 
1770 e quindi ristampato nell 1805, epoca in cui 
fu di nuovo rappresentato, ed a consolazione del 
nostro poeta venne dalT armonioso Hayden 
messo per la seconda volta in musica, e dal pub- 
blico Torinese applaudito". 

Haydn's last performed opera; on his L'Anima 
del Filosofo, libretto by C. F. Badini, written for 
London in 1791, but not performed, see H. Bot- 
stiber, pp.340-45 ; autograph score Berlin ; a selec- 
tion was published in 1805 (vocal score) and 1807 



407 



408 



1784 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1784 



(full score) as Orfeo ed Euridice, and given in con- 
cert form at Leipzig 29 September 1807 (parts) 
and Konigsberg 29 October 1808. 

Armida was given in German (translated by 
F. X. Girzik), Pressburg 3 November 1786 
(according to A. Heppner) or 16 October 1785 
(according to Pohl and Wendschuh) ; Budapest 
8 April 1791; Vienna, W. 25 March 1797 (in 
concert form). Revived at Turin 26 December 
1804 (in Italian, in 2 acts). 

gretry: Theodore et Paulin 

5 March. Versailles 
Text by P.J. B. Choudard Desforges. Three acts. 

Better known by its later title, L'Epreuve villa- 
geoise; given at Paris, C.I. 18 March 1784 as 
Theodore et Paulin and, reduced to two acts, 24 
June 1784 as L'fepreuve villageoise ; in Paris until 
1 83 1 and frequently revived afterwards, viz. 
O.C. 25 May 1853 (re-orchestratcd by Aubcr); 
3 September 1866; 24 May 1888; Th.L. 11 Sep- 
tember 1863; Galcrie Vivienne 15 April 1896; 
Tr. L. 12 January 191 8. 

In French also given at Liege 14 December 
1784; Cassel 27 May 1785; Brussels 6 August 
1794; Cologne 1795-96; Gachina 20 September 
1798; Moscow 6 May 1809; Berne 5 July 1809; 
New York 14 September 1827; Baden-Baden 17 
July 1863. 

In German, Hanover 8 September 1790; re- 
vived Graz 29 March 1895 (new German version 
by F. von Hausegger, music arranged by S. von 
Hausegger) ; another German version by Schlet- 
terer was published 1897. 

Dutch translation by P. F. Lynslager published 
Amsterdam 1788. 

(For a sequel, see 1787.) 

shield: Robin Hood; or, 
Sherwood Forest 

1 7 April. London, C.G. 
Text by L. MacNally. Three acts. 

Successful on English stages : Dublin 30 Decem- 
ber 1784; Charleston, S.C. 16 February 1793; 
Philadelphia 10 March 1794; New York 30 April 



1794; Baltimore 6 November 1794 (with addi- 
tional music by A. Reinagle); revived D. L. 13 
March 181 3 (with additional music by J. Addison). 
According to W. T. Parke (Musical Memoirs) 
the overture was written by C. F. Baumgarten. 

salieri: Les Danaides 

26 April. Paris, O. 
Text by F. L. G. Lebland du Roullet and L. T. 
de Tschudy (founded on and partly translated 
from an Italian libretto by Calzabigi, called Iper- 
mestra, written for Gluck in 1778 and published 
in 1784). Five acts. 

The opera was announced and produced as a 
common work by Gluck and Salieri and it was 
only after the twelfth performance that Gluck 
made a public statement to the effect that Les 
Danaides was entirely his pupil Salieri' s work. 

Successful in Paris; given at the O. 127 times 
until 7 January 1828, since 22 October 1817 in a 
4-act version (text altered by A. F. Desaugiers; 
additional music by Spontini). 

A parody by M. J. Gentil de Chavagnac and 
M. A. M. Desaugiers, called Les petites Danaides, 
ou gg Victimes, was produced at Paris, Th. Porte 
St. Martin 14 December 1819 and (in French) 
London, Hm. 18 July 183 1. 

Salieri's opera was also given in German (trans- 
lated by J. W. T. Franz), Mannheim 30 October 
1796, and in Danish (translated by N. T. Bruun), 
Copenhagen 1805 (in concert form). 

Calzabigi protested against the breach of his 
author's rights in a famous letter to the Mercure 
de France (21 August 1784). For details, see J. G. 
Prod'homme in The Musical Quarterly ; Vol. m 
(1917), p.263. The correspondence in the Mercure 
de France is reprinted in G. Lazzeri's book on 
Calzabigi (1907). 

cimarosa: L'Olimpiade 

10 July. Vicenza 
Metastasio's text (first set to music by Caldara in 
I733)- Three acts. 

Written for the inauguration of the Teatro 
Eretenio, Vicenza. 



409 



410 



1784 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1784 



Milan, Sc. 7 September 1788, etc. (in Italy 
given until 1807). 

In Italian also produced at Trieste 24 April 
1786; London 8 May 1788; Corfu Carnival 1791 ; 
Lisbon Summer 1798. 

paisiello: J/ite Teodoro in Venezia* 

23 August Vienna, B. 

Text by G. B. Casta (Dramma eroicomico). Two 
acts. 

One of Paisiello's best and most successful 
works and a favourite opera for the next 30 years ; 
it deals with the story of Baron Theodore de 
Neuhoff, who was King of Corsica in 1736, and 
died in London 1756. 

In Italian also produced at Prague Autumn 
1784; Warsaw 16 January 1785 ; Florence, P. Car- 
nival 1785; Naples Fior. 1785; Stuttgart and 
Brunswick 1785; Milan, Sc. September 1786; 
Berlin 1787 (libretto printed; performed?); Lon- 
don 8 (not 18) December 1787; Paris, Th. de M. 
21 February 1789 (revived 4 April 1804); Mad- 
rid 10 December 1789; Dresden May 1791 (as 
Gli Avventurieri, music partly adapted to a new 
libretto by C. Mazzola); in the original version 
revived Dresden 1 812 ; Barcelona 25 August 1792. 
Last revived, Bologna Spring 1825. 

In German (translated by J. Bohm), Vienna, 
Ka. 4 February 1785; revived W. 18 March 1796 
(in a new version by E. Schikaneder) and 3 Sep- 
tember 1813 (in a new version by J. von Sey- 
fried); Pressburg 16 May 1785 (at the inaugura- 
tion of Count Erdody's opera-house; German 
version by F. Teyber); Budapest 21 December 
1787. On most German stages Bohm's version 
was used: Schwetzingen 21 July 1785 and Mann- 
heim 24 July 1785; Cologne Autumn 1785; 
Mayence 10 December 1785; Berlin 7 August 
1786 (revived 6 November 1799 and Kgst. 11 
October 1824), etc. In a new German version by 
B. C. d'Arien: Munich March 1788 and Ham- 
burg 14 April 1788; translated by C. A. Vulpius, 
Weimar 30 January 1794. Another German trans- 
lation by P. W. G. Hansleutner was published 
Stuttgart 1786. 



In German also given at Zurich 29 July 1788 
(in concert form; first opera ever heard there). 

In French (in 3 acts, translated by P. U. Du- 
buisson), Brussels 1786; Fontainebleau 28 Octo- 
ber 1786; Versailles 18 November 1786; Lille 13 
June 1790; Paris, Th. Montansier 28 October 
1790 and Odeon 24 August 1797; Ghent 1791; 
Hamburg December 1803 ; Antwerp 9 February 
1815. Another French version (in 2 acts), by P. L. 
Moline, recitatives by L. C. A. Chardiny, was 
used at Paris, O. 11 September 1787. 

In Danish (translated by A. G. Thoroup), 
Copenhagen 23 October 1795. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Lvov 1798 and Warsaw 1799. 

dieter: Belmont und Constanze, oder 
Die Entftihrung aus dent Serail 

27 August. Stuttgart 
A new setting of Bretzner's text (see 1781 and 
1782), two years after Mozart. Three acts. 

Dieter's composition was very successful at 
Stuttgart (where Mozart's opera was not given 
before 1795). 

Holland: Agatka, czyli 

Przyjazd Pana 

(Agatha, or The Lord's Arrival) 

1 7 September. Nieswiez (Poland) 
Text by Prince M. Radziwill. Operetka. Three 
acts. 

First produced at the Prince's private theatre 
at a visit of King Stanislaw Poniatowski; publicly 
performed Warsaw 30 October 1785 ; Lv6v June 
1796. One of the first extant examples of Polish 
opera. 

Given at Warsaw until the end of the 18th 
century, since 1799 in a reduced 2-act version. 

sacchini: Dardanus 

18 September. Versailles 
La Bruere's text (first set to music by Rameau, see 
1739)1 altered and reduced by N. F. Guillard. 
Four acts. 



411 



412 



1784 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1784 



Sacchini's first original French opera. Paris, O. 
30 November 1784; reduced to 3 acts: Fontainc- 
bleau 20 October 1785 and Paris, O. 13 January 
1786 (given there until 1808). 

cimarosa: / due supposti Conti ossia 
Lo Sposo senza Moglie* 
1 October. Milan, Sc. 
Text by A. Anclli. Two acts. 

Florence, P. Carnival 1785; Parma Summer 
1785; Venice, S. Sam. Autumn 1785; Padua 
7 October 1785; Bologna Carnival 1786; Turin 
and Verona 1786, etc. 

Given at Rome, Vallc Spring 1786, with the 
sub-title Lo Sposo ridicolo. 

In Italian also produced at Trieste Carnival 
1786; Barcelona 30 May 1787; Dresden 1787; 
Vienna 12 May 1789; Madrid 10 August 1789; 
Marseilles 1790; Lisbon 1791; Cadiz 1792; St. 
Petersburg 20 April 1798. 

Revived Milan (at the inauguration of the T. 
Lentasio) 17 January 1805 as Lo Sposo senza 
Moglie. 

G R e t r y : Richard Cceur-de-Lion* 

21 October. Paris, C.L 
Text by J. M. Sedaine. Three acts. 

G retry *s most famous opera; enlarged to 4 acts, 
Paris, C.L 21 December 1785, but a few days later 
again altered and reduced to 3 acts; given on 
French stages throughout the whole 19th century 
and still revived now and then. 

Re-scored by Adam: Paris, O.C. 27 September 
1841 ; Th.L. 23 May 1856; O.C. 18 October 1873. 
Some of the latest revivals were at Paris, O.C. 
13 October 1910; Tr.L. 2 February 1918; Liege 
16 August 1908 and 16 May 1930; Brussels 28 
October 1933. 

In French also, Ghent 29 October 1786; Liege 
5 January 1787, etc.; St. Petersburg 2 July 1795; 
Warsaw 22 March 18 19; London, St.J's. 26 Feb- 
ruary 1849; Baden-Baden 18 July 1864. 



In English (rival versions), London, C.G. 16 
October 1786 (translated by L. MacNally, music 
adapted by Shield) and D.L. 24 October 1786 
(translated by J. Burgoyne, music adapted by 
Linley); the latter version was also given at Dub- 
lin 1786; Edinburgh 7 April 1792; Boston 23 Jan- 
uary 1797 (partly re-scored by Trille Labarre); 
Philadelphia 23 March 1798; New York 21 May 
1800 (partly re-scored by V. Pelissicr; revived 
13 April 1836). 

In Italian (translated probably by G. Carpani, 
according to De Tipaldo, Biografie), Monza Au- 
tumn 1787; Lisbon Carnival 1792. 

In German (first translated by J. Andre): Ham- 
burg 30 July 1787 (and "nach der Londoner Ver- 
anderung", translation altered by F. L. Schroder, 
6 December 1790); Vienna Ka. 7 January 1788 
(frequently revived; W. 1802 (additions by A. 
Fischer) and 28 November 1810 (re-orchestrated 
by I. von Seyfried); Berlin 9 February 1790 
(revived 3 March 1806 with additions by B. A. 
Weber and J. Weigl); Poznan 22 September 
1805; Prague 1807; Budapest 11 February 181 1. 
The latest revivals on German stages were at 
Mannheim 1849 (orchestrated by L. Hetsch); 
Breslau 25 January 1858; Kdnigsberg 18 October 
1861; Leipzig 12 December 1862; Munich 25 
August 1866; Carlsruhe 2 December 1888 and 
19 November 1898. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 31 January 1791. 

In Dutch (translated by B. Ruloffs), Amster- 
dam [24 February] 1791. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallson), 
Stockholm 21 December 1791 and (translated by 
C.J. Lindegren) 30 January 1797; Malmo 11 May 
1807; Lund 21 August 1807; Gothenburg 19 No- 
vember 1807. Revived Stockholm 25 November 
1857 (new Swedish version by C. W. A. Strand- 
berg; re-scored by J. Foroni). 

In Polish (translated by J. Baudouin), Warsaw 
14 April 1809. 

In Spanish, Madrid 3 May 1812. 

In Russian (translated by V. A. Levshin), St. 
Petersburg 9 November 1815; Moscow 30 Oc- 
tober 1 817. 



413 



414 



l 7 8 5 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1785 



I785 

dezede: Alexis et Justine 

14 January, Versailles 
Text by J. M. Boutet de Monvcl. Two acts. 

Paris, C.I. 17 January 1785. 

In French also Liege 15 November 1785; 
Charleston, S.C. 10 July 1795; Cologne 1795-96; 
St. Petersburg 6 July 1798. 

In German (translated by C. G. Neefe), Mann- 
heim 7 October 1787; Carlsruhe 14 February 
1789; Berlin 31 March 1789; Munich August 
1795, etc. 

Anonymous Dutch version published 1796. 

gretry: Panurge dans lisle 
des Lanternes 

2$ January, Paris, O. 
Text by E. Morel de Chedeville and the Comte 
de Provence (Louis xvin), after Rabelais (but, 
according to Querard, more or less copied from 
a MS by the late F. Parfaict, the historian of the 
Paris theatres). Three acts. 

"Une nouvelle tentative pour etendre les li- 
mites du genre comique sur le Theatre d'Opera" 
(Mercure de France). 

In Paris given 248 times until 1824; in French 
also, Lyons 12 September 1787; Hague 1789; 
Brussels 21 January 1793; Hamburg December 
1796; Gachina November 1799; St. Petersburg 
17 February 1800; Cassel Spring 1813. 

In Swedish (translated by J. D. Valerius), 
Stockholm 16 December 1799. 

Dutch translation by C. Loots published 1804. 

winter: Der Bettelstudent oder 
Das Donnerwetter 

2 February. Munich 
Text by P. Weidmann (originally published as a 
comedy in 1776 and first produced at Vienna, B. 
6 October 1776), founded on Cervantes's story 
La Cueva de Salamanca. Two acts. 

Winter's music was added for the Munich 
production. 



Very popular on German stages : Vienna, Leop. 
19 July 1785, etc. In German also, Warsaw 29 
September 1793; Budapest 13 May 1801; Berlin 
23 June 1802. 

In Czech, Prague 17 April 1785 (translated by 
V. Tham; if not merely performed as a comedy, 
it would have been the first "opera** ever sung 
in that language); revived 16 September 1791. 

In Swedish (translated by H. A. Kullberg), 
Stockholm 13 December 1833 and (in a new 
version by E. W. Djurstrom), 31 March 1855 
(music arranged by A. Safstrom). 

Given in Germany until the middle of the 19th 
century, but from about 1800 with many addi- 
tions by other composers (W. Mullcr, etc); as a 
Quodlibet (arranged by L. Schneider; published 
1838; 2nd edition Berlin 1851) given at Weimar 
as late as 30 November 1882. 

As Der reisende Student also given at the Ger- 
man theatre, New York 25 October 1842 and 
Hoboken 15 June 1853, the former being prob- 
ably, the latter definitely, Schneider's version. 

cherubini: Lajinta Principessa 

2 April. London, Hm. 
Text by F. Livigni (first set to music by Alessandri 
in 1782). Two acts. 

The first of two operas Cherubini wrote for 
London where he held the post of composer at 
the King's Theatre for two seasons before he 
went to Paris. 

lima: Le Nozze d'Ercole, e d'Ebe 

13 April. Lisbon 
(Italian) text by an unknown author. Two acts. 
Performed at the double wedding of two 
Spanish and two Portuguese princes and prin- 
cesses at the palace of the Spanish Ambassador to 
Lisbon, Fernando Nunez. 

storace: Gli Sposi malcontenti 

ljune. Vienna, B. 
Text by G. Brunati. Two acts. 
Storace's first opera. 



415 



416 



1785 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1785 



In Italian also, Prague 1786; Leipzig Summer 
1786; Dresden 1789. 

In German (translated by J. W. Cowmeadow), 
Hanover 11 May 1792; Berlin 12 December 
1793; Breslau 4 June 1795. 

In French (translated by P. U. Dubuisson), 
Paris 12 April 1790 (at the opening of the Theatre 
de la Demoiselle Montansier); repeated 29 Au- 
gust 1793 at the Th. National. 

p. guglielmi: La Virtuosa in 

Mergellina 

Summer. Naples, T.N. 
Text by S. Zini. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy: given at Cremona Carnival 
1791 as Chi la dura la vince ossia Lafinta Cantatrice; 
at Venice Autumn 1791 as La Virtuosa bizzara. 

In Italian also, Malta Carnival 1787; Lisbon 
Carnival 1790 and 17 December 1793; Warsaw 
9 April 1792; Barcelona 22 June 1792; Madrid 
21 January 1797; London 7 April 1807. 

schenk: Die Weinlese 
12 Octobe*. Vienna, Leop. 
Text: an altered version, by W. C. D. Meyer, 
of Weisse's Aerndtekranz (see 1771). Three acts. 
Schenk's first opera and one of the first suc- 
cesses at Maruichi's new "Theater in der Leopold- 
stadt", Vienna (opened in 1781). Given there 
until 1803; given also at Vienna, W. c. 9 July 
1791 (as Der Erntekranz odcr das Schnitterfest). 

salieri: La Grotta di Trofonio 

12 October. Vienna, B. 
Text by G. B. Casti. Two acts. 

In Italian also given at Dresden 1786; Trieste 
14 January 1787; Paris, Th. de M. 15 March 
1790 (with 2 airs by Cherubini) ; Parma Carnival 
1791 ; Lisbon 1795 ; Gorizia Carnival 1795 ; 
Barcelona 1796; Stuttgart 23 October 1809. 

Even more successful on German stages where 
it was produced in several different translations : 
pressburg 17 April 1786 and Budapest 16 July 

1789 (translated by F. X. Girzik). 

417 



Frankfort 25 October 1786; Mannheim 19 No- 
vember 1786 and Cassel 5 February 1787 
(translated by C. G. Neefe). 
Prague 1787 (translated by P. Trautmann). 
Hamburg 5 December 1787; Vienna 3 Septem- 
ber 1789; Munich October 1789; Berlin 19 
March 1794; Riga 3 October 1794, etc. 
In Danish (translated by C. D. Biehl), Copen- 
hagen 8 January 1789. 

An English adaptation by P. Hoare, The Cave 
of Trophonius, music arranged by Storace, was 
given in London, D.L. 3 May 1791 (see M. Kelly's 
Reminiscences, n, p.3). 

sarti: IjintiEredi 

30 October. St. Petersburg 
Text by G. Bertati (originally called II Villano 
geloso and first set, in 3 acts f by Galuppi 
in 1769). Two acts. 

The first opera Sarti wrote in Russia. 

Also given at Prague 1786; Vienna 1 August 
1786; Dresden 1787; Turin 1791; Milan, Sc. 26 
February 1792; Padua October 1793; Madrid 
9 June 1794; Lisbon 11 September I794J Trieste 
26 December 1795; Florence Autumn 1796; 
Palermo September 1797; Venice September 
1799, etc. Revived Barcelona 12 October 1803. 

fabrizi: Li due Castellani Burlati 

Autumn. Bologna, T. Marsigli-Rossi 
Text by F. Livigni (first set to music by Valentini 
earlier in the same year). Two acts. 

The first and one of the best of Fabrizi's comic 
operas and about the only one of which the score 
has survived. Given on many Italian stages (at 
Parma Carnival 1786 as a pasticcio from Valen- 
tini's and Fabrizi's settings) and at Barcelona 27 
June 1786; Dresden 1788; Madrid 30 April 1789; 
London 2 February 1790; Lisbon Summer 1797 
(reduced to 1 act). 

GAZZANiGA:La Moglie capricciosa 

Autumn. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by F. Livigni. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy; given there until after 1800. 

418 



i 7 8 5 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



In Italian also, Dresden 18 March 1786; Trieste 
26 December 1787; Madrid 21 January 1790; 
Lisbon Summer 1791; Vienna 26 April 1792; 
Warsaw 5 March 1793. 

In German: Bautzen 27 October 1796 (prob- 
ably earlier elsewhere). 

piccinni: Penelope 

2 November. Fontaincblcau 

Text by J. F. Marmontcl. Three acts. 

The last of Piccinni's French serious operas 
which was produced. Paris, O. 9 December 1785 
and with alterations 16 October 1787. 

Unsuccessful (14 performances), but still of 
enough interest to call forth three parodies, viz. 
Constance by J. B. Radct, P. Y. Barrc and J. R. 
Lccouppcy de la Rozierc, C.I. 6 January 1786; 
Syncope, Rcinc dc Mic-Mac, by J. E. Dcsprcaux, 
Versailles 31 January 1786; and Jean dc Rctottr, 
by P. G. Parisau, Varietes Amusantes 9 February 
1786. 

p. gu glielmi: Enea eLavinia 

4 Xoveinbcr. Naples, S.C. 
Text by V. dc Stefani. Three acts. 

One of the most important of Guglielmfs 
serious operas; repeated at Naples 13 August 
178s and also given at Milan, Sc. 28 July 1789, 
Venice, Genoa, etc.; Madrid 25 August 1790. 

DALAYRAC'.Lrt Dot 

8 Xorcmber. Fontaineblcau 

Text by F. G. Desfontaines, a revised version of 
his earlier libretto Le Billet de Mariagc. Three acts. 

One of Dalayrac's first greater successes. Paris 
C.I. 2t November 1785 (given at the O.C. until 
1828); in French also, Liege 15 November 1786; 
Brussels 2 November 1795; St. Petersburg 7 Au- 
gust 1795; Hamburg 13 September 1797 or 
earlier; Gachina 5 October 1798. 

In Italian (translated by G. Carpani), Monza 
Autumn 1789 (additional music by W. Pichl). 



1786 

martin y soler: IlBurbero di 
buon Cuore 

4 January, Vienna, B. 
Text by L. da Ponte (founded on Goldoni's 
comedy, Le Bourru bienfaisant). Two acts. 

Martin y Soleras first greater success: Venice 
Autumn 1798; Rome, Valle Spring 1790; Bolo- 
gna, T. Zagnoni May 1790, etc. 

In Italian also: Prague 1786; Dresden 3 Octo- 
ber 1789; Trieste 26 December 1789; Paris, Th. 
Feydcau 22 February 1791 ; Madrid 30 May 1792; 
London 17 May 1794 (with additional music by 
Haydn, Trento and G. G. Ferrari); Barcelona 14 
October 1794; St. Petersburg 30 May 1796. 

Revived Vienna 9 November 1789 (with two 
additional airs by Mozart, K.582, 583, written 
for Louise Villeneuve). 

sacchini: Oedipe a Colone* 

4 January. Versailles 
Text by N. F. Guillard. Three acts. 

Sacchini's chief work; first produced at the 
Paris O. 1 February 1787 (after Sacchini's death) 
and frequently revived there until 1844 (583 per- 
formances). 

In French also, Liege 2 March 1796; Hamburg 
20 April 1796 (revived 1799 and 1811); Cologne 
1796-97; Copenhagen 1798 (in concert form); 
St. Petersburg 6 -May 1799; Antwerp 14 Feb- 
ruary 1805. 

In German (translated by C. A. Herklots), 
Hanover 21 May 1790; Berlin 16 October 1797; 
Munich 15 July 1800; Vienna 3 August 1802, etc. 
Last given in Germany: Weimar 17 February 
1820 and Casscl 1 May 1826. 

In Swedish (translated by C. G. Nordforss), 
Stockholm 1 November 1800 (given there until 
1836). 

In Italian (translated by G. Schmidt?), Naples, 
S.C. 14 May 1808. 

In Russian (translated by R. M. Zotov), St. 
Petersburg 13 September 1816. 



419 



420 



1786 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



Dutch translations by P.J. Uylenbroek and by 
J. Kinker were published in 1795 (reprinted 1799) 
and 1807 respectively. 

The opera was revived in concert form at 
Frankfort in April 1862 and at the Conservatoire, 
Brussels 7 December 1881; on the stage, Ant- 
werp Autumn 1909 (in Flemish); Paris, O. 27. 
February 1916 (parts only). 

tar chi : Ariarate 

January. Milan, Sc. 
Text by F. Morctti. Three acts. 

The most successful of Tarchi's numerous 
Italian operas (see 1800 for the best work of his 
French period). Given at Bologna May 1786; 
Trieste 9 April 1787; Palermo 2 June 1787; 
Naples, S.C. 4 November 1787, etc. In Italian 
also, Warsaw 11 January 1787. 

naumann: GustafWasa 

igjanuary. Stockholm 
Text by J. H. Kellgren (scenario by King Gustaf 
in). Three acts. 

Given at Stockholm 134 times until 1823 and 
frequently revived during the 19th century (since 
12 April 1859 partly re-orchestrated by I. Lach- 
ner); parts of it even were revived as late as 18 
January 1923. 

(A Danish translation of the libretto, by F. H. 
Guldberg, was published in 1796; a Dutch ver- 
sion by J. Meerman in 1806.) The scenario by 
Gustaf in was published first in French (trans- 
lated by J. B. Dechaux), Stockholm 1804; in 
German (translated by C. F. Runs), Berlin 1805; 
in the original Swedish, Stockholm 1806. 

A parody by E. Schroderheim, Gustava Gock, 
was performed at Court 1787, published 1850. 

naumann: Orpheus og Euridice 

31 January. Copenhagen 
Text by C. D. Biehl (partly founded on Calza- 
bigi's libretto). Three acts. 

The first grand opera in the Danish language; 
given at Copenhagen until 1791. German vocal 
score (translated by C. F. Cramer) published 
1787. Given in concert form at Winterthur 30 
November 1791 (in German, orchestrated by 
T. Miiller); Stettin Winter 1798-99. 



A Danish parody by P. L. Heiberg, Michel og 
Malene, adapted to Naumann's music, was pub- 
lished in 1789. 

mozart: Der Schauspieldirektor* 

7 February. Vienna, Schonbrunn 
Text by G. Stephanie. Komodte nrit Musik. One 
act. The music consists of an overture, two airs, 
a trio and the finale. 

Written for a garden-party given by the 
Emperor Joseph n at Schonbrunn and performed 
together with Salieri's divertimento teatrale, Pri- 
ma la Musica epoi le Parole* (text by G. B. Casti). 
A correspondent to the Berlin periodical, Ephe- 
meriden derLiteratur and des Theaters (1786, p.189), 
mentions in his report of the Schonbrunn pro- 
duction the name of every singer as well as 
Stephanie's — but not Mozart's. 

Publicly performed Vienna, Ka. 18 (not 11) 
February 1786 and W. 5 August 1797; also at 
Salzburg 1797-98 and Graz 4 April 1799. Accord- 
ing to the preface to a later edition of Stephanie's 
Singspiele, it was also performed at Hamburg 
(before 1792; see Sonneck's Catalogue, pp.969-70; 
but this production is not recorded by Schutze, 
Meyer or by any other writer on the Hamburg 
stage). In a new arrangement by M. Stcgmayer 
(Quodlibet fur den Carncval) revived Vienna, W. 
20 February 18 14 (with additional music by 
Dittersdorf and others); also performed at Stras- 
bourg 17 September 1814; Agram 24 May 1827. 

After a long period of oblivion, the libretto 
was revised by L. Schneider, who replaced Ste- 
phanie's original imaginary characters by Mozart 
himself, Schikaneder (the "Schauspieldirektor"), 
Mozart's sister-in-law, Aloysia Lange, etc. This 
version was first produced at Berlin 25 April 
1845 and Vienna, Leop. 2 December 1845 (as 
Mozart und Schikaneder) and has been generally 
accepted since; given at Riga 17 November 
1845; Prague 7 August 1846; Basle 18 January 
1858; Vienna, Ka. 28 August 1858. Another ver- 
sion, by R. Genee, called Der Kapellmeister, was 
produced at Kroll's, Berlin 22 May 1896. The 
original version was revived at Vienna, V.O. 17 
February 1916. 



421 



422 



1786 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



Translated into other languages, mostly from 

L. Schneider's version, Der SchauspieUirektor was 

performed at: 

Paris, b.p. 20 May 1856 (as V Impresario, translat- 
ed by L. Battu and Lud. Halevy) and Tr.L. 
2 February 19 18 (asLc Directeurde Theatre, new- 
translation by P. Berel); the 1856 version was, 
by the B.P. company, also produced in London 
(see below) and at Berlin, Kroll's 26 June 1858. 
Revived Paris, Theatre Lyrique de la Porte 
Saint-Martin, 12 June 1936 in a version by 
Raymond Genty and Borel. 

Stockholm 27 January 1857 (in Swedish, trans- 
lated by J. C. Stjernstrom). 

London, st. james's 30 May 1857 (in French, by 
the BoufFes-Parisiens) ; Crystal Palace 11 Au- 
gust i860 (in concert form, in Italian); Crystal 
Palace 14 September 1877 (as The Manager, 
translated by W. Grist); Crystal Palace 18 Oc- 
tober 1892 and Olympic 25 October 1892 (in 
Italian, as V Impresario, with recitatives by A. 
Mascheroni); H.M.'s 23 July 1910 (in English). 

new york 9 November 1870 (in German) and 
26 October 1916 (in English, as The Impresario, 
translated by H. E. Krehbiel). 

Prague 12 March 1875 (in Czech; revived 11 
April 1916 and 9 January 1937). 

Copenhagen i September 1877 (in Danish, trans- 
lated by H. P. Hoist). 

Amsterdam July 1930 (in Dutch, at the Conser- 
vatoire). 
Lately revived in English, S. Francisco March 

1933 (translated by S. Neustadt); and Cambridge 

27 July 1937 and London, Sadler's Wells 23 

March 193 8 (translated by E. Blom) ; his version 

had previously been broadcast from London on 

17 March 1933. 
On Vulpius's Die theatralischen Abenteuer (made 

up from the SchauspieUirektor and from Cima- 

rosa's V Impresario in Angustie), see col.433. 

paisiello: Le Garegenerose 

Spring. Naples, Fior 
Text by G. Palomba. Two acts. 

The exact date of the first performance is un- 



known. According to the libretto it was given 
"per prim' opera in quest' anno", and this was 
in Spring according to G. Pavan. Very successful 
in Italy and abroad; on many stages given as Gli 
Schtavi per Amore. Milan, Sc. 13 August 1791, etc. 
In Italian also, Vienna 1 September 1786; 
Prague January 1787; London 24 April 1787 
(Anna Storace's London debut; revived 27 May 

1790 and 14 March 1797); Versailles August 
1787; Madrid 5 July 1789 and Barcelona 4 No- 
vember 1790; Moscow 1790 or 1791; Lisbon 
Carnival 1792; Warsaw 7 July 1792; Dresden 
3 October 1793; St. Petersburg 6 October 1798. 

In German (as Der Wettstreit der Grossmuth, 
translated by F. X. Girzik), Pressburg 1787; 
Bozen February 1789; Budapest 27 May 1789; 
Vienna, Th. a.d. Landstrasse 22 May 1790; and 
(in another translation by H. G. Schmieder, as 
Die beyden Fluchtlinge), Mayence 1789 (accord- 
ing to Schatz-Sonneck); Mayence 12 January 

1791 (according to the repertory as given in 
Journal des Luxus und der Moden); Hamburg 30 
June 1 791; Hanover 16 November 1791, etc. 

In French (as Le bon Maitre ou Les Esclaues par 
Amour, translated by C. J. A. Gourbillon and P. 
G. Parisau), Paris, Th. de M. 20 March 1790. 
Another French version (Le Maxtre ginereux, 
translated by P. U. Dubuisson) was produced at 
Paris, Th. Montansier 28 May 1790 and Th. Nat. 
20 August 1793; Amsterdam December 1792; 
Hamburg 1796; Antwerp 14 January 1804. 

pashkeevichj: Fevey 
OeBeii 

30 April St. Petersburg 
Text by the Empress Catharine H (from a Rus- 
sian story, O Kareuice Feveya). Four acts. 

First produced at the Ermitage; publicly per- 
formed St. Petersburg 8 December 1790. 

The vocal score was printed in 1789 under 
Pashkeevich's name. Later authorities (Longinov, 
in Molva, 1857, p.43) attribute the music to an 
otherwise completely unknown composer, Brisk 
(not Briks, as Riemann has it), under whose 
name the music was reprinted in 1895. 



423 



424 



1786 ANNALS 

mozart: Le Nozze di Figaro 

i May. Vienna, B. 
Text by L. da Ponte (founded on Beaumarchais's 
comedy, La folle Journie, on Le Manage de Figaro, 
1785). Four acts. 

When first produced in Vienna, the opera was 
not a very great success; there were nine per- 
formances in 1786, none in 1787 and 1788. Re- 
vived only 29 August 1789, with two new airs 
for Adrianna Ferrarese (Susanna), Al desio di chi 
Isadora and Un moto di gioia mi sento. For an 
account of the first production, see Michael 
Kelly's Reminiscences, Vol. 1, pp.258-262. 

Early productions in Italian were at: 
Prague December 1786. 
monza Autumn 1787 (see below). 
Florence Spring 1788 (see below). 
potsdam Autumn 1790. 
LErpziG 26 May 1793. 

First performed in German at: 
Prague, Rosenthal th. June 1787 (according to 
an advertisement quoted by Teuber, n, p.244; 
translated possibly by V. Maschek). 
donaueschingen 23 September 1787 (at the 
Prince of Fiirstenberg's private theatre; accord- 
ing to the play-bill, translated by Secretair 
Held and Kammersanger Walter). 
LErpziG 3 August 1788. 
graz 9 August 1788. 
frankfort ii October 1788 (translated by C. A. 

Vulpius). 
hanover 18 May 1789 (translated by A. F. von 
Knigge: "Der Dialog ist von meiner Tochter 
[Philippine Eregine von Knigge]. Sie hat dabei 
das franzosische Snick genutzt und manche 
launichte Stelle, die im Italienischen wegge- 
lassen war, wieder hereingebracht. Der Text 
der Arien ist von mir . . ." (Knigge's Drama- 
turgische Blatter, 23 May 1789). 

BRUNSWICK II August 1 789. 

celle 14 September 1789. 
bonn and cologne i 789 (Vulpius's translation). 
stuttgart 23 July 1790 (Vulpius's translation). 
Berlin 14 September 1790 (500th performance 
24 September 1908). 



OF OPERA 



1786 



mannheim 24 October 1 790. 

Hamburg 4 April 1791 (Knigge's translation). 

aachen 15 May 1792. 

Vienna, w. 28 December 1792 (translated by K. 

L. Gieseke). 
weimar 24 October 1793. 
Munich January 1794. 
breslau 31 October 1794. 

DRESDEN 30 April 1795. 

Vienna, ka. 10 July 1798 (Knigge's translation). 

On another early German translation (Passau 
1789) see A. E. Cherbuliez, in Bericht uber die 
musikwissenschaftliche Tagung . . . in Salzburg, 
1931, p.i50ff. 

In Italy the opera was first performed at Monza 
Autumn 1787 and Florence, P. Spring 1788. See 
on these rather odd productions (at Monza the 
3rd and 4th act was re- written by Angelo Tar- 
chi !) A. Einstein, in The Monthly Musical Record, 
July 1935. They passed nearly unnoticed; G. 
Piccini, in his II Teatro della Pergola (1912) does 
not even mention the Florence performance, 
while U. Morini (La R, Accademia degli ImmobUi 
ed il suo Teatro La Pergola, 1926) attributes the 
opera to Paisiello. Figaro was then given at Turin, 
T. Carignano Autumn 181 1, as II Matrimonio di 
Figaro; at Naples, Fondo March 1814; Milan, 
Sc. 27 March 181 5; Florence, T. degl* Intrepidi 
Spring 1 81 8 and P. Autumn 1821; Leghorn 
Carnival 1823; Milan, Canobbiana 8 October 
1825; Turin, T. Carignano Autumn 1826, etc. 

At the Fiorentini Theatre, Naples, an altered 
version of Da Ponte's libretto was produced in 
1792, called La Serva onorata (music by Piccinni) ; 
the text was ako used by Paer for his II nuovo 
Figaro (Parma January 1794). 

France and Belgium : 
PARIS, 0. 20 March 1793 (in French, translated by 

F. Notaris; spoken dialogue, from Beaumar- 

chais, instead of recitative; five performances 

only). 
Paris, th.i. 23 December 1807 (in Italian). 
n!mes 31 December 181 8 (French version by F. 

H.J. Castil-Blaze). 
nantes 17 January 1822 (French version by F. 

H. J. Castil-Blaze). 



425 



426 



1786 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



Brussels 11 April 1822 (French version by F. H, 

J. Castil-Blaze). 
ghent 29 November 1822 (French version by F. 

H. J. Castil-Blaze). 
lille 20 January 1823 (French version by F. H. 

J. Castil-Blaze). 
Antwerp 26 February 1826 (French version by 

F. H. J. Castil-Blaze). 
Paris, odeon 28 June 1826 (French version by 

F.H. J. Castil-Blaze). 
paris, th.l. 8 May 1858 (translated by J. Barbier 

and M. Carre). 
Antwerp 4 December 1900 (in Flemish). 
monte carlo 23 February 191 1 (new French 

version by P. Ferrier). 
paris, o.c. 5 March 1919 (Ferrier's version). 
paris, o.c. 1 July 1939 (new French version by 

A. Boschot). 

To the different Paris productions may be 
added the pasticcio, Figaro ou he Jour des Noces, 
text by F. V. A. and L. C. A. d'Artois de Bour- 
nonville, music arranged by Blangini (from 
Mozart's Figaro and Rossini's Barbiere), given at 
the Th. des Nouveautes 16 August 1827. The 
English equivalent was The Two Figaros t by J. R. 
Planche (founded on a French comedy by H. A. 
Richaud Martelly): London, Olympic 30 No- 
vember 1836 and New York 16 November 1837, 
music, as in the French pasticcio, from Mozart's 
and Rossini's operas. 

Other Countries : 
Amsterdam 8 July 1794 (hi German); 12 May 

1809 (in Italian); 6 February 1817 (in French); 

1825 (in Dutch). 
Madrid 20 May 1802 (in Spanish, translated by 

V. R. de Arellano). 
Budapest 20 March 1812 (in German) and 11 

September 1858 (in Hungarian, translated by 

M. F. = Miklos Feleki?). 
london, hm. 18 June 1812 (in Italian); C.G. 6 

March 18 19 (in English, adapted by T. Hol- 

croft, music arranged by Bishop) ; D.L. 12 May 

1 841 (in German); C.G. 15 March 1842 (new 

English version by J. R. Planche; with spoken 

dialogue). 
Copenhagen 9 January 1821 (in Danish, translat- 



ed by N. T. Bruun) ; I4june 1825 (in German) ; 
25 May 1842 (in Italian); 7 January 1844 (new 
Danish version by N. C. L. Abrahams). 

Stockholm 23 January 1821 (in Swedish, trans- 
lated by B. H. Crusell; Crusell's translation 
only published 1851; new Swedish translation 
by S. C. Bring published 191 1). 

Dublin 27 January 1821 (in English) and 6 March 
1838 (in Italian). 

new york 10 May 1824 (in English, Bishop's 
version); 24 October 183 1 (in French); 23 No- 
vember 1858 (in Italian); 18 December 1862 
(in German). 

Edinburgh 4 December 1832 (in Italian). 

ST. Petersburg December 1836 (in German); 
Carnival 1851 (in Italian); and 8 October 1901 
(in Russian, translated by M. I. Chaikovsky) ; 
revived Leningrad 19 May 1936 ; Moscow Con- 
servatory 1876 with recitatives by Tchaikovsky. 

christiania 1838 (in Danish). 

Helsinki 30 October 1840 (in German) and 20 
September 1922 (in Finnish, translated by T. 
Muroma). 

Bucharest 1 843 (in German) and October 1937 
(in Rumanian); revived 6 November 1938 in 
German, by the Frankfort Opera Company. 

zagreb July 1844 (in German) and 26 October 
1917 (in Croatian, translated by A. Kassowitz- 
Cvijic); revived in German 19 May 1938, by 
the Frankfort Opera Company. 

Rio de Janeiro 1 848 (in Italian). 

Prague 14 November 1852 (for the first time 
there in Czech, translated by E. Ujky). 

Sydney 19 August 1862 (in English). 

Warsaw 31 December 1885 (in Polish). 

SOFIA 23 September 191 1 (in Bulgarian, translat- 
ed by A. Naidenov) and 8 May 1938 (in Ger- 
man by the Frankfort Opera Company). 

Barcelona 2 February 1916 (in Italian) and 16 
January 1923 (in German); Catalan translation 
by J. Pena published 1927. 

London, old vic 1 5 January 1920 (new English 
version by E.J. Dent). 

Ljubljana 28 November 1926 (in Slovenian, 
translated by I. Sorli). 

buenos aires 29 June 1928 (in German). 



427 



428 



1786 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



Belgrade 1 5 May 1938 (in German). 
Athens 6 December 1938 (in German). 

dalayrac: Nina, ouLaFolle 
par Amour 

1$ May. Paris, CI. 
Text by B. J. Marsollier (founded on a story in 
F. T. M. de Baculard d'Arnaud's Dilassements de 
VHomme sensible). One act. 

Very successful in France; last revived Paris, 
O.C 5 January 1852. 

A parody, Nani ou La Folk de Village, by P. J. 
C. Lecocq Darcourt was published in 1787 and 
produced at Valenciennes 3 September 1788. 

In French also, Liege 24 November 1786, etc.; 
Aachen 21 July 1794; Charleston, S.C 23 July 
1794; Cologne 1796-97; St. Petersburg 5 No- 
vember 1798; Moscow 10 October 1808. 

In German (translated by B. C d'Arien), 
Hamburg 31 January 1787 and Munich October 
1787; (translated by H. G. Schmieder), Mann- 
heim 17 June 1787; Munich October 1787; 
(translated by J. Andre), Berlin 3 May 1788 and 
Potsdam 22 September 1788 (first opera sung in 
German there); Vienna, Leop. 11 June 1790 and 
W. 29 July 1806; Budapest 30 January 1796; 
Rotterdam Spring 1797; Berne Spring 1804. 

In English (translated by J. Wolcot, music 
adapted by W. T. Parke, additions by Shield; see 
Parke's Musical Memoirs, 1, p.95), London, C.G. 
24 April 1787. There are three more English 
versions, viz. Nina; or The Love distracted Maid 
(anonymous) and Nina; or The Madness of Love 
(by G. M. Berkeley), both published 1787. The 
third, by W. Dunlap, was used at a revival in 
New York 4 February 1805. 

In Italian (translated by G. Carpani), Monza 
Autumn 1788 and Milan, Canobiana March 
1789; but soon replaced in Italy by Paisiello's 
setting (see 1789). 
In Russian, Kouskovo 28 November 1790. 
In Swedish (translated by C Stenborg), 
Stockholm 8 December 1792; Malmo 17 April 
1807; Lund 15 August 1808. 

Dutch translation published 1789; performed 
in Flemish Oudenarde 1795. 



p. guglielmi: VInganno amoroso 

12 June, Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. Palomba. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy; given at Rome, T. Valle 
Carnival 1787 in a reduced version as Gli Equi- 
voci nati da Somiglianza; Venice, S. Moise Au- 
tumn 1788 as Le Nozze disturbate; Monza Au- 
tumn 1788 and Bologna Carnival 1791, as Le 
due Gemelle; Parma Carnival 1792 as VEquivoco 
amoroso; Savona 1793 as Li due Equivociper Somi- 
glianza; Padua Carnival 1794 as Le due finte 
Gemelle. Given in Italy until 1809; in Italian also, 
Vienna 9 April 1787; Barcelona 30 May 1789 
(revived 25 August 1803); Paris, Th. de M. 29 
May 1790 (additions by Paisiello); Marseilles 
March 1791; Trieste 26 December 1791; Madrid 
4 April 1793 ; Lisbon Spring 1796; St. Petersburg 
29 August 1798. 

A German version by J. B. Krebs, Die ZwiU 
lingsbriider, was produced at Stuttgart c.1810. 

dittersdorf: Doctor und Apotheker* 

11 July. Vienna; Ka. 
Text by G. Stephanie (said to be founded on a 
French play, L'Apothicaire de Murcia, which biblio- 
graphicaUy seems to be untraceable). Two acts. 

Dittersdorf *s most successful opera. Frequently 
revived on German stages up to the present time. 

Given at Pressburg 15 September 1786; Cassel 
13 April 1787; Hamburg 7 May 1787; Berlin 
25 June 1787 (113 times until 1853, revived 31 
December 1890, 1 November 1899 and 26 April 
1912). 

In German also, Budapest 26 November 1787; 
Schleswig 1788; Prague 1790; Riga 1790; Agram 
1790 (or earlier; see Journal des Luxus und der 
Moden t 1790, p. 5 13); Amsterdam 1792; Warsaw 
10 August 1793 ; Poznan 29 October 1803 ; Berne 
Spring 1804. 

In English (adapted by J. Cobb, additional 
music by S. Storace), London, D.L. 25 October 
1788 (running for 36 nights) ; also given at Dublin 
22 July 1789; Boston 1795; Charleston, S.C. 26 
April 1796 (music arranged by B. Bergman) ; Phi- 
ladelphia 20 May 1796; New York 3 March 1798. 



429 



430 



1786 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 17 November 1789. 

In Russian (translated by F. Rozanov), Moscow 
1788. 

In French (translated by Bcaunoir), Brussels 
2 May 1794 (music adapted by C. F. H. Du- 
quesnoy); Hamburg 1796. 

In Swedish (adapted by C. Envallsson), Stock- 
holm 6 June 1795 (at an earlier production 28 
October 1791 new music by J. D. Zander had 
been used); revived Gothenburg 29 April 1828 
and Stockholm 1 February 1858 (new Swedish 
translation by F. T. Hcdbcrg). 

In Dutch (translated by I. J. A. Gogcl), Am- 
sterdam 1796; revived Hague 1809. 

In Hungarian (translated by J. Kiss), Dcbrcczcn 
27 July 1799. 

Revived in German, Munich 22 May 1823 
(with additional numbers by Poissl); Basle 4 Jan- 
uary 1852 (first time in Switzerland?); New York 
30 June 1875. Some of the latest revivals in 
Germany were at Halle 1 January 191 8; Munich 
December 1924; Coblcnz March 1938 (revised 
by H. Burkard). 

j. c. vogel: La Toison d'Or 

5 September. Paris, O. 
Text by P. Dcsriaux. Three acts. 

Vogers first opera. The score is dedicated to 
Gluck, who praised the opera highly shortly 
before his death. Revived with alterations as 
Medee a Cokhos, Paris, O. 17 June 1788 (nine 
days before the composer's death at the age of 

32). 

Date of first performance according to the 
Mercure de France, to the Memoirs secrets and to 
the printed score. The libretto has August 29 
1786 and a second libretto published under the 
title Medee a Colchos ou la Toison d'Or was issued 
with the date of 27 September 1786. 

c i m A r o s A : Le Trame deluse 

September. Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. M. Diodati. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy; Milan, Sc. 19 August 1787 
(revived 2 November 1818); given at Bologna 



Autumn 1799, as Li Raooiri scopcrti; last revived 
Rome, Arg. 30 April 1822. 

In Italian also given at Vienna 7 May 1787; 
Madrid 5 July 1788; Dresden 3 January 17.89; 
Barcelona 14 October 1789; Corfu Carnival 
1790; Lisbon 13 May 1790 (revived Spring 1797); 
Marseilles Autumn 1790; London 14 February 
1792; Warsaw 6 June 1792; Paris, Th. Fcydcau 
16 June 1792. 

In German, Prcssburg 1788 and Budapest 28 
July ^89 (as Die bctrogenen Betruger); Weimar 
24 October 1794; Ocls 16 January 1796; Vienna, 
W. 18 June 1796 (as Die uereitelten Rdnke, trans- 
lated probably by C. A. Vulpius); Hanover 
4 February T802; Bremen 1802-03; Berlin ri 
January 1808. 

In Spanish, Madrid 23 October 1802 (as Las 
Tramas burladas). 

Date of first performance according to a note 
in the autograph score at Naples. 

schubaur: Die treuen Kohler 

2g September. Munich 
Text by G. E. Hecrmann (first set to music by E. 
W. Wolf in 1773). Two acts. 

Schubaur's last opera. Stuttgart 16 October 
1788, etc. Revived Vienna, W. 26 April 1797. 
Vocal score printed. (The libretto is founded 
upon a historical event, the kidnapping of two 
Saxon princes in 1455; see P. A. Merbach in 
Neues Archiv fur Sachsische Geschichte and Alter- 
tumskunde, 1929.) 

dittersdorf: Betrug dutch 
Aberglauben* 

3 October. Vienna, Ka\ 
Text by F. Eberl. Two acts. 

Successful on German stages: Pressburg and 
Cologne 1787; Frankfort 23 September 1787; 
Hamburg 7 July 1788; Hanover 22 October 
1788; Mannheim 16 November 1788; Berlin 17 
January 1789; Carlsruhe 19 January 1789; Stutt- 
gart 1 May 1789; Budapest I2june 1789; Munich 
September 1789; Prague 1790, etc. Revived 
Vienna 4 September 1796; Stuttgart 30 October 
1808. 



431 



432 



1786 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



In Danish (translated by A. G. Thoroup), Co- 
penhagen 15 March 1796. 

First performed 3 October, not 30 October as 
Riedinger has it. 

cimarosa: U Impresario in Angustie 

October. Naples, T.N. 
Text by G. M. Diodati. One act. 

In its original form this farce was given on the 
same bill with the two-act opera // Credulo by the 
same authors (see the original libretto in Son- 
neck's Catalogue, p.332). 

The difficulties in dating the first performance 
have been pointed out by Sonneck. According 
to Diodati's statement in the preface to the 
Impresario libretto, it was produced "appresso all 
altra mia he Trame dehise", which would mean 
about October, 

Given at Milan, Sc. 3 October 1789 and all 
over Italy (until about 1825); in Italian also, 
Trieste 6 December 1788; Paris, Th. de M. 6 
May 1789 (enlarged to 2 acts, additions by 
Gugliclmi and Giordani) ; Barcelona 1 3 July 
1789; Esztcrhaza 1790; Lisbon Carnival 1792; 
Warsaw 29 September 1792; Vienna 24 October 
1793; Ljubljana Spring 1794; Dresden Spring 
1794; St. Petersburg 1794 or 20 February 1795. 
Revived Paris, Th. I. 12 March 1802. 

In French (as Lc Dircctcttr dans I'Etubarras, 
translated by P. U. Dubuisson), Paris, Th. Bcau- 
jolais 23 December 1789; Ghent 1791 ; Hamburg 
c. January 1795; Rotterdam 25 April 1796; Berne 
26 February 1806; Moscow 19 April 1S09; Ant- 
werp 6 January 1821. Another French version, 
La Comedic a la Campagne, translated by F. A. 
Duvert, music adapted by P. C. Crcmont, was 
produced at the Odeon, Paris, 16 August 1825. 

In German (as Dcr Direkteur in dcr Klemnw, 
translated by Pilger), Aachen 8 May 1791 and 
Cologne 25 September iy<)i. Another version, 
by no less a translator than Goethe (who had 
been present at a performance of the Italian 
original at Rome on 31 July 1787), was produced 
;it Weimar 24 October T79T (as Die tlieatralisclwn 
Abaitaur; see M. Morris in Goetlu-Jahrhuch, Vol. 



xxvi, 1905). Some years later, a 2-act version, 
adapted by C. A. Vulpius to music from Cima- 
rosa's opera and Mozart's Schauspieldirektor (both 
of them originally produced in the same year 
and treating very similar subjects), was given at 
Weimar (14 October 1797) and subsequently on 
many other German stages; in German also, 
Laibach 15 January 181 1 and St. Petersburg 1813. 
Revived Hamburg 24 June 1814, Berlin 18 July 
1 817 and (Kgst.) 10 August 1824. A new Ger- 
man translation by E. Latzko was published 
1932. 

In Danish (translated by F. G. Sporon), Co- 
penhagen 15 December 1795. 

In Swedish (translated from the French ver- 
sion by C. G. Nordforss), Stockholm 28 April 
1799. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Lvov 1796 and Warsaw 1799. 

In Dutch (translated from the French version 
by W. van Ollefen), Amsterdam 1800. 

In Russian (translator not mentioned), Moscow 
25 October 1820. 

In the original Italian, Cimarosa's opera was 
revived at Turin, T.R. 28 February 1933, and 
Milan, Sc. 9 March 1938 (music revised by A. 
Toni). 

dalayrac: Azemia, ou Lc nouveau 
Robinson 

1 7 October. Fontainebleau 
Text by A. E. X. dc Lachabeaussicre [opera- 
comique ott roman lyri-comique). Three acts. 

Publicly performed Paris, C.I. 3 May 17S7 
(with the new sub-title Les Satwages, and with a 
new third act); given until 1828. 

In French also, Liege 3 October 17S9; Brussels 
17 June 1795; Cologne 1796-97; Hamburg and 
Gachina 1797; Moscow 5 February 1S10; New 
York 20 September 1827. 

In German (translated by H. G. Schmicder), 
Maycncc 26 May 17S9; Hamburg 21 September 
1789; Berlin 7 June 1790; Munich 8 April 179 1 ; 
Cologne 20 November 1791; Graz 18 April 
*793 (translated by J. Perinct); Vienna, Lcop. 7 



433 



434 



1786 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



July 1795 and Ka. 22 July 1805; Budapest 
6 June 1797; Berne Spring 1804; St. Petersburg 
1808; Basle 16 January 1809. 

Dutch translation by E. G. Beaumont publish- 
ed Rotterdam 1790; another by H. Ogelwight 
published Amsterdam 1791. 

In Swedish (translated by W. von Rosenheim), 
Stockholm 6 June 1793 and (in another version 
by C. Envallsson) 13 June 1793 (at two different 
theatres); Gothenburg 25 February 1796; Malmo 
27 April 1807; Lund 10 August 1807. 

In Russian (translated by V. A. Levshin), Kous- 
kovo c.i 794 and Moscow 1803. 

In Danish (translated by N. T. Bruun), Co- 
penhagen 29 October 18 10. 

In Dutch, Amsterdam 1817. 

lemoyne: Phedre 

26 October. Fontainebleau 
Text by F. B. Hoffman. Three acts. 

Letnoyne's chief work. Publicly performed 
Paris, O. 21 November 1786 (given there 36 
times until 1792 and revived 5 December 1795 
and 2 November 181 3). 

In Russian (translated by P." N. Semenov), St. 
Petersburg 30 December 181 8 (additional music 
by Steibelt). 

gretry: Les Meprises par 
Ressemblance* 

7 November. Fontainebleau 
Text by J. Patrat. Three acts. 

Paris, C.I. 16 November 1786. In French also, 
Amsterdam 9 April 1791; Brussels 8 December 
1799 (as Les deux Grenadiers). Revived Paris, O.C. 
24 September 1817 and 29 July 1858; in Swedish, 
Stockholm 7 March 1877 (as De bagge Grenadier- 
erna, orchestration revised by J. Dente). 

Patrat later had the music suppressed and his 
text produced as a comedy, under the title of Les 
deux Grenadiers ou Les Quiproquos; in this form 
performed, Th. de la Cite 7 October 1793. Dutch 
translation of this version published 1805. 



gretry: Le Comte d' Albert 

13 November. Fontainebleau 
Text by J. M. Sedainc (founded on a fable by 
Lafontainc). Two acts; produced on the same bill 
with a third act called Suite du Comte d* Albert. 
Revived as Albert et Antoine ou Le Service recom- 
pense, Fa. 7 December 1794. 

Paris, C.I. 8 February 1787. In French also, 
Liege 21 November 1787; Amsterdam 1788; 
Cologne 1796-97; St. Petersburg 27 April 1800; 
Hanover 11 June 1805; Moscow 29 April 1809; 
Antwerp 17 September 18 12. 

In German (translated by H. G. Schmicdcr), 
Mayencc 20 June 1789; Berlin 2 January 1799. 

In Swedish (translated by C. J. Lindegren), 
Stockholm 16 May 1799. 

In Russian (translated by A. P. Veshnyakov), 
St. Petersburg 23 December 1822. 

An English adaptation by P. Hoare, with some 
new music by M. Kelly, called A Friend in Need 
is a Friend indeed, was produced in London, D.L. 
9 February 1797. 

martin y soler: Una Cosa rara 
o sia Bellezza ed Onesta* 

1 7 November. Vienna, B. 
Text by L. da Ponte (founded on a story La Luna 
delta Sierra, by Luis Velez dc Guevara). Two acts. 
Martin y Soler's most popular work and one 
of the great operatic successes of that period. 
Frequently revived until about 1825. In Italian 
also given at: 

DRESDEN I787. 

Prague Autumn 1787. 
milan, s.c. 13 October 1787. 
Venice 26 December 1787. 
Trieste January 1788. 

ROME, VALLE 12 April T788. 
DRESDEN 12 April 178S. 
LJUBLJANA I788. 
ST. PETERSBURG Autumn I788. 

LONDON 10 January 1789. 
Madrid 23 September 1789. 
WARSAW 3 January 1790. 
Barcelona 2 September 1790. 



435 



436 



1786 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1786 



paris, th. feydbau 2 November 1791. 
Lisbon 25 April 1794 

CAGLIARI, SARDINIA Autumn 1805. 

Revived in London 13 June 1805 and 16 May 
1816; revived Paris 29 August 1812. 

In German (as Cosa rata, der scltne Fall, oder 
Schonheit und Tugend, translated by F. Eberl), 
Vienna, Leop. 26 June 1787; (as Eine scltne Ver- 
schuHsterung : Tugend und Schonheit bcysammen, 
translated by F. X. Girzik) Pressburg 1787 and 
Budapest February 1788; (as Lilla, oder Schonheit 
und Tugend, translated by J. Andre) Cologne 
Spring 1787, Hamburg 9 January 1788, Mann- 
heim 8 June 1788, Munich July 1788, Schleswig 
1788, Berlin 3 August 1788, Carlsruhe 16 Sep- 
tember 1788; (as Lilla, oder die seltene Treue) 
Prague 4 September 1789, Leipzig 24 September 
1789. 

In German also, Amsterdam 19 May 1792; 
Temesvar 7 March 1802; Berne Spring 1804; 
Poznan 3 October 1805. 

A German sequel, Dcr Fall ist nodi weit seltener ! 
oder: Die geplagten Ehemanncr (text by E. Schi- 
kaneder, music by B. Schack), was given at 
Vienna, W. 10 May 1790; Prague 1792; Ham- 
burg 1 October 1792; Budapest 11 September 

1793. 

In Russian (translated by I. A. Dmitrevsky), 
St. Petersburg 12 June 1789 (revived 26 June 
1803); Moscow 30 April 1795 (revived 27 April 
1806; 26 December 1816; 29 August 1823). 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 15 November , i79i. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 1794; Wilna 13 February 1810. 

In French (as Lcs Aaordees de Village, translated 
by J. Patrat), Paris, Th. Montansier 3 November 
1797, Th. de la Cite 14 December 1797; Ghent 
1 8 oo. 

For an English adaptation, see Storace's Siege 
of Belgrade, 179 1. 

Una Cosa rara was revived at Halle December 
1921 (in German, Andre's version revised by L. 
Sachse); Barcelona 21 April 1936 (in Italian, at 
the fourteenth Festival of the I.S.C.M.). 



A n F o s s I : Le Gelosie fortunate 

Autumn. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text by F. Livigni. Two acts. 

Milan, Sc. 10 February 1788, etc. 

In Italian also given at Barcelona 23 July 1787 
(revived 12 May 1791); Vienna 2 June 1788 and 
with alterations 13 June 1789; Esztcrhaza 1789; 
Madrid 22 October 1791 ; Trieste Summer 1794; 
Bastia, Corsica Spring 1797. 

Performed at Vienna with one inserted air by 
Mozart (Un bacio di mano, K.541). Performed 
at San Francesco d'Albaro, near Genoa Autumn 
1790 with additions by Paisiello. 



f o m I n : Novogorodskoy Bogatir 

Boyeslavich 

HoBoropo^CKoft BoraTbipb EoecjiaBHHb 

(Boyeslavich the Hero of Novgorod) 

S December. St. Petersburg 

Text by the Empress Catharine n. Five acts. 

First produced at the Ermitage; publicly per- 
formed Moscow 16 February 1795. 



STORACE 



Gli Equi 



uwoa 



;* 



27 December. Vienna, B. 

Text by L. da Ponte (founded on Shakespeare's 
Comedy of Errors. Dramma buffo . . . ad imitazione 
della comedia inglese di Shakespeare, chc ha per titolo : 
Les meprises). Two acts. 

Given at Leipzig Summer 1793 as Li quattro 
Gemelli; in Italian also, Prague 1793; Dresden 18 
November 1797. In German, Pressburg 1788. 

Later on Storace introduced parts of the music 
into his English operas Ko Song, no Supper (1790) 
and The Pirates (i79-)- See on Gli Equivoci, one 
of the earliest Shakespearean operas, H. Boas in 
Satnmelbande of the I.M.S., Vol. xv (1913-14), 
p.330, and A. Einstein in The Monthly Musiccl 
Record, March-April, 1936. 



437 



438 



1787 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



1787 



champein: Les Dettes 

11 January. Paris, C.L 
Text by N. J. Forgeot. Two acts. 

Given in Paris until 1826. 

In French also, Liege 20 January 1788; Charles- 
ton, S.C. 21 July 1795; Hamburg 1795; Cologne 
1795-96; Hanover 20 January 1804; Moscow 28 
July 1 810. 

In Dutch (translated by H. Ogelwight), Am- 
sterdam July 1791. 

(Date of first performance according to Mer- 
curc de France; the libretto gives 8 January 1787O 

paisiello: Pirro 

12 January. Naples, S.C. 
Text by G. de Gamerra. Three acts. 

Successful in Italy (last revived Naples, S.C. 
25 December 181 1; Parma 5 December 1812). 
Given at Rome, Ap. Summer 1798 in a reduced 
2-act version. 

In Italian also given at Trieste 24 April 1789; 
Warsaw i6January 1790; Leipzig Summer 1793 ; 
Madrid 14 October 1793; Prague 1794*. London 
13 June 1809 (in preparation already in 1 791, 
semi-public dress rehearsals 23 February, 10 and 
22 March; not produced then as the licence was 
refused by the Lord Chamberlain); Paris 19 Jan- 
uary 181 1 (first Italian opera seria there for 125 
years, since Cavalli's Ercole amante in 1662!). 

(According to Paisiello himself, Pirro was the 
first serious opera which contains finales.) 1 

vogler: Castore e Polluce 

12 January. Munich 
Text: a reduced 3-act version of C. I. Frugoni's 
I Tintaridi (see 1760). 

Successful at Munich. Revived (in Italian) 
Prague 1798 and 1801; Vienna 22 December 
1803 (in concert form); Munich 14 January 1806 
(with alterations, at the wedding of Eugene Beau- 
harnais with Princess Augusta of Bavaria). 

The chorus of the furies from Castore e Polluce 
was introduced into a Don Giovanni performance 

1 Not true. H.R. 



at Munich as late as 1824 (A.M.Z., 1824, p.585; 
see also C. M. von Weber's letter of 22 March 
1811). 

Date of first production according to Schatz* 
Rudhart, Zenger. 

dittersdorf: Democrito corretto 

24 January. Vienna, B. 
Text (according to G. Gugitz) by G. Brunati 
(founded on J. F. Regnard's comedy Dimocrite, 
1700). Two acts. 

The Italian production was a Failure, but the 
opera became fairly popular on the German 
stage. The earliest German version (1788) was 
called Silene (by Dittersdorf himself? see A. E. 
Brachvogel, Geschichte der Kbniglichen Theater zu 
Berlin, Vol. n, 1878, p.134); produced perhaps at 
Pressburg 1788 as Der gebesserte Democrit. 

In a German version by H. G. Schmieder the 
opera was then given at 
mayence 1790 (as Democrit). 
mannheim 26 May 1 79 1 as Der eingebildete De- 
mocrit. 
aachen 5 June 1791 and Cologne 3 October 1791 

as Democrit am Hofe. 
frankfort 10 July 1791 as Democrit. 
Hamburg 27 July 1 79 1 as Democrit der Zweyte 
(translation altered by F. L. Schroder; in 3 acts). 
Munich 13 June 1794 as Der neue Democrit. 

(Date of first performance according to Pohl 
and others: Riedinger has 1 January; Schatz- 
Sonneck 27 January, perhaps following Krebs's 
"Wednesday, 27 January"; yet 27 January was 
a Saturday.) 

bulant: Zbitenshchik 

36HTeHI>mHKb 

(The Seller of Mead) 
28 January. Moscow 
Text by Y. B. Knyazhnin. Three acts. 

Very popular Russian comic opera. First given 
at St. Petersburg 22 May 1789, and frequently 
revived on Russian stages until after 1850. The 
text (first printed in 1789) is an imitation of the 
Barber of Seville, which, in Paisiello's setting, had 



439 



440 



1787 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



been very successful in Russia (sec 1782). A MS 
score of the opera was shown at the International 
Theatre Exhibition, Vienna, 1892. 

Dates of the first performances according to 
N. Findeizen's "OnepKH no HcropHH My3biKH 
b Pocchh . . ." (1929), Vol. 11, p.107. Different 
dates, probably misprinted, are given in the same 
author's article on early Russian opera in The 
Musical Quarterly, 1933. 

schall: Claudine af Villa Bella 

29 January. Copenhagen 
Text, a Danish version, by N. H. Weinwich, of 
Goethe's Singspiel (see 1780). Three acts. 
The first of Schall's seven Danish operas. 

gazzaniga: Don Giovanni Tenorio 
o sia II Convitato di Pietra* 

5 February. Venice, S. Moise 
Text by G. Bertati. One act. 

Forming the second act of 7/ Caprkcio dramma- 
tico (music perhaps by Valentini, who is mention- 
ed in a later libretto, Forli, 1789). Wiel and Schatz 
have made it clear that II Capriccio drammatko is 
only a slightly altered version of Bertati's La No- 
vita (Venice, S. Moise Autumn 1775), which 
then served as introductory act to Vltaliano a 
Parigi (music of both by Alessandri). 

Very successful in Italy; Bologna Spring 1788; 
Milan, Sc. 3 October 1789; Turin and Forli 1789, 
etc. (given at Milan, T. Lentasio, as late as 11 
April 1821). In Italian also Paris 10 October 1791 
(Cherubini, then conductor at the Th. Feydeau, 
introduced some pieces from Mozart's Don Gio- 
vanni into Gazzaniga's work and one quartet of 
his own) ; Lisbon Carnival 1792; London 1 March 
1794 (see below); [Madrid 12 November 1796, 
Gazzaniga's according to Carmena y Millan; in 
reality Fabrizi's opera, according to the libretto]. 

The opera is of special interest as the immediate 
forerunner of Mozart's Don Giovanni; particular- 
ly so since Chrysander first drew attention to the 
fact that Da Ponte, Mosart's librettist, obviously 
knew Bertati's text, and not only knew but used 



it. When in 1794 poet to the King's Theatre, Da 
Ponte concocted a new one-act version from 
Bertati's and from his own libretto; this "tragi- 
comic opera," II Don Giovanni, was produced in 
London on 1 March 1794 with parts of Gazza- 
niga's music and additional airs by Sarti, Federici 
and Guglielmi. Mozart's opera came to London 
no less than 23 years later. It is, however, likely 
that at least Mozart's "Catalogue Song" was heard 
in London in 1794 as the text is literally to be 
found in the libretto. (See Chrysander's study in 
Vierteljahrsschrift fur Musikwissenschaft, Vol. iv 
[1887], which deals thoroughly with the whole 
Gazzaniga-Mozart question.) 

dittersdorf: DieLiebe im 

Narrenhause* 

12 April. Vienna, Ka. 
Text by G. Stephanie. Two acts. 

Successful on German stages; given at Press- 
burg 1787; Cologne 1787-88; Hamburg 8 De- 
cember 1788 (as Orpheus der Zweyte, text altered 
by F. L. Schroder, music adapted by J. F. 
Honicke); Hanover 2 November 1789; Stuttgart 
5 April 1790; Munich November 1790; Berlin 
16 May 1791, etc. In German also, Budapest 4 
June 1790; Amsterdam 1792; Warsaw 28 Sep- 
tember 1793. Revived Stuttgart 26 November 
1808; Wtirzburg 27 October 1813. 

cimarosa:!/ Fanatico burlato 

Spring. Naples, Fondo 
Text by S. Zinu Two acts. 

(The title in a MS score at the Florence Con- 
servatory is La Burl a f dice overo II Fanatico burlato.) 
According to the libretto given "per prim' opera 
di quest' anno", which was in Spring according 
to Cambiasi. Successful in Italy; Milan, Sc. 30 
March 1788, etc. Revived Naples, T.N. Carnival 
1808; Florence, P. October 1809. 

Outside Italy given at Vienna 10 August 1788; 
Barcelona 27 April 1789; Paris, Th. de M. 28 
November 1789; Corfu Autumn 1790; Lisbon 
1794. 



441 



442 



1787 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



In German as Der adelsuchtige Burger, Mann- 
heim 13 October 1791. 

ahlstrom: Frigga 

31 May. Stockholm 
Text by C. G. af Leopold (founded on a comedy 
by King Gustaf in of Sweden). One act. 

Revived Stockholm 18 April 1803 (in an en- 
larged 2-act version). Sec T. Norlind's study in 
Svensk Tidskrift for Musikforskning, Vol. vm 
(1926). 

salieri: Tarare 

8 June. Paris, O. 

Text by P. A. Caron dc Bcaumarchais. Prologue 
and 5 acts. 

Salicri's chief work. Given in Paris 131 times 
until 1826; revived 3 August 1790 with some 
additions; 16 July 1799; and 3 February 1819 in 
a reduced 3-act version arranged bv A. F. Dc- 
saugiers).. 

In French also, Liege 24 January 1789; St. 
Petersburg 1789 (revived 1 July 1803); Copen- 
hagen 1799 (the prologue only, in concert form); 
Hanover 23 March 1804; Hague 1805; Bruns- 
wick 1806; the second ver s i on Brussels 24 Feb- 
ruary 1821. 

A parody by F. L. dc Bonncfoy dc Bonyon, 
called Lanlairc 011 Le Cha 0Sj was produced at the 
C.I., Paris 27 July 1787; another, Bagare, by 
Magnc dc Saint-Aubi n , was given in another 
theatre four days latc r , and a third, Errata, by 
F. L. B***, was published in the same year. 

Even more successful than the French original 
was an Italian adaptation by Da Pontc (original- 
ly in 5 acts) Axnr, R c d'Ormus; first performed 
Vienna, B. 8 January 1788, celebrating the wed- 
ding of the Archduke (later Emperor) Francis 11; 
this version w as also given at : Prague and Leipzig 
1788; Dresden 21 November 1789 (reduced to 
2 acts); War saw 2 January 1790; Lisbon 17 De- 
cember 1790 an d Spring 1799; Milan, Sc. 16 May 
1792 and Summer 1797; Barcelona 1800; Paris, 
Th.I. 6 Ma rc h 1813; Rio dc Janeiro 17 Decem- 
ber 1 8 14. 



Into German the opera was first translated by 
F. X. Girzik (Pressburg 1788 and Budapest 3 
November 1789) and by W. Mullcr (published 
Carlsruhe 1788; not intended for the stage). 

On most stages a 4-act version by H. G. 
Schmicder was used: Frankfort 14 August 1790; 
Hanover and Potsdam 23 September 1791 and 
Berlin 24 October 1791; Cassel 3 September 
1791; Stuttgart 8 October 1791; Hamburg 28 
December 1791; Amsterdam 28 May 1794; 
Vienna 8 December 1797, etc. 

Given at Briinn in 18 10 in a new translation 
called Atar. Frequently revived in Germany; 
some of the latest productions were at Prague 
20 January 1815 and 1827 (rc-scored by Tricben- 
see); Weimar 26 December 1835; Munich 14 
January 1842; Frankfort 1844; Leipzig 24 March 
1846; Altona 1851; Stuttgart as late as 27 Sep- 
tember 1863 (re-scored by P. von Lindpaintncr 
and K. Eckcrt, new translation by F.J. Schiitky). 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 24 September 1793; Poznan 13 July 
1 801; Wilna 8 September 1S01. 

Anonymous Dutch translation published 1793. 

In Russian, Moscow 21 November 1817. 

An English translation by C. James was pub- 
lished as early as 1787; but the opera was only 
produced at the Ly., London 15 (not 14) August 
1825 ("compiled from the German, French, and 
Italian scores and arranged to the English words 
by Mr. Hawes"; English version by S.J. Arnold.). 

schulz: Aline, Reine de Golconde 

Summer. Rhcinsbcrg 
Scdainc's text (first set to music by Monsigny, see 
1766). Three acts. 

Performed at the private French opera-house 
of Prince Heinrich of Prussia where Schulz was 
conductor. The exact date of the production is 
unknown; the performance is alluded to in the 
preface of the vocal score, published in 1790. The 
opera was very popular afterwards in a Danish 
adaptation by T. Thaarup (Aline Dronnina i Gol- 
conda); first performed at Copenhagen 30 Jan- 
uary 1789 and given there until 181 8. 



443 



444 



i 7 8 7 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



b e r t o n : Les Promesses de Manage 

4 July. Paris, CI. 
Text by P. J. B. Choudard Desforges (a sequel to 
his Theodore et Paulin, composed by Gretry, see 
1784). Two acts. m 

The first of the younger Berton's numerous 
operas. 

dalayrac: Renaud d'Ast 

19 July. Paris, CI. 
Text by J. B. Radet and P. Y. Barre (founded on 
Lafontaine's talc, L'Oraison de Saint-Julien). Two 
acts. 

In Paris, given until 1828; in French also, Liege 
15 November 1789; St. Petersburg 22 July 1795; 
Cologne 1796-97; Hanover 24 January 1804; 
Moscow 19 December 1807 ; Stockholm April 1813 . 

In German: 
hanover 16 June 1788 (as Reinald, translated by 

H. G. Schmicder). 
mayence November 1788 (as Reinald, translated 

by H. G. Schmieder). 
HAMBURG 12 January 1790 (as Reinald, translated 

by H. G. Schmieder). 
Amsterdam 1790 (as Reinald, translated by H. G. 

Schmieder). 
Berlin 27 July 1791 (as Reinald, translated by H. 

G. Schmieder). 
Vienna, w. 27 August 1 791 (as Georg von Asten, 

translated by K. L. Gieseke). 
Munich 3 November 1799 (as Georg von Asten, 

translated by K. L. Gieseke). 
Vienna, leop. 3 October 1799 (as Der Liebhaber 

in der Klenww, translated by J. Pcrinet) and 1 

December 1801 (translated by Sedtler). 

In Italian (translated by G. Carpini), Monza 
Autumn 1789. 

In Danish (translated by O. C Olufscn and F. 
Schwartz), Copenhagen 16 April 1793. 

In Swedish (translated by C Envallsson), 
Stockholm 6 June 1796. 

In Russian, Moscow 26 December 1799. 

In Flemish, Oudcnarde 1799. 

A Dutch translation by J. van Walrc was pub- 
lished in 1803. 



haffner: Electra 

22 July. Stockholm 
Text by A. F. Ristell (from a French libretto by 
Guillard, set to music by Lemoyne in 1782). Three 
acts. 

The first and most important of Hafrner's three 
Swedish operas; first performed at the Palace of 
Drottningholm; given at the Royal Theatre, 
Stockholm 10 December 1787. 

Arnold: Inkle and Yarico 

4 August. London, Little Hm. 
Text by G. Colman, the younger. Three acts. 

One of Arnold's most popular works. Dublin 
5 December 1787; Kingston, Jamaica 2 August 
1788; New York 6 July 1789; Philadelphia 17 
May 1790; Calcutta 10 February 1791; Boston 
I794- 

Frequently revived on English stages; at New 
York as late as 22 April 1 844. (Date of first per- 
formance verified from the play-bill ; the libretto 
has 11 August). 

philidor: La belle Esclave ou 
Valcour et Zeila 

18 September. Paris, Th. Beaujolais 
Text by A. J. Dumaniant. One act. 

One of Philidor's last works; also given at 
Marseilles 1 March 1788; Liege 19 September 
1789, etc. 

martin y $ o lex : L'Arbore di Diana* 

1 October. Vienna, B. 
Text by L. da Ponte. Two acts. 

Written to celebrate the wedding of the Arch- 
duchess Maria Theresa with Prince Anton of 
Saxony. Nearly as successful as Una Cosa rara by 
the same authors (see 1786). 

In Italian also given at Prague 16 January 1788; 
Leipzig 25 May 1788; Milan, Sc. 1 October 1788; 
Trieste 26 December 1788; Passau 31 January 
1789; Madrid 4 November 1789; Warsaw 25 
February 1790; Barcelona 25 August 1791; Rot- 
terdam 1795; London 18 April 1797. 



445 



446 



1787 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



In German (translated by F. Eberl), Vienna, 
Leop. 17 July 1788 and Ka. 29 August 1802; 
(translated by F. X. Girzik), Pressburg 1788; 
Budapest 26 August 1789; (translated by B. C. 
d'Arien), Hamburg 10 November 1788; (trans- 
lated by C. G. Neefe), Bonn 3 January 1789. 

Berlin 24 February 1789; Prague 26 April 1791 
(revived 25 June 1 808) ; Amsterdam 1 792 ; 
Weimar 10 October 1793 (translated by C. A. 
Vulpius); Schleswig 1799; Temesvar 3 Decem- 
ber 1 801; Basle 23 January 1809. Revived Stutt- 
gart 2 January 1819 (new German version by F. 
K. Hiemer). 

In French (translated by P. U. Dubuisson), 
Paris, Th. Montansier 6 May 1790; Ghent 1799. 

In Russian (translated by I. A. Dmitrevsky), 
St. Petersburg 1 5 September 1 789 ; Moscow 
1792; revived Moscow 1 December 1808 and 
St. Petersburg 13 October 1818. 

In Polish (translated by J. N. Kaminski), Lvov 
1798; Wilna 30 December 1798; Warsaw 31 
August 1799. 

Anonymous Dutch translation published (n.d.). 

PAisiELLO:La Modista Raggiratrice 

Autumn. Naples, Fior. 
Text by G. B. Lorenzi (founded on an older lib- 
retto by G. A. Federico, Filippo, 1735, and first 
set to music by Tritto in 1784). Three acts. 

Very successful in Italy; Milan, Sc. 7 June 1790, 
etc.; given at Rome, T. Valle June 1788 as La 
Scuffiara amante sia It Maestro di Scuola Napo- 
letano; at Pavia Carnival 1789 and Lodi Sum- 
mer 1789 as La Cuffiara astuta ossia L'onesta 
Raggiratrice; at Gorizia Carnival 1790 as La Mo- 
dista ossia La Scuffiaja, with some alterations ; at 
Naples 1792 and Milan, Sc. 26 May 1808 as La 
Scuffiara (with new additions); at Florence, P. 
Spring 1800 as LaScuffia Raggiratrice. 

Outside Italy: Vienna 23 April 1788; Warsaw 
25 September 1789 (by amateurs); Madrid 26 
July 1 791; Lisbon Carnival 1792; Leipzig Sum- 
mer 1793; London 16 April 1796 (revived 16 
February 1819; Paisiello's setting according to 
the libretto, not Tritto's, as Nicoll has it) ; Paris, 
Th. I. 11 July 1802. 



Revived Naples, T.N. Autumn 1843 and 
again Fior. 15 April 1883 ("riveduta, corretta e 
rinnovata, ne si sa da chi", as a reviewer wrote); 
Rome 1 January 1892. 

mozart: II Dissoluto punito 
o sia II D. Giovanni 

2p October. Prague 
Text by L. da Ponte (Dramma giocoso) y partly 
founded on Bertati's Don Giovanni sia II Con- 
vitato di Pietra (see above). Two acts. 

Given at Prague 532 times within 100 years 
(during the same period given at Berlin 491 times, 
at Vienna 472 times); given at Prague for the 
first time in German 8 November 1 807 (but ac- 
cording to O. Teuber already in 1791 at the 
"Vaterlandische Biihne im Hiberner Kloster"); 
given at Prague for the first time in Czech 9 
April 1825 (see the preface to J. N. Stepanek's 
translation) and revived in a new Czech version 
by V. J. Novotny 27 September 1884; 100th 
Czech performance 12 June 1894. 

After Prague, first produced at Vienna, B. 7 
May 1788 (in Italian, with three additional num- 
bers : the airs, Mi tradi and DaJla sua pace and the 
duet, Per queste tue manine) ; given at Vienna for 
the first time in German: W. 5 November 1792 
(translated by C. H. Spiess); Ka. 11 December 
1798 (translated by K. F. Lippert). 

In Italian also performed at Leipzig 15 June 
1788 (by the Prague company; called on the 
play-bill, Ein grosses Singspiel). 

Productions in German up to 1802 
[The following list is, with additions and cor- 
rections, founded on the studies by C. Engel (Die 
Don Juan-Sage aufderBuhnc, 1887), R. von Freis- 
zuft (Mozart's Don Juan y 1887), A. Schatz (review 
of Freisauff's book in VicrteljahrsschriftfiirMusik- 
wissenschaft, 1888) and P. A. Merbach (in Die 
Scene, Vol. vn, parts 7-9, 1917); for details on 
the earliest German productions see also the 
various papers by O. Bacher.] 
mayence 13 March 1789, and Frankfort 3 May 
1789 (translated by H. G. Schmieder); these 
dates have been established by O. Bacher; the 



447 



448 



1787 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



wrong date of 23 May 1789 for the first 
German performance of Don Giovanni (Son- 
neck, Abert, etc.) should be rectified. 

mannheim 27 September 1789 (translated by C. 
G. Neefe). 

bonn 13 October 1789 (translated by C. G. 
Neefe). 

Hamburg 27 October 1789 (translated by F. L. 
Schroder). 

graz 30 November 1789 (this performance is 
doubtful; announced, but not reviewed. First 
recorded performance at Graz 28 May 1795). 

brunn December 1789. 

AUGSBURG 1790. 

soest 26 June 1790. 

SCHWERIN 5 July 1790. 

Berlin 20 December 1790 (Schroder's transla- 
tion; 500th performance 25 November 1887); 
in Italian: Kgst. 24 April 1843. 

hanover 4 March 1791. 

cassel 16 April 1791 (given there in French in 
April 181 1). 

Prague 1791 (at the "Vaterlandische Buhne im 
Hiberner Kloster", according to O. Teuber). 

pyrmont 8 July 1 79 1. 

MUNICH 7 AugUSt I79I. 

cologne 7 October 1791. 

breslau 20 January 1792 (Schmieder's translation). 

weimar 30 January 1792 (in Italian: 4 September 

1813). 
glogau 26 July 1792. 
Bremen 24 October 1792. 
Vienna, w. 5 November 1792 (translated by C. 

H. Spiess). 
Brunswick 10 March 1793. 
munster March 1793. 
passau May 1793 (but see A. E. Cherbuliez, in 

Bericht iiber die musikwissensehaftliche Tagung 

. . . in Salzburg^ 193 1, p. 150 if. where a Passau 

1789 score is mentioned). 

DUSSELDORF, AACHEN, KONIGSBERG 1 793. 

lubeck 17 October 1793. 

oels 11 January 1794. 

Amsterdam 9 June 1 794 (according to Rogge 

and Scheurleer; Schatzhas 8 March 1794, Mer- 

bach 11 November 1794). 



GOTHA AND OEDENBURG 1 794. 

rudolstadt 10 September 1794. 
danzig 11 September 1794. 
erfurt 22 September 1794. 
schleswig 1 December 1794. 
kiel 12 January 1795. 
magdeburg January 1795. 
stettin 30 January 1795. 

NUREMBERG 20 April 1795- / 

erlangen May 1795. 

FRANKFORT (ODER) 1 795. 

lauchstedt 3 August 1795. 

Dresden 16 September 1795 (new German ver- 
sion by C. A. Zschiedrisch; in Italian: 28 May 
1 8 14). 

Leipzig 3 January 1796 (in Italian earlier, see 
above). 

stuttgart 28 March 1796. 

POTSDAM I796. 
FREIBURG 1796. 

salzburg 18 January 1797. 

dessau 27 January 1797. 

bautzen 6 April 1797. 

gorlitz 1797. 

reval 1797 (in Estonian much later, see below). 

ST. Petersburg 1 797 (according to Theaterjournal 
1797, h p.196). 

Budapest 28 December 1797 (according to All- 
gemeine Deutsche Theaterzeitung, Pressburg; ac- 
cording to J. Kadar only 1801. But according 
to Gothaer Theaterkalender 1790, p.131, in pre- 
paration there already in 1790, translated prob- 
ably by F. X. Girzik). 

karlsbad 23 June 1798. 

nachod i July 1798. 

linz 2 November 1798. 

Vienna, ka. 11 December 1798 (translated by K. 
F. Lippert). 

pressburg 26 December 1798. 

sagan 1 January 1799. 

altenburg 2 May 1799. 

naumburg 23 June 1799. 

aurich and minden 1799. 

riga 1799 (in Lettish much later, see below). 

ballenstedt January 1799. 

greifswald 1 3 February 1800. 



449 



450 



1787 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



INNSBRUCK 22 April l800. 

altona 29 November 1800. 

coburg 18 March 1801. 

elbing 9 June 1802. 

In 1 801 F. Rochlitz's translation (founded on 

Neefe and Schroder) was published which served 

as a standard version for c. 50 years; more recent 

German versions are by G. H. F. T. Sever (1854); 

W. Viol (1858); L. BischofF (i860); A. von 

Wolzogcn (i860 and 1869); C. H. Bitter (1866); 

B. Gugler (1869); T. Epstein (1870); F. Gran- 

daur (1871); K. F. Niese (1872); M. Kalbeck 

(1886); H. Levi (1896); E. Heinemann (1904); 

K. Scheidemantel (191 3); A. Bodanzky (1914)* 

etc. 

"Don Giovanni" in other countries 
Poland 

Warsaw 14 October 1789 (in Italian) and 1817 
(in Polish, translated by K. Brodziriski). 

poznan 24 October 1803 (in German). 

lemberg 27 February 1879 (in Polish; but cer- 
tainly given earlier there in German). 

Russia 

ST. Petersburg 1 797 (in German, see above; no 
performance earlier than 1800 is recorded by 
Findeizcn. In Journal des Luxtts mid der Modcn 
and in Iffland's Almanack furs Theater a perform- 
ance in Spring 1809 is mentioned. The earliest 
extant play-bill dates from 14 May 1828). 

ST. Petersburg 3 May 1 828 (in Russian, trans- 
lated by R. M. Zotov; date according to 
Stasov and Cheshikhin; Freisauff and Schatz 
give 2 September 1828). 

Moscow 7 June 1825 (in Italian). 

ST. Petersburg Carnival 183 1 (in Italian). 

kiev 1876 (in Russian, translated by A. Grigor- 
ycv). 

Holland 

Amsterdam 9 June 1794 (in German, see above; 
copy of the libretto Coll. Portheim, Vienna). 

Amsterdam 1 8 October 1803 (in French; the 
Kalkbrcnncr version, sec below, under Paris). 

Amsterdam 26 March 1804 (in Dutch, translated 
by H. Ogelwight). 



Amsterdam 3 1 January 1809 (in Italian; the 
French translation in the libretto [copy Coll. 
Hirsch, British Museum] by F. C. Miiller). 

hague 11 May 1804 (in Dutch) and 7 December 
1 8 1 5 (in French) ; the Castil-Blaze version 1835; 
20 May 1829 (in German). 

Rotterdam 27 May 1 8 io (in German); n Feb- 
ruary 1836 (in French); 23 March 1843 (in 
Italian). 
See on the productions of Don Giovanni in 

Holland, H. C. Rogge in Tijdschrift der Vereeni- 

ging voor Noord-Nederlands Musiekgeschiedenis y 

Vol.11 (1887), p.237. 

A new Dutch translation by C. van der Linden 

was published in 1903. 

Hungary 

Budapest 28 December 1797 (? in German, see 
above). 

kronstadt 8 October 1826 (in Hungarian, trans- 
lated by E. Paly; his version published Kassan 
1829). 

clausenburg 1 4 December 1826 (in Hungarian, 
translated by E. Paly. 

Budapest 24 November 1827 (in Hungarian, 
translated by E. Paly. 

Budapest 29 May 1839 (new Hungarian version 
by J. Szerdahelyi; since 1917 a modern trans- 
lation by Z. Harsanyi has been used). 

France 

paris, o. 17 September 1805 (30. Fructidor An 
xiii, in French, adapted by J. Thuring and D. 
Baillot, music arranged by C. Kalkbrenner; 
this mutilated version was given 28 times until 
27 January 1 807. The Empress Josephine was 
present at the first night; Napoleon heard the 
opera about the same time at Ludwigsburg on 
4 October 1805). 

paris, th. 1. 2 September 1811 (in Italian; under 
Spontini's direction). 

paris, odeon 24 December 1827 (in French, as 
Lc Festin de Pierre, adapted by F. H. J. Castil- 
Blaze, with dialogue from Moliere's play; 4 
acts). 

paris, th. I. 26 May 1 83 1 (in German, by a 
company from Aachen). 



451 



452 



1787 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



paris, o. 10 March 1834 (in French; new 5-act 
version by H. Blaze de Bury and E. Deschamps. 
Revived 21 March 1841, 2 April 1866, etc.; 
1 ooth performance 4 November 1872. Since 
1 866 given with a ballet, music from Mozart, 
arranged by Auber). 

paris, th. L. 8 May 1866 (new translation by 
H. Trianon, music adapted by J. F. E. Gauticr). 

paris, o.c. 17 November 1896 (new translation 
by L.V. Durdilly). 

paris, o.c. 30 April 1912 (new translation by 
P. Ferrier). 

paris, ch.e. 28 May 1924 (in German, by the 
Vienna O. company). 

paris, o. 14 March 1934 (new translation by A. 
Boschot). 

lille 10 October 1805 (in French; the Kalkbren- 
ner version). 

nantes 14 November 18 14 (in French). 

lyons 10 December 1822 (in French; first pro- 
duction of the Paris 1827 version) and 9 Octo- 
ber 1 841 (in German). 

rouen 4 June 1 841 (in German); 24 January 1866 
(in Italian); and 19 January 1898 (in French). 

Marseilles 1 5 September 1842 (in German) and 
16 May 1867 (in French). 

bordeaux 26 April 1869 (in French). 

monte carlo 14 February 1907 (in Italian). 

Belgium 
Ghent 5 October 1806 (in French; the Kalkbren- 

ner version). 
Brussels i April 1807 (in French; the Kalkbren- 

ner version). 
Antwerp 3 December 1807 (in French; the Kalk- 

brenner version). 
liege 23 May 1839 (in German). 
Brussels 9 August 1844 (in German). 
Brussels 20 March 1861 (in Italian). 
Brussels 17 May 1867 (in French, the Paris 1834 

version). 
Antwerp i October 1898 (in Flemish, translated 

by E. Keurvels). 

Denmark, Sweden, Norway 
Copenhagen 5 May 1807 (in Danish, translated 
by L. Kruse). 



Copenhagen 23 February 1845 (new Danish ver- 
sion by N. C. L. Abrahams). 

Copenhagen 1 June 1 85 8 (in German). 

Stockholm 6 December 1813 (in Swedish, trans- 
lated by C. G. Nordforss). 

Stockholm 27 January 1856 (new Swedish ver- 
sion byW. Bauck) ; another Swedish version by 
S. C. Bring published 191 1. 

christiania 6 January 1836 (in Norwegian; 
revived 7 May 1902 at the Nationalteatret). 

Italy 

According to Freisauff, Schatz, Abert, and 
others, Mozart's opera was produced at Florence, 
P. as early as 9 April 1792. According to U. 
Morini the opera produced then was Albertini's 
Don Giovanni (see 1783), while G. Pavan does not 
mention any performance at all. No libretto 
seems to be extant. But there is a strong argument 
against so early a Don Giovanni production in 
Italy in Franz Niemtschek's biography of Mozart 
(1798), p.68 : "In Florenz habe man den iten Akt 
des Don Juan nach neun misslungenen Proben, 
fur unausfiihrbar erklartl! Diese Nachrichten 
horte der Verfasser aus dem Munde eines Teut- 
schen beruhmten Opernkomponisten d. Hrn. 
W**, der sich in Italien lange auf hielt, und den 
Zustand der Musik daselbst genau kennt, weil er 
fur einige grosse Buhnen Opern schrieb". (The 
opera composer alluded to probably is Peter von 
Winter.) 

Apart from the doubtful Florence production 
the first performances of Don Giovanni in Italy 
were at: 

bergamo Carnival 181 1. 
rome, valle 11 June 1811. 
naples, fondo 14 October 1812 and Autumn 

1816; S.C. 6 July 1834. 
milan, sc 17 October 1814; T. Re. 1 January 

1820. 
turin, t. d angennes Autumn 181 5; T. Cari- 

gnano Autumn 1828; T. R. Carnival 1859. 
Florence, t. de' risoluti Summer 1817; P. 

April 1818. 
bologna, t. badini December 1817. 
parma, t. ducale 26 December 1821. 



453 



454 



1787 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1787 



genoa, t. del falcone May 1 824; C. F. Spring 

1867. 

bolzano (bozen) 19 April 1827 (in German). 
Venice, s. ben. 8 April 1833. 
malta September 1833. 
Trieste 26 December 1842, etc. 
cagliari, Sardinia 1 3 January 1883. 

Switzerland 

(productions in German) : 

berne 15 April 1 8 12. 

ST. GALLEN l8l2. 

Zurich 1822 (in concert form). 

winterthur 28 November 1827 (in concert 

form). 
basle 4 February 1835. 
geneva 1856; in French 7 April 1874. 

On 8 November 1850 Richard Wagner con- 
ducted a Don Giovanni performance at Zurich 
"mit neucr Bearbcitung des Dialogs und mit 
Recitativs" by himself. 

Great Britain, Ireland, etc. 
London. — On amateur performances of Don 
Giovanni and other Mozart operas in London be- 
tween 1806 and 1 81 1 see the anonymous articles, 
Autobiography of an Amateur Singer in The Har- 
monicon, 1831, pp.106 and 135; sec also 1830, 
p.113, note. Cf. F. O. Soupcr in The Monthly 
Musical Record, January 1935. 
On the professional stage : 
LONDON, HM. 12 April 1817 (not 20 May 1817; 
in Italian; given 23 times during the first sea- 
son). 
london, C.G. 30 May 1817 (in English, as The 
Libertine, translated by I. Pocock, music adapted 
by Bishop). 
London, adelphi 5 July 1830 (in English, adapted 

by W. Hawes). 
london, hm. 1 1 July 1832 (in German). 
London, d.l. s February 1833 (in English, trans- 
lated by S. Beazley). 
london, princess's i October 1849 (in English; 
author of this new version not mentioned; 
probably J.W. Mould, who edited the work as 
Vol vi of his The Standard Lyric Drama in 1850). 

455 



london, old vic. 24 November 192 1 (translated 
by E.J. Dent). 
The 300th performance at C.G. was on 15 July 

1914. 

Dublin 7 January 1828 (in Italian). 

Edinburgh 21 July 1830 (in English, translated 

and adapted by T. H. Rcynoldson). 
Edinburgh 27 November 1832 (in Italian). 
Calcutta 4 February 1833 (in English, scenes 

only; sec Hemcndranath Das Gupta, The Indian 

Stage (i935), pp. 264-65). 
Melbourne 1861 (in English). 
Sydney September 1862 (in English). 
Cairo 1870 (in Italian). 

U.S.A.: 
new york, park th. 23 May 1 826 (in Italian). 
Philadelphia 25 December 1827 (in Italian). 
Philadelphia 6 November 1837 (in English, ad- 
vertised as "First time in America, in a faithful 

translation" ). 
san francisco 1855 (in Italian). 
new york, stadt th. 2 April 1856 (in German). 
new york, Chatham th. 29 May 1 862 (in English, 

Bishop's version). 
Chicago 1859 (in Italian). 

Latin America, Spain, and Portugal 
(all productions in Italian) : 

buenos aires 8 February 1827 (Spanish transla- 
tion in the printed libretto by J. M. S.). 

Madrid, t. de la cruz 1 5 December 1834 (re- 
vived T. R. 20 April 1864). 

Lisbon 6 January 1839 (revived 1 December 
1868). 

Barcelona 1 8 December 1849 (Catalan trans- 
lation by J. Pena published 193 1). 

Mexico 23 June 1852 (revived 1 November 1895), 

lima, peru Carnival 1854 (see M. Hauser, Reise- 
briefe, p.93). 

Santiago, chile 1870 (see R. Brisefio, Estadistka 
Bibliogrdfica de la Literatura Chilena, Vol.ii, 

p.97). 
Rio de Janeiro Summer 1880. 

Other Countries 
reval (tallinn) 1797 (in German) and 1929 (in 
Estonian, translated by G. Tuksam). 

456 



1787-88 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1788 



riga 1799 (in German) and 12 February 1921 (in 
Lettish, translated by L. Laicens). 

laibach (Ljubljana) 15 November 181 5 (in Ger- 
man, C. H. Spiess's translation) and 24 January 
1925 (in Slovenian). 

acram (zagreb) 1830 (in German) and 19 January 
1875 (in Croatian, translated by E.J. Tomic); 
1 June 1920 (new translation by M. Nchajev). 

Helsinki 6 November 1840 (in German) and 27 
March 1878 (in Finnish, translated by A. Torne- 
roos). 

Sofia 7 April 1930 (in Bulgarian, translated by 
B. Danovsky). 

Kaunas 5 December 1933 (in Lithuanian, trans- 
lated by S. Santvaras). 

Bucharest c. January 1834 (in German) and 
Spring 1936 (in Rumanian), 



I788 

reichardt Andromeda 

2 January. Berlin, O. 
Text by A. dc' Filistri da Caramondani. One act. 
Reichardt's first Italian opera. 

c H e r u b i N i : Ijigcnia in Aulide 

February. Turin, T.R. 
Text by F. Morctti (firs set to music by Zingarelli 
in 1787). Three acts. 

The last opera Chcrubini wrote in Italy; given 
in the same year 1788 at Parma, Milan and Flo- 
rence; in Italian also, London 24 January 1789. 

tritto: Le Avventure amorose 

Spring. Rome, Valle 

Text by "Timido P. A." Two acts. 

The most successful of Tritto's numerous ope- 
ras. Given at Genoa Spring 1789 as Le Avventure 
gatanti; at Bologna I4january 1792 as'Lc Vkende 
amorose; at Turin 1792, Padua 13 June 1792 and 
Trieste 13 August 1793 as I Raggiri d'Amorc; out- 
side Italy: Paris 26 January 1789 (opening of the 
Th. dc Monsieur, later Feydcau); Barcelona 4 



July 1791 and Madrid 4 November 1791 (as Le 
Avventure galanti); Dresden 6 November 1793 (as 
I Disprezzatori delk Donne); Lisbon Carnival 
1797 (as Le Vkende amorose). 

Date of first performance and original title 
according to Formenti's Indice dei Spettacoli y 1788- 
89, quoted in C. L. Curicl's II Teatro S. Pietro di 
Trieste (1937). Schatz-Sonncck give Le Vkende 
amorose as the original title and April 1787, as the 
date of the first performance. 

danzi: Die Mitternachtsstunde 

April. Munich 
Text by M. G. Lambrccht (founded on Duma- 
niant's comedy, La Guerre ouverte). Three acts. 

The most successful of Danzi's numerous ope- 
ras and the only one which was published. 

Revived Munich February 1798; Frankfort 12 
February 1799; Hamburg c. February 1799; Ber- 
lin 1 October 1799; Mannheim 29 June 1800; 
Nuremberg 1801; in German also Budapest 10 
August 1803 ; St. Petersburg 1808; last given Mu- 
nich 29 June 1 815. 

p. guglielmi: La Pastorella nobile 

ig April Naples, T.N. 
Text by S. Zini. Two acts. 

One of Gugliclmi's most successful works. 
Given at Milan, Sc. September 1789 and all over 
Italy; the latest revival was at Venice, S. Ben. 
28 June 1809, 

In Italian also produced at Barcelona 25 August 
1789 and Madrid 18 June 1791; Paris, Th. dc M. 

12 December 1789 (additions by Martin y Solcr 
and Chcrubini; revived 4 April 1807 v&L'Ervde di 
Belprato; given until 1822); Nice Carnival 1790; 
Vienna 24 May 1790 (additions by Wcigl) ; Corfu 
Autumn 1790; Dresden 12 February 1791 ; Lisbon 

13 May 1791; London, Pantheon 17 December 
1791 (revived Hm. 10 February 1801); Prague 
1792; Palma, Mallorca Autumn 1793 : St. Peters- 
burg 1797. 

In German (as Die Schoue aufdem Lande, trans- 
lated by H. G. Schmicdcr), Frankfort 25 October 



457 



458 



1788 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1788 



1 791; Cologne 27 October 1793; (as Die adelkhe 
Schaferin, translated by K. L. Gieseke), Briinn 
14 November 1791; Breslau 1 June 1792, Graz 
30 October 1792, etc.; (as Der Lohn weiblicher 
Sittsamkeit, translated by G. F. W. Grossmann), 
Hanover 10 February 1795 and {zsDasadligeLand- 
mddchen), 15 April 1796; and (in yet another Ger- 
man version by K. F. Lippert) Vienna 17 May 
1798. 

( s A c c h i n i ) : Arvire et Evelina 

29 April Paris, O. 

Text by N. F. Guillard (founded on W. Mason's 

Caractacus, produced London, C.G. 6 December 

1776, with incidental music by Arne). Three acts. 

Sacchini's last opera, performed two years after 
his death, completed by J. B. Rey. Successful in 
Paris; given at the O. 87 times until 1811 and 
revived there 13 September 1820 (reduced to 2 
acts by N. S. G. Saulnier, music adapted by Ber- 
ton). 

In Italian (zsEvelina, translated by L. da Ponte), 
London 10 January 1797. 

In Danish (translation by R. Frankenau), Co- 
penhagen 30 January 1799; the first act had been 
previously heard there in concert form in 1791 (in 
French). 

dalayrac: Sargines, ouUEleve 
de V Amour 

14 May. Paris, C.L 
Text by J. M. Boutct dc Monvel (founded on a 
story in F. T. M. Baculard d'Arnaud's Eprcuvcs 
du Sentiment). Four acts. 

In French also, Cassel 26 August 1790; Liege 
February 1793; Brussels 16 July 1794; St. Peters- 
burg 1804; Trier 13 December 1804; Berne 12 
July 1809; Moscow 26 November 18 10. 

In German (translated by H. G. Schmicdcr), 
Frankfort 5 September 1790; Mannheim to April 
1 791, etc. At Hamburg March 1800 as Otto von 
Waldlmrg. 

In Swedish (translated b\ C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 29 April 1795. 



paisiello: U Amor contrastato* 

Summer. Naples, Fior 
Text by G. Palomba. Two acts. 

Better known by its later titles, La Molinara> or 
La Molinarella. Given at Venice Carnival 1789 in 
an enlarged 3-act version; Milan, Sc. March 
1 791, etc. 

In Italian also produced at Madrid 16 May 1789 
(revived 20 June 1792 and 23 May 1809); Barce- 
lona 30 May 1790; Paris, Th. de M. 31 October 
1 789 (with nine additional numbers by Cherubini ; 
revived Th. I, 2 September 1801 and 1 July 
1809); Eszterhaza Summer 1790; Dresden 1790; 
Vienna 13 November 1790 (frequently revived 
until 1833); Trieste 28 December 1790; London, 
Pantheon 21 May 1791 (revived Hm. 6 Decem- 
ber 1794, 22 March 1803, 8 March 1817); Prague 
1791; Warsaw 28 April 1792; Innsbruck 16 July 
1792; Lisbon Autumn 1793; St. Petersburg 1795 
and 9 December 1798 (revived 1831); Amster- 
dam 1806. 

In German (as Die Launen der Liebe) f Briinn 
30 November 1791; very popular in a German 
version by C. F. Bretzner (as Die schone Mullerin), 
Frankfort 26 December 1792; Hanover 8 April 
1793; Hamburg 26 April 1793; Berlin 16 Octo- 
ber 1793, etc. ; in German also, Rotterdam Spring 
1796; Berne Spring 1804; Amsterdam 1805; St. 
Petersburg 1809; Copenhagen 10 June 1825; 
Budapest 4 July 1825. Last revived Dresden 7 
December 1861; Berlin, Fr.W. 27 April 1862. 

German vocal score published 1890. 

In Russian (translated by N. S. Krasnopolsky), 
St. Petersburg 8 June 1812; (translated by A. F. 
Mcrzlyakov), Moscow 7 November 1816. 

Beethoven used two arias from this opera for 
variations: Quant' e pin hello and the better known 
W'l cor pin non mi sento (Mich fiiehen alle Freuden), 
both 1796. 

salieri: 7/ Talismano 

10 September. Vienna, B. 
Text by L. da Ponte. Three acts. 

Altered from an earlier libretto by Goldoni, 
which had been written for the inauguration or 



459 



460 



1788 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1789 



the new Teatro della Canobbiana, Milan; pro- 
duced with music by Salieri (first act) and Rust 
(second and third acts) in September 1779 as the 
first new opera there; also given at the Scala in 
July 1785 and on some other Italian stages. For 
Vienna, Da Ponte modernized the libretto, and 
Salieri wrote entirely new music. This second 
setting apparently was never heard in Italy, but 
was the more successful in Central Europe. 

In Italian also given at Prague 1788; Dresden 
and Brunswick 1 789 ; Warsaw 1 2 January 
1790. 

In a German version by F. Eberl: Vienna, 
Leop. 30 April 1789; Budapest 5 July 1789; 
Warsaw 8 December 1793. 

In a German version by H. G. Schmieder: 
Mayence 20 February 1790; Carlsruhe 22 No- 
vember 1790; Munich 14 June 1793; Hamburg 
1794; Berne Spring 1804. 

In a German version by A. F. von Knigge: 
Hanover 4june 1790; Berlin 20 May 1796; Bres- 
lau 4 January 1799; Schleswig 1805. 

cherubini: Demophoon* 

5 December. Paris, O. 

Text by J. F. Marmontcl (based on Metastasio's 
Dcmofoonte). Three acts. 

Chcrubini's first French opera; given for eight 
nights only. A concert at Coblenz 29 November 
1926, when extracts from the opera were per- 
formed, not revived in 18th or 19th centuries. 

p. ritter: Der Eremit auf Formentara 

14 December. Mannheim 

Text by A. von Kotzcbue. Two acts. 

Ritter's most successful opera. Given on many 
German stages and, in German, also at Briinn 
12 October 1791; Budapest 9 December 1791; 
Schleswig 1792. Revived Agram 20 March 1804 
(Ritter's setting?); Hanover 4 May 1804. 

Dutch translation by V... published Rotterdam 
1791. 



1789 

dalayrac: Les deux petits Savoyards 

14 January. Paris, CI. 
Text by B. J. Marsollier. One act. 

One of Dalayrac's greatest successes. Given in 
Paris until 1836 and revived at St. Cloud 22 July 
1847 (by pupils of the Paris Conservatoire). 

In French also given at Liege 17 September 
1789; Geneva 17 December 1789; Aachen 24 Au- 
gust 1794; St. Petersburg 4 February 1795 ; Ham- 
burg 4 March 1795; Cologne 1796-97; Philadel- 
phia 16 January 1797; Moscow 5 February 1810; 
London, St. J.'s 19 April 1844. 

Even more popular in Germany (first trans- 
lation by H. G. Schmieder), Mayence 12 May 
1790; Mannheim 25 July 1790; Hanover 7 Sep- 
tember 1790; Hamburg 7 October 1791; Berlin 
9 November 1791 ; Briinn 21 June 1792; Brcslau 
14 September 1792; Bremen 31 October 1792; 
Vienna, Leop. 13 December 1792 (translated by 
J. Pcrinet) and W. the very next night, 14 De- 
cember 1792, in Schmieder 's translation ; (revised 
by A. J. Fischer, Ka. 14 August 1804); Graz 11 
July 1793; Budapest 30 March 1794; Poznan 23 
November 1803; Berne Spring 1804; Prague 
26 June 1 814; Moscow 20 November 1819. 

Given in Germany throughout the 19th cen- 
tury; last revived Carlsruhe 2 October 1894 and 
16 May 1902. 

In Dutch (translated by H. Asschcnbcrgh and 
H. G. Roullard), Amsterdam 1790; revived 
Hague 1822; in Flemish, Oudenarde Winter 
1797-8. 

In Italian (translated by G. Carpani), Monza 
Autumn T 79i; S. Pier d'Arena (near Genoa) 
Autumn 1793; Lisbon 11 January 1796. Another 
Italian version, by G. Brunati, was published in 
1798. 

In Danish (translated by A. G. Thoroup), 
Copenhagen 18 September 1792. 

In Swedish (translated by C Envallsson), 
Stockholm 6 June 1794; Malmo 13 May 1807; 
Lund 24 August 1807. 

In Russian, Moscow 1801. 



461 



462 



1789 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1789 



In Polish (translated by K. Hebdowski), War- 
saw 1809. 

In English (translated by M. Lonsdale), Lon- 
don, S's Wells 29 June 1789 and 8 July 1795. An 
English adaptation by F. Reynolds, The Duke of 
Savoy; or, Wife and Mistress ; additional music by 
Bishop, was given in London, C.G. 29 September 
1 817; the original, in English, London, Queen's 
13 February 1835; in French, St. J.'s 19 April 
1844. 

giordani: La Disfatta di Dario 

7 February. Milan, Sc. 
Text: an altered version of Morbilli's libretto 
(first set to music by Cafaro, see 1756). Three acts. 
The most successful opera of Giordani and one 
of the very few that have been preserved. Revived 
Lisbon 17 December 1806. 

martin y soler: Gore Bogatir 

Kosometovich 

Tope BoraTHp KocoMeTOBHH 

(Mock-Hero Kosometovitch) 

9 February. St. Petersburg 

Text by the Empress Catharine n. Five acts. 

First performed at the Ermitage; publicly, St 
Petersburg 28 April 1789. 

See on the political background of this satirical 
opera (directed against Gustavus III of Sweden), 
A. Bruckner in Baltische Monatsschrift, Vol.xvi 
(1867), p.307; and R. A. Mooser in R.M.L, Vol. 
xl (1936). 

j. Schuster: Riibenzahlo sia 
II veto Amore 

14 February. Dresden 
Text by C. Mazzola. Two acts. 

The first opera on this favourite German sub- 
ject, composed by a German composer to Italian 
words. Given at Prague 1789 as 7/ Trtonfo delV 
Amore sulla Magia and at Warsaw 10 February 
1790 as It Degorgone ossia II Trionfo delV Amore 
sulla Magia. 



In German (translated by J. Perinet), Vienna, 
Leop. 13 October 1794; Bautzen 21 February 
1799; Gorlitz 1800; Agram 6 November 1804. 

gretry: Raoul Barbe Bleue 

2 March. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. M. Sedaine. Three acts. 

This Comidie en prose, melie d'ariettes seems to 
be the first of the very many Blue-Beard operas, 
a favourite theme from the 18th century up to 
Dukas (1907), Bartok (1918), and Reznicek 
(1920). 

In French also, Brussels and Amsterdam 1791 ; 
Hamburg 24 January 1797; St. Petersburg 22 Oc- 
tober 1798; Moscow 24 October 1808. 

In German (as DerBlaubart t translator not men- 
tioned), Oels 5 January 1799; (translated by 
H. G. Schmieder); Altona 9 September 1800; 
Berlin 23 March 1801 (revived 22 March 1844 
and 27 July 1865); Vienna, W. 14 August 1804 
(Schmieder's translation revised by J. Sonnleith- 
ner; music revised by A.J. Fischer; revived Ka. 
12 April 1821 and 2 October 1833) ; Prague I9june 
1814 (revived 10 May 1840); Helsinki 6 Decem- 
ber 1833; Bucharest 1834; Basle 1 December 
1 841. Last revived Carlsruhe 10 April 1890 (re- 
vised by F. Mottl). 

In Polish (translated by J. Baudouin), Warsaw 
2 February 1805. 

Dutch translation by N. G. Brinkman pub- 
lished 1807. 

In Russian (translated by A. V. Luknitsky), 
St. Petersburg 13 February 18 15; Moscow 2 Jan- 
uary 1817. 

In Hungarian (translated by F. S. Deaky), 
Clausenburg 23 February 1822. 

In Czech (translated by S. K. Machacek), 
Prague 18 December 1831. 

kunzen : Holger Danske 

51 March. Copenhagen 
Text by J. E. Baggesen (founded on Wieland's 
Oberon). Three acts. 

Regarded as the outstanding Danish national 
opera of the 18th century, but given 6 times only. 



463 



464 



1789 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1789 



A parody by Heiberg, Holger Tydske, was pub- 
lished in 1789. 

Revived in concert-form by the Caciliafore- 
ningen, Copenhagen 19 February 1912. 

A German translation by C. F. Cramer was 
published in 1789. 

cordeiro da silva: Bauce e 
Palemone 

23 April. Lisbon, Th. d'Ajuda 
(Italian) text by G. Martinelli. One act. 
The best work of the Portuguese composer. 

champein: Le nouveau 
Don-Quichotte 

23 May. Paris, Th. de M. 
Text by Boissel (from Cervantes). Two acts. 

Along with La Melomanie (see 1781), Cham- 
pein's most successful work ; produced under the 
pseudonym of Zaccharelli. 

In French also, Brussels 29 June 1792 (revived 
13 January 18 16 as Manquinados)\ Hamburg 3 
August, 1803; St. Petersburg January 1806; 
Moscow 6 May 1809. 

In Swedish (translated by J. D. Valerius), 
Stockholm 16 November 1804. 

In Russian (translated by A. V. Luknitsky), 
St. Petersburg 2 December 1811. 

l e m o y n e : Les Pretendus 

2 June. Paris, O. 
Text by M. A.J. Rochon de Chabannes (comidie- 
lyrique). One act. 

In Paris given 294 times until 1827, and revived 
at St. Cloud 22 July 1847 (by pupils of the Paris 
Conservatoire). 

In French also, Amsterdam 13 April 1791; 
Brussels 29 August 1791; Hamburg 1798-99; 
St. Petersburg 29 July 1799; Berne 13 September 
1802; Hanover 7 January 1804; Moscow 4 Feb- 
ruary 1809. 

In German (as Drei Freier aufcinmal, translated 
by H. G. Schmicder), Frankfort 25 September 
1791; Mannheim 14 March 1793, etc.; Berlin 29 
October 1804. 



In Danish (translated by R. Frankenau), Co- 
penhagen 4 November 1803. 

In Swedish (translated by C. G. Nordforss), 
Stockholm 26 April 1810. 

paisiello: Ninao sizLaPazza 
per Amore* 

25 June. Cascrta, Royal Palace 
Text by G. Carpani (translated from Marsollier's 
French libretto, see 1786), with spoken dialogue, 
and with additions by G. B. Lorenzi. One act. 
First produced at Cascrta in honour of a visit 
of Queen Maria Carolina of Sicily. 

Publicly produced at Naples, Fior. 1790 (en- 
larged to 2 acts and with new additions by Lo- 
renzi and Paisiello) and all over Italy. Given with 
recitatives first at Parma Carnival 1793 and 
Naples, Fior. 1795; given on Italian stages until 
about 1845. In Italian also: 
Barcelona 4 November 1789. 
Vienna 13 April 1790 (with additional music by 
Wcigl, text revised by L. da Ponte ; frequently 
revived until 24 April 1830). 
paris, th. feydeau 4 September 1791 (with re- 
citatives and one air by Chcrubini; revived 
Th.I. 30 August 1802 and 10 February 1824). 
Dresden 7 January 1792. 
Warsaw 12 May 1792. 
Trieste [4 September] 1792. 
Lisbon Spring 1794. 

Prague 1794 (said to have been sung there in 
Czech, by Italian singers, in 1796). 

ST. PETERSBURG 1 794 Or 1 795. 

London 27 April 1797 (revived 26 May 1825 for 

Pasta*s benefit). 
Amsterdam Carnival 1808. 

In German, Mannheim 29 October 1793 ; 
Munich December 1796. 

In Spanish (translated by L. F. Cornelia), Mad- 
rid 9 December 1795 (probably with Paisiello's 
music). 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 29 August 1796 and 
Moscow 12 September 1797. 

In Polish (translated by W. Pekalski), Warsaw 
1809. 



465 



466 



1789 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1789 



Revived Turin, T. Carignano 9 May 19 10, (by 
the Associazionc dci Musicologi Italiani); Naples, 
T. Sannazaro 28 May 1921; Milan, T. Manzoni 
(by Scala company) 31 March 1940 (text revised 
by R. Simoni, music arranged by C. Gatti). 

dittersdorf: Hironimus Knicker 

7 July. Vienna, Leo p. 

The text, by different authors attributed to Eberl, 

Schikanedcr, Vulpius, or Stephanie, seems to have 

been written by the composer himself. Two acts. 

From a passage in Dittersdorf 's autobiography 
may be concluded that he originally composed 
this opera as well as Das rothe Kaeppchen (see 
1790) and others for the private theatre of the 
Prince-Bishop of Breslau, Count Schaffgottsch, 
at Johannisbcrg in Silesia, where it was perhaps 
performed in or about 1787; perhaps also at 
Briinn December 1788. 

No libretto earlier than 1792 seems to be 
known; Sonneck (p. 593) claims the Hamburg 
1792 libretto to be approximately the original 
one; but Schiitze's remark in his Hamburgische 
Theaterqeschichte (1794, p.94): ". . . eine alte, von 
einem allzeitfertigen Skribenten neubearbeitete 
Oper . . .", seems to indicate that, although with 
new modifications, Vulpius 's Weimar version 
(1791) was used at Hamburg as well 

Apart from Doctor und Apotheker, Dittersdorf *s 
most popular opera; given on every German 
stage between 1790 and 1810 and frequently re- 
vived afterwards. 

A miser being the chief character, the title had 
to be changed sometimes: out of consideration 
for the Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo (Mo- 
zart's Archbishop !) it became at Salzburg Chriso- 
stomas Knicker; and was, according to the Journal 
des Luxus und der Moden, later on (November 
1792) given there as Hokus Pokus oder Die Lebens- 
essenz (text and music altered by A. F. von Hof- 
mann), which is peculiar because Dittersdorf 
actually wrote an opera of the title Hokus Pokus 
in 1 791. At Brunswick, in 181 1, Hieronymus 
Knicker became Lucius Knicker for Jerome Bona- 
parte's sake. 

The earliest performances were at Breslau 26 



February 1790; Stuttgart 29 April 1791 ; Cologne 
18 September 1791; Briinn 13 October 1791; 
Weimar 24 November 1791 (text altered byC. A. 
Vulpius); Berlin 15 July 1792 (revived Kgst. 3 
November 1824); Hamburg 19 November 1792; 
Hanover 6 February 1793 ; Munich 12 April 1793, 
etc. 

In German also given at Budapest 19 October 
1790; Amsterdam 1792; Warsaw 21 June 1796; 
Temesvar 28 January 1802; Berne July 1804; 
Poznan 16 February 1805; Moscow 12 February 
1820; Helsinki 23 August 1832. 

Some of the latest performances were at Ber- 
lin, Fr. W. 29 June 1851; Leipzig 3 April 1852; 
Basle 18 January 1858; Dresden 16 July 1863. 

Dutch translation by H. Molkenboer published 
1796. 

reichardt: Claudine von Villa Bella 

29 July. Berlin 
Goethe's text (first set to music by Beecke, see 
1780). Three acts. 

First performed at the Schlosstheater, Char- 
lottenburg; publicly Berlin, O. 3 August 1789. 
Revived Konigsberg May 1932 (remodelled by 
J. Muller-Blattau). 

(j. c. vogel) : Demophon 

22 September. Paris, O. 
Text by P. Desriaux (founded on Metastasio's 
Demofoonte; another French adaptation had been 
set by Cherubini 10 months earlier, see 1788). 
Three acts. 

Vogel's second and last opera, produced 15 
months after his death. 

In French also, Copenhagen 1792 (the first act 
only, in concert form); Brunswick 1805. 

In German (translated by I. F. Castelli), Vienna 
W. 11 May 1808 (additions by J. von Seyfried). 

kraus: Soliman den IL, eller 
De ire Sultaninnorna 

22 September. Stockholm 
Text by J. G. Oxenstjerna (translated from a 
French libretto by C. S. Favart, 1761). Three acts. 



467 



468 



17^9 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1789 



The most successful opera of Kraus, who, in 
1788, had succeeded Utcini as court conductor at 
Stockholm. Given there 31 times until 1817; 
Gothenburg 20 May 1808; Lund 22 July 1808. 

reichardt: Brenno 

16 October. Berlin, O. 
Text by A. de* Filistri da Caramondani. Three acts. 

The best of Rcichardt's Italian operas. Full 
score published 1789. 

Revived, in an abridged concert version, Berlin 
24 January 1798 (in German; first time that music 
to German words was sung at the Berlin O.) and 
Danzig 21 April 1S00. Revived in Italian Berlin 
n January 1802. The overture was a favourite in 
Berlin concerts for many years; played as late as 
as 16 January 1847. 

paneck: Die christliche Judenbraut 

18 October. Budapest 
Text by F. X. Girzik. Two acts. 

Very successful on German stages; Prague 
Summer 1790; Vienna, Th.a.d. Landstrasse 11 
October 1790 (and W. 27 December 1796); 
Breslau 25 November 1791; Brunn 9 September 
1792; Weimar 1 November 1792; Lubeck 23 
January 1793 ; Graz 27 April 1793 ; Salzburg 1793 ; 
Munich 28 January 1794; Oels 29 August 1795 
(music arranged by Dittersdorf ) ; Nuremberg 
c.1795; Cologne 1795-96; Hanover 30 June 1796; 
Bremen C.November 1796; Carlsruhe 9 February 
1798; Temesvar 13 December 1801. Given at 
Konigsberg as late as 1816. 

A sequel Der Durchmarsch oder Der Alte muss 
bezahlen was produced at Vienna, Leop. 30 No- 
vember 1808 (text by J. Perinet, music by V. 
Tuczek). The vocal score of Die christliche Juden- 
braut was printed. In a list of current music, other- 
wise not critical, published in the Gothaer Theater- 
Kalender, 1799, T. F. K. Arnold calls it "ein in 
jeder Rucksicht erbarmliches Produkt, welches 
ich bios deshalb angeftihrt habe weil es noch in 
alien Orten ausgepocht und ausgepfiffen wurde, 
da es hingegen in der Leopoldstadt und auf dem 
Karnthner Thortheater zu Wien nicht genug 



aufgefiihrt werden kann" (the two stages, by the 
way, on which the Judenbraut was not given!). 
Date of first performance according to J. Ka- 
dar. An earlier production at Pressburg in 1788 
(Schatz) seems doubtful. 

dalayrac: Raoul, Sire de Crequi 

31 October. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. M. Boutct de Monvel. Three acts. 

Revived Paris, Fa. 9 November 1794 as Bathilde 
et £loL 

In French also, Brussels 4 February 1791 ; 
Aachen 24 August 1794; Cologne 1796-97; St. 
Petersburg 1800; Hanover 1803 ; Moscow 30 Au- 
gust 1810; New Orleans 1810. 

In German (translated by H. G. Schmieder), 
Mayence 17 December 1791 (music adapted by 
Stegmann); Riga 12 February 1793; (translated 
by J. Perinet), Vienna, Leop. 10 September 1793 ; 
(translated by C. A. Herklots), Munich October 
1794; Hamburg 1794; Berlin 13 March 1795; 
Schleswig 1795; Hanover 8 June 1795; Oels 29 
October 1795; Bremen 6 November 1795; Bres- 
lau 13 July 1797. 

Revived Berlin 19 November 1804; Vienna, 
Ka. 22 May 1805 (with additional music by B. A. 
Weber); Wurzburg 18 June 1809. 

In Swedish (adapted by O. Kexel), Stockholm 
28 January 1793. 

In Italian (translated by G. Carpani), Monza 
Autumn 1791; Lisbon 17 December 1795. 

In Russian (translated by S.N. Glinka), Moscow 
1804. 

In Polish (translated by W. Pekalski), Warsaw 
1810. 

A Dutch translation by B. A. Fallee was pub- 
lished in 1807; another by Kup (n.d.). 

The opera was revived, for a single night, at 
the O.C., Paris 5 July 1889. 

p. guglielmi: La bella Pescatrice 

Autumn. Naples, T.N. 
Text by S. Zini. Two acts. 

First performed at Naples, T.N., "per second 
opera di quest' anno**; according to Piovano 



469 



470 



1789 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1789 



(R.M.L, Vol. xvii, p. 825) this was only in 
Autumn. 

Given at Rome Carnival 1790 as La Villanclla 
incivilita; Milan, Sc. 11 August 1790, etc. In Italy 
until 1807; in Italian also, Madrid 3 July 1790 and 
Barcelona 3 August 1790; Paris, Th. de M. 23 De- 
cember 1790 (additions by Mengozzi); Lisbon 
Carnival 1791 (revived I9january 1798); London, 
Pantheon 24 March 1791 (revived Hm. 7 April 
1801); Vienna 26 April 1791 (revived 15 July 
1798); Dresden 5 November 1791 (revived 1811); 
Linz 1792. 

In German (translated by F. H. von Einsiedel), 
Weimar 5 January 1792. 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 26 May 1792. 

c I m A r o s A : La Vergine del Sole 

6 November. St. Petersburg 
Text by F. Moretti (first composed by Sard, as 
Idalidc, in 1783). Three acts. 

One of the two operas Cimarosa wrote ex- 
pressly for the Russian court. 

In Italian also given at Bologna 7 February 
1790, etc., sometimes as lialide; Warsaw 3 July 
1790; Madrid 4 November 1790; Lisbon 25 July 
1802. Revived St. Petersburg 1804; Rome, Valle 
May 1 8 10. 

wranitzky: Oberon, Konig der Elfen* 

7 November. Vienna, W. 
Text by K. L. Gieseke (founded on Wicland's 
poem and a libretto, Hiion und Amande, by F. S. 
Seyler, 1789). Romantisch komische Oper, 3 
acts. 

Very successful all over Germany until 1826 
when it was replaced in the repertory by Weber's 
opera; occasionally revived even after 1826. 

Exact date of first production has been estab- 
lished by O. E. Deutsch. All later dates, as 6 May 
1790 (K. Glossy), 23 May 1791 (Goedeke) are to 
be rectified. The statement that the opera was 
expressly written for the coronation of Leopold 11 
and first produced at Frankfort was taken over 
from Jahn by nearly every author (including 
Schatz-Sonneck). 



After Vienna produced at Frankfort 15 Oc- 
tober 1790, " mit einigen neu hineingemachten 
Gesangen von Schmieder, in Musik gesetzt von 
Stegmann und Walter" (Journal des Luxus und der 
Moden, December 1790); Mannheim 20 Novem- 
ber 1790; Budapest 25 November 1790; Hanover 
10 February 1791; Hamburg 17 October 1791; 
Prague 1791 ; Berlin 15 February 1792, etc. Given 
at Weimar 28 May 1796 in an altered version by 
C. A. Vulpius. 

In German also, Warsaw 31 October 1793; 
Amsterdam 8 June 1796; Pressburg 2 December 
1797; Temesvar 5 November 1801; Berne 1803; 
Poznan 2 December 1804. 

In Dutch, Amsterdam c.1797; Dutch trans- 
lation published 1796, 1797 and 1802. 

In Russian (translated by Yankovich), St. Pe- 
tersburg 9 May 1798; Moscow 1802. 

In Polish (translated by B. Kudlicz), Warsaw 
1 8 10. 

Revived Berlin, Kgst. 14 June 1826 (obviously 
taking advantage of the London success of We- 
ber's opera before it could be produced in Ger- 
many); revived Hamburg as late as 25 March 
1847 (with Weber's overture played before Wra- 
nitzky's opera). 

(On the origin of the libretto, see G. Bobrik, 
Wielands . . . Obcron auf der deutschen Singspicl- 
buhnc, 1909; and R. Fellinger in Die Musik, Sep- 
tember 1934.) 

paisiello: I Zingari in Fiera 

21 November. Naples, Fondo 
Text by G. Palomba. Two acts. 

Very successful in Italy; Milan, Sc. 18 Sep- 
tember 1790 (revived 3 January 1804), etc.; in 
Italian also produced at Madrid 19 October 1790; 
Barcelona 9 December 1790; Lisbon 1791 ; Vienna 
18 September 1791; Charlottcnburg 8 October 
1 79 1 ; Dresden 1 792 ; Warsaw 22 December 1 792 ; 
London 14 May 1793 (revived 4 January 1800 
and 27 Mai 1803); Pavlovsk 1796; St. Petersburg 
4 September 1800; Paris, Th. I. 3 May 1802; Ca- 
gliari, Sardinia Carnival 1808. 

In German, Mannheim 4 August 1791 (as Die 
Zigeunerxn oder Der gefoppte Astrolog); Weimar 



471 



472 



1 789 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1790 



24 November 1792 (as Die Zigeunerin, translated 
by F. H. von Einsiedel). 

In Russian, Moscow Spring 1804. 

The opera was revived at Naples, Fior. 1 July 
1883. 

st or ace: The Haunted Tower 

24 November. London, D.L. 
Text by J. Cobb. Three acts. 

Storace's first English opera (the music "se- 
lected, adapted and composed"). 

Very successful in London, given 50 times 
during the first season. Dublin 14 January 1793; 
Edinburgh 9 February 1793; Charleston, S.C. 
24 April 1793; Philadelphia 2 December 1794; 
New York 9 January 1795 (with additional music 
byV.Pelissier);SpanishTown,Jamaica 6 February 
1816. Revived London, D.L. 24 February 1816; 
C.G. 3 February 1832; and once more as late as 
26 May 1922 at the Guildhall School of Music 
(by the Mayfair Dramatic Club). 

lemoyne: Nephte 

13 December. Paris, O. 
Text by F. B. Hoffman (founded onT. Corneille's 
tragedy, Camma). Three acts. 

It was in Nephte that, for the first time at the 
Paris Opera, a composer was called before the 
curtain. Given in Paris 40 times until 1791. Re- 
vived Brussels 12 November 1804. 

anfossi: Zenobia di Palmira 

26 December. Venice, S. Ben. 
Text by G. Sertor. Two acts. 

The most successful of Anfossi's serious operas 
and one of his last works. 

In Italian also produced at Madrid 9 December 
1790; Warsaw 17 January i79i;Leipzig Summer 
1792; London 20 December 1794; Gachina 26 
October 1797 (Anfossi's or Paisiello's setting?); 
Trieste November 1 797 ; Moscow Carnival 
1 803 ; Barcelona 22 December 1 806 (Anfossi's or 
Paisiello's setting?). 



1790 

gretry: Pierre le Grand 

13 January. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. N. Bouilly. Four acts. 

In French also given at Rotterdam 3 February 
1792; Brussels 8 August 1792; Hanover 14 April 
1805; Berne 5 February 1806. Revived Paris, 
O.C. 31 January 1801 and 7 May 1814. 

In German (translated by C. A. Herklots), 
Berlin 16 October 1794; Hamburg Spring 1795. 

In Dutch (translated by B. Ruloffs), Amster- 
dam 1799 (revived 181 1). 

ciMADORO: Pimmaglione 

26 January. Venice, S. Sam. 
Text: an Italian version, by A. S. Sografi, of 
Rousseau's Pygmalion (see 1770). One act. 

According to Dassori, first performed Venice 
1788; the earliest known libretto, however, men- 
tions Venice, T. San Samuele, 26 January 1790, 
as place and date of the production. Not recorded 
by Wiel. Sonneck gives the date but not the 
theatre. 

Successful in Italy: Padua March 1790 (in 
concert form by the Accademia dei Signori Sco- 
lari; libretto British Museum; revived Padua at 
the Sala Verde 29 April 1791 and at the T. Obizzi 
January 1811); Trieste 20 May 1790; Parma 23 
November 1793 (translated by G. Perini); Flo- 
rence and Ferrara 1794; Milan, Sc. 20 November 
1795; Naples 1795; Lucca 21 January 1796; 
Ancona 1796; Rome, T. Apollo Carnival 1797 
and Valle Autumn 1808; Turin Carnival 1801; 
Verona 13 May 1809, etc. One of the latest re- 
vivals in Italy was at Rome, Arg. 30 November 
1822. 

Outside Italy given at Vienna, B. 15 July 1791 
(revived Ka. 6 July 1804, in Italian, and Leop. 21 
September 18 14, in German); Briinn 2 February 
1792; Paris 4 May 1792 (revived 28 April 18 14); 
Regcnsburg March 1793; Passau June 1793; 
Barcelona 5 June 1794; Madrid 12 November 
1796; London 8 June 1797; Frankfort Spring 
1800 (music by Cimadoro and Paer); Lisbon 



473 



474 



1790 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1790 



Summer 1801; Dresden 24 February 1802 (as 
intermezzo in the pasticcio II Giorno natalizio, 
music by J. Schuster and others; sec Journal des 
Luxus und der Moden, 1802, p.280). 

PimmagHone was later on frequently revived by 
the singer Marianna Sessi in various towns, as 
Amsterdam 1816; Brussels 29 June 1816; Berlin 
6 July 1817; Hanover 26 September 1817; Ham- 
burg 3 January 181 8; Stockholm 30 May 18 18; 
St. Petersburg 5 August 181 8; Moscow 24 April 
1 819; Dresden 6 November 1820; Leipzig 25 No- 
vember 1820; Munich February 1821; Wilna 
29 May 1 821; Prague Spring 1822; Strasbourg 
12 November 1823, etc.; sung by her at Ham- 
burg as late as 22 January 1836. 

Besides Sografi's, there were several other 
Italian versions of Rousseau's Pygmalion, viz. by 

F. S. de' Rogati (published Naples 1773); by 
S. Zannowich, published Paris 1773 5 hy 

G. Perini (published Milan 1777; produced with 
Cimadoro's music, Parma 1793, see above;) by 
G. Tamagni (produced Fermo Carnival 1780; 
music by?) ; by A. Pepoli (produced at his private 
theatre, Padua 12 July 1793; music by Pepoli 
himself); by C. Conci (produced Pavia Summer 
1799, with music by T. Gilardoni). SografTs 
version was also set by B. Asioli (first produced 
Turin 1789, probably at the private theatre 
of Marchese Gherardini; music printed; revived 
at Paris as late as 2 April 1829). Finally, there 
were settings by F. Sirotti (produced Milan, 
Sc. Carnival 1793) and by F. Gnecco (Genoa 
Spring 1794). See also Cherubini's Pimmalione, 
1809. 

mozart: Cost fan tutte o sia 
La Scuola degli Atnanti* 

26 January. Vienna, B. 
Text by L. da Ponte (the third and last libretto 
he wrote for Mozart). Two acts. 

In Italian also produced at Prague 1791 (exact 
date unknown; in any case before Mozart's 
death, on 5th December of that year, as the lib- 
retto says: ". . . Mozzart, maestro di Capella in 
actual servizio di S. Maesta Cesarea"); Leipzig 
Summer 1791; Dresden 5 October 1791. 



German adaptations: 

No other opera, perhaps, has been subjected 
to so many different versions and attempts to 
"improve" the libretto. The first German per- 
formance was at Frankfort 1 May 1791 (as Liebe 
und Versuchung, translated by H. G. Schmieder 
and C. D. Stegmann). Given at Amsterdam 1791, 
in German, as So machens die Madchen. Also given 
at Mayence ir June 1791 and Briinn 24 April 
1792. Next came Berlin 3 August 1792 (as Eine 
mack's wie die Andere oder Die Schule der Lieb- 
haber; translator unknown); Hanover 10 October 
1792 (as So machens die Madchen alle, 4 acts; so 
also at Cologne, Aachen and Dusseldorf 1793); 
Passau 3 January 1793 (as So macht f sjede); Mann- 
heim 12 May 1793 (as Die Wette); Augsburg 10 
January 1794 (same title as at Berlin) ; Vienna, W. 
14 August 1794 (as Die Schule der Liebe oder So 
machen sie's alle, translated by K. L. Gieseke). 

The first German translation, which was more 
generally accepted, was C. F. Bretzner's version, 
Weibertreue y oder Die Madchen sind von Flandern 
(in 2 acts) ; first performed at Leipzig 1794; Bres- 
lau 16 January 1795; Bautzen 3 September 1795; 
Hanover 23 September 1795 ; Bremen 16 October 
1795 ; Hamburg 3 February 1796; Graz 18 August 

1796, etc. A second version by Bretzner, in 4 acts, 
called Die Wette oder Madchenlist und Liebe, was 
given at Stuttgart 16 May 1796 and Hamburg 
6 July 1796. Two more 18th-century versions 
were Die Wette oder Weibertreue keine Treue, 
Munich May 1795, and So sindsie alle, alle (trans- 
lated by C. A. Vulpius), Weimar 10 January 

1797. Bretzner's 2-act version was given at 
Vienna, Leop. 1 July 1802 as Die zwei Tanten aus 
Mailand, oder Die Verkleidungen. 

Of the numerous 19th and 20th century ver- 
sions, the following may be mentioned: 
Vienna, b. 19 September 1804 as Madchentreue 

(translated by G. F. Treitschke). 
Berlin 9 September 1805 as Madchentreue (trans- 
lated by G. F. Treitschke). 
Prague 1808 as Madchentreue (translated by G. F. 

Treitschke). 
breslau 10 April 1806 as Mddchenrache (translated 
by J. G.Rhode; see Der Freimuthige, rv, p.312). 



475 



476 



1790 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1790 



VIENNA, w. 20 January 1814 as Die Zauberprobe 
(a revised version of G. F. Treitschke's trans- 
lation). 
Prague 7 March 1815 as Die Zauberprobe (a re- 
vised version of G. F. Treitschke's translation). 
stuttgart 7 January 1817 as Madchen sind Mad- 

chen (translated by J. B. JCrebs). 
Berlin, o. 25 March 1820 and Munich 1824 as 
Die verfangliche Wette (translated by C. A. 
Herklots). 
Berlin, kgst. 29 December 1825 as So machen es 

alle (translated by K. von Holtei). 
Vienna, ka. 31 October 1840 as So machen es alle 

(translated by K. von Holtei). 
weimar 13 November 1830 as Der Weiberkenner 

odcr Wer hat die Wette gewonnen? 
mayence 11 October 1838 as Die Guerillas (trans- 
lated by J. D. Anton). 
Berlin 15 December 1846 as So machen es alle 
(a revised version of Herklots's translation by 
L. Schneider). 
Vienna 19 February 1863 as Weibertreue. 
Dresden 19 September 1856 (translated by K. F. 
Niese; at Dresden for the first time in Ger- 
man). 
carlsruhe 9 September i860 as So machen s alle 
(translated by E. Devrient, recitatives arranged 
by W. Kalliwoda). 

Mention may also be made of a pasticcio 
Winzer und Sanger, text by J. P. Lyser (published 
in Mozart-Album, 1856), music chiefly from Cost 
fan tutte (3 numbers from Idomeneo) y produced 
at the Tivoli, Hamburg 2 June 1856. F. Hirth 
does not mention the performance in his mono- 
graph on Lyser (p.521). 

An attempt to drop Da Ponte's original text 
altogether and to adapt the music to a new lib- 
retto, founded on a comedy by Calderon, was 
made by the singer K. Scheidemantel : Dresden 
6 June 1909 (as Die Dame Kobold). 

Outside the German speaking countries, Cosi 
fan tutte was given in the original Italian at: 
Trieste June 1797 (as La Scuola degli Amanti). 
Barcelona 4 November 1798 (at Madrid as late 

as 22 May 1878). 
varese Autumn 1805. 



milan, sc. 19 September 1807 and Spring 1814 

(both as La Scuola degli Amanti). 
naples, fondo Carnival 1815 (revived 1870). 
turin, carign. Autumn 1 8 14 (as La Scuola degli 

Amanti); 23 September 1816, etc. Revived 

Turin, T. Gerbino Summer 1872. 

Given at Venice, T. Fenice 14 September 1934 
in German (by the Vienna O. company). 
Copenhagen 19 October 1798 (as Veddemaalet eller 

Elskernes Skole, translated by A. G. Thoroup). 
Copenhagen 19 December 1826 (as Flugten fra 

Klostret, adapted to a new libretto by A. G. 

Oehlenschlager). 
Copenhagen 12 April 1 887 (as Det ger de alle, 

translated by E. Bogh). 
paris, th. 1. 28 January 1809 (in Italian; date 

according to the libretto ; Castil-Blaze, Pougin, 

Prod'homme give 1 February or 11 February 

respectively; Napoleon had the opera privately 

performed at Compiegne on 1 September 1 8 1 1). 
paris, 0. 5 January 1813 (in French, adapted to a 

new libretto Le Laboureur Chinois^ by E. Morel 

de Chedeville, J. M. Deschamps, and J. B. D. 

Despres; i-act pasticcio, music from Cost fan 

tutte, and from other works by Mozart, Haydn 

and Mayr, arranged by Berton). 
paris, th. l. 31 March 1863 (in French, as Peines 

d' Amour perdues; this time the Cost fan tutte 

music was adapted to a new text by J. Barbier 

and M. Carre, founded on Shakespeare's Love's 

Labour's Lost). 
paris, o.c 20 April 1920 (for the first time trans- 
lated from the original by L. V. Durdilly and 

J. Chantavoine). 

(See, for details on the Paris productions, J. G. 

Prod'homme in Le Menestrel, 19 June 1925.) 
London, hm. 9 May 1811 (in Italian). 
London, ly. 29 July 1828 (in English, as Tit for 

Tat; or The Tables Turned, translated by S. J. 

Arnold?; music arranged by W. Hawes). 
London, prince's 3 o January 1841 (in English, 

as The Retaliation; by amateurs). 
London, ly. 14 April 1841 (in English, as The 

Retaliation; by amateurs). 

1 First Paris performance 1807 as Laboureur Chinois 
(translated by Durdilly). 



477 



478 



1790 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1790 



London, st. George's hall 16 January 1873 (in 
Italian). 

London, savoy (r.cm.) i6July 1890 (in English, 
translated by M. E. Browne). 

London, kingsway th. 23 March 1927 (in 
English, translated by M. E. Browne). 

Bristol 18 October 1926 (Browne's version re- 
vised by E.J. Dent). 

The 1828 version was also given at Dublin 13 
April 1 83 1. 

ST. Petersburg 1813 (in German) and Carnival 
1 83 1 (in Italian). 

Stockholm 1 4 May 1830 (in Swedish, translated 
by N. E. W. af Wetterstedt from Bretzner's 
German version; revived there only 15 Feb- 
ruary 1940). 

Prague 30 October 1831 (for the first time in 
Czech, translated by S. K. Machacek). 

Brussels 29 January 1 875 (in Italian) and 8 Feb- 
ruary 1923 (in French, translated by P. Spaak). 

basle 3 1 January 1883 (in German, L. Schneider's 
version; for the first time in Switzerland?; 
Zurich only 24 February 1899). 

new york, m. 24 March 1922 (in Italian; appa- 
rently for the first time in America) and Juilliard 
School of Music 28 February 1940 (in Italian). 

riga 21 November 1925 (in Lettish). 

Ljubljana 25 December 1926 (in Slovenian). 

lemberg 1927 (for the first time in Polish; at the 
Conservatoire). 

Budapest 9 January 1930 (in Hungarian, trans- 
lated by V. Lanyi; previously produced there 
at the Conservatoire in 1927). 

Bratislava 1 93 3 (in Slovakian). 

buenos aires i 7 July 1934 (in Italian). 

Antwerp 22 January 1938 (in Flemish). 

storace:No Song, no Supper* 

16 April London, D.L. 
Text by P. Hoarc. Two acts. 

The music "chiefly composed" by Storace, 
who took a trio and a sextet from his Equivoci 
(see 1786) and some pieces from Grctry and other 
composers. Very successful on English stages; 
Dublin 15 March 1791; Philadelphia 30 Novem- 
ber 1792 (given there until 1851); New York 



15 February 1793 (given there until 1847); in 
English also, Hamburg 20 February 1795 (see 
note on The Shamrock, 1783); Cape Town 9 Oc- 
tober 1 815. 

Revived in London, Ly. 19 October 1809 and 
D.L. 14 June 1817; revived at Manchester as late 
as 11 July 1870. 

zingarelli: Antigone 

30 April. Paris, O. 
Text by J. F. Marmontel. Three acts. 

Zingarelli's only French opera. Unsuccessful 
(only given twice). In Italian, Leghorn Carnival 
1791. 

r. kreutzer: Jeanne d'Arc a Orleans 

10 May. Paris, C.I. 
Text by P.J. B. Choudard Desforgcs and Cousin. 
Three acts. 

This seems to be the first opera on this favourite 
subject (see Balfe 1837; Hoven 1840; Verdi 1845 ; 
Mermet 1876; Chaikovsky 1881). Kreutzer's first 
opera. Revived Antwerp 15 February 1822. 

dittersdorf: Das rothe Kaeppchen 
26 May. Breslau 
Text by the composer, founded on Livigni's 
Giannwa e Bernadone, see 1781 (and not by C. A. 
Vulpius, as Riedinger has it, nor by K. L. Giesecke 
to whom it has also been attributed). Three acts. 
(According to Riedinger first produced at 
Vienna, Leop. 1788, and perhaps even earlier at 
Johannisbcrg. As far as the Lcopoldstadt theatre 
is concerned Hadamowsky's Catalogue shows 
that the opera was not given there at all; as to 
Johannisberg, see note on Hironymus Knicker, 

1789). 

Given at Weimar 7 June 1791 (text revised and 
reduced to 2 acts by C. A. Vulpius) ; Prague 1791 ; 
Cologne 9 October 1791; Berlin 20 December 
1791; Vienna, W. 23 February 1792; Hanover 
11 April 1792; Munich 4 May 1792; Bremen 19 
October 1792; Hamburg 1792; Nuremberg 
1793 ; Rostock i6June 1794; Dessau 31 July 1794; 
Salzburg Spring 1795 ; Graz 29 June 1797; Carls- 



479 



480 



1790 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1790 



ruhe 15 December 1797, etc.; in German also, 
Amsterdam 1792; Budapest 6 August 1800; Paris 
21 November 1801; Poznan 9 September 1805; 
St. Petersburg 1809; Solothurn 20 January 1811. 

In Danish (translated by L. Knudsen), Copen- 
hagen 19 May 1794* 

In Dutch (translated by C. Loots), Amsterdam 
1796; revived 1817. 

Frequently revived in Germany throughout 
the 19th century; some of the latest revivals were 
at Riga October 1857; Berlin 23 April 1861; 
Stuttgart 6 March 1868; Munich 17 November 
1868; Dessau 13 January 1899. 

Beethoven published variations on a theme 
from this opera (Es war eintnal ein alter Mann) in 
1794. 

DALAYRAC:Ltf Soiree orageuse 

2g May. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. B. Radet. One act. 

In French also given at Amsterdam 16 April 
1791; Brussels 8 June 1791; Hamburg 1795; 
Cologne 21 September 1797; Gachina (near St. 
Petersburg) 3 October 1798. Revived Paris, O.C. 
5 July 1889. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 7 October 1793. 

In German (as Die sturmische Nacht), Vienna, 
Leop. 14 August 1795; St. Petersburg 1809; 
Moscow 25 November 1820. 

Dutch translation published 1799; performed 
in Flemish already at Oudenarde 26 September 
1796 and Courtrai 16 December 1796. 

p. guglielmi: La Serva 
innamorata 

Summer. Naples, Fior. 
Text by G. Palomba. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy (last revived Venice Summer 
1817). 

In Italian also, Vienna 15 February 1791 (as La 
Giardimera innamorata); Barcelona 4 November 
1792; Lisbon Summer 1794; Trieste 26 Decem- 
ber 1794; Madrid 12 April 1795; Paris, Th. I. 
28 December 1804; Amsterdam 1808. 



bert on : Les Rigueurs du Cloitre 

28 August Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. Fievee. Two acts. 

Brussels 1 March 1793, etc. Berton s first more 
important work; of historical interest as the 
earliest instance of those "rescue operas" which 
ruled the repertory of Central Europe from the 
time of the French Revolution until about 1820, 
Beethoven's Fidelia and Cherubini's Les deux 
Journies being the climax of that movement. 

mehul: Euphrosine ou 
Le Tyran corrige 

4 September. Paris, C.I. 
Text by F. B. Hoffman. Five acts. 

Reduced to 4 acts on 11 September 1790; 3 -act 
version first given in 1792 : the printed libretto for 
a new Act 3 dates from c. 1794-5, since 22 August 
*795 given in the final, 3-act version. M6huTs first 
performed opera. Given in Paris until 1829 and 
revived 26 February 1900 at the Th. L. de la 
Renaissance as Euphrosine et Coradin (text revised 
by P. Ferrier). 

In French also, Brussels 10 October 1792; St. 
Petersburg 1798; Hanover 2 August 1803 ; 
Moscow 17 October 1808; Berne 27 May 1809. 
In German, Frankfort 29 April 1792; (trans- 
lation by K. L. Gieseke) Vienna, W. 19 September 
1795; Hamburg Spring 1797; Mayence 1797; 
Munich December 1798; Schleswig 1802; Buda- 
pest 16 September 1811; St. Petersburg 1815; 
revived Berlin 9 December 1825 (new German 
version by May). Another German translation, 
by G. E. Liiderwald, was published at Riga (n. d.). 
In Dutch (translation by P. G. Witsen Geys- 
beek), Amsterdam [1 November] 1798. 

In Russian (translated by A. I. Sheller), St. Pet- 
ersburg 11 October 1815 ; Moscow 24 April 1816. 

w. muller: Das Sonnenfest 
der Braminen 

q September. Vienna. Leop. 
Text by K. F. Hensler (heroisch-komisches Original- 
Singspiel). Two acts. 



481 



482 



1790 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1790 



The first great success of Miiller who, since 
1786, had been conductor at the Th. in der Leo- 
poldstadt. 

Subsequently given at Prague 1792; Graz 1 
January 1793; Hamburg 3 July 1793 (with addi- 
tional music by C. D. Stegmann); Brunn 1794; 
Nuremberg i794;Weimar 31 January 1795 (text 
altered by C. A. Vulpius); Berlin 16 October 
1795; Breslau 4 December 1795; Bremen De- 
cember 1796; Hanover 27 February 1797; Carls- 
ruhe 27 January 1798 ; Oels 12 May 1798 ; Aachen 
8 September 1799; Cologne, Diisseldorf and Cre- 
feld 1799; Munich October 1800; Temesvar 27 
December 1 801 ; Berne 1 803 ; Poznan 27 October 
1805. 

In German also produced at the Th. de la Cite, 
Paris 3 December 1801. This was the last pro- 
duction of the short-lived first German opera- 
season in Paris, under the management of one 
Haselmeyer. The season was in Autumn 1801 
(not 1802 as stated by Castil-Blaze ; see AM.Z., 
10 February 1802). The productions were: 16 
November 1801, Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail; 
21 November, Das rote Kdppchen ; 25 November, 
Das Neusonntagskind ; 29 November, Der Spiegel 
von Arkadien; 30 November, Der Tyroler Wastel; 
and 3 December, Das Sonnenfest derBraminen. The 
theatre had been named "Theatre Mozart" for the 
occasion. 

In Dutch (translated by S. Bos), Amsterdam 
1798. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 23 November 1800. 



s c h u l z : H0st-G ildet 
(The Harvest Home) 

16 September. Copenhagen 

Text by T. Thaarup. One act. 

Given at Copenhagen until 1835 (since 21 Jan- 
uary 1 79 1 in a new version). A German trans- 
lation by F. H. W. Froelich was published in 
1795- 



PASHKEEVICH, SARTI, and 

c anno bio: Nachalnoye Upravlenie 

Olega 

HanaJitHoe YnpasjieHie Oaera 

(The early Reign of Oleg) 

26 October. St. Petersburg 

Text by the Empress Catharine 11. Five acts. 

First produced at the Ermitage; publicly per- 
formed 2 November 1790. 

First Russian opera published in full score 
(1791). The opera was written "in imitation of 
Shakespeare, not observing the traditional rules 
of the stage". 

Interesting notes by Sarti on his Oleg music are 
reprinted in G. Pasolini Zanelli's biography of the 
composer (1883); for an account of this opera see 
also Count Valentin Eszterhazy's letters (edited by 
Ernest Daudet, 1907), p. 3 26 and 333. 

A German translation, by Ch. F. Volkner, 
was published in 1792. 

BEFFROY DE REIGNY: 

Nicodeme dans la Lune ou 
La Revolution pacijique 

7 November. Paris 
Text by the composer (Folie en prose melee d'ariet- 
tes et de vaudevilles). Three acts. 

This satirical play (hardly to be called an opera) 
had a run of 363 nights at the small "Theatre 
Fran^ais comique et lyrique" (Boulevard St. Mar- 
tin; existing only from 26 June 1790 to 25 Jan- 
uary 1794) and was revived at the Thdatre de la 
Cite on 3 1 December 1796 for another 200 nights. 
(For a sequel see 1791.) 

An imitation by Deduit, Nicodeme dans le Soleil, 
was performed at the Theatre de M. Yon, Bou- 
levard du Temple, 11 June 1791; another by 
Maillet, Le Retour de Nicodeme de la Lune at the 
Delassements Comiqucs at about the same time. 

bianchi: La Vendetta di Nino 

12 November. Naples, S.C. 
Text by F. Moretti (founded on M. Cesarotti's 
Italian version of Voltaire's Semiramis). Two acts. 



483 



484 



i79°-9* 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1791 



Outside Italy given at 

Madrid 9 December 1793 (in Italian) and 4 No- 
vember 1800 (in Spanish, translated by V. R. 
dc Arellano, music adapted by M. Ronzi). 

London 26 April 1794 (as La Scmir amide, text 
altered by L. da Pontc; Brigitta Bantfs London 
debut; revived 8 February 1800). 

paris, th.i. 19 August 181 1 (as Scwiramide); re- 
vived 2 October 1815. 



1791 

s t o r A c e : The Siege of Belgrade 

1 January. London, D.L. 
Text by J. Cobb. Three acts, 

Storacc partly composed the music, partly 
compiled it form Martin's opera Una Cosa rata 
(see 1 786) and other works. Kelly, 11, 1 : "There was 
a good deal oi beautiful original music in it, by 
Storacc, who, with his great taste and knowledge 
of effect, had also selected some from Martini" ; 
Parke: "The first stage musical performance of 
moment to be given at our national theatres"; 
and "This opera presented a marked instance of 
the rapid transition which the English opera had 
made from the simplicity of the ballad farce to 
the captivating splendours of the Italian drama. 
The music, which was excellent throughout, pro- 
cured the author for his copyright one thousand 
pounds". 

Letter in Journal des Luxus und dcr Modai, 15 
January 1791 : "Ich war gestern nicht wenig vcr™ 
wimdert, als ich in dcr hicr schr belicbten Ope- 
rettc: The Siege of Belgrade fast allc Aricn der 
Cosa rara fand. Ein gewisscr Signore Storace vcr- 
stcht die Kunst aus viclcn Italianischcn Opern eine 
Original-Englische zusammcnzustoppcln. Sanger 
und Sangcrinncn sind gut und schmclzcn die 
rauhen Tone ihrer Sprachc so zicmlich in die 
Acccnte dcr Liebc". 

Very successful in London, given there for 50 
nights during the first season; given at Dublin 27 
January 1792; New York 30 December 1796; 
Philadelphia i8or ; Edinburgh 15 December 18 10; 
the last revivals took place' when Braham first 



appeared on the American stage (Philadelphia 10 
December 1840; New York 21 December 

1840). 

r. kreutzer: Paulet Virginie 

13 January. Paris, C.I. 

Text by E. G. F. de Favicres (founded on Saint- 
Pierre's story, first published in 1787). Three 
acts. 

Revived Paris, O. 12 June 1806 (changed into 
an opera-ballet); revived at the O.C. 14 August 
1846. 

In French also, Rotterdam 22 November 1791 ; 
Liege 19 December 1791; Brussels 31 January 
1792; Amsterdam 1792; Aachen 3 August 1794; 
Cologne 1795-96; Hamburg 23 October 1795;. 
St. Petersburg 18 June 1800; Hanover 24 Decem- 
ber 1803; Berne 8 July 1809; Moscow 15 January 
1810. 

In German (translated by H. G. Schmieder), 
Amsterdam 1793; Berlin 21 January 1794, etc.; 
(translated by I. F. Castelli, as Die Fantilie auf 
Islc-dc-France) Vienna, W. 1805; St. Petersburg 
1818. 

In Swedish (translated by D. G. Bjorn), Stock- 
holm 15 May 1794. 

Dutch translation by P. G. Witsen Geysbeek 
published 1797. 

In Danish (translated by N. T. Bruun), Copen- 
hagen 19 May 1815. 

In Russian (translated by P. N. Kobyakov), 
St. Petersburg 6 November 1809 and Moscow 
28 May 1812. 

The opera was given as a pantomime at Boston 
10 May 1797. 

f. L. bend a: Louise 

16 January. Konigsberg 
Text by E. F. Jester. Three acts. 

The most successful opera of Georg Benda's 
son. 

In German also, Riga 10 June 1794; Hamburg, 
1794; revived at Konigsberg as late as 1820. 



485 



486 



1791 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1791 



MARTIN Y SOLER and 

pashkeevich: Fedul s Detmi 

Oejocyji c J^iTtMH 

(Fedul and his Children) 

27 January. St. Petersburg 

Text by the Empress Catharine n. One act. 

First performed at the Ermitage; publicly, St. 
Petersburg 2 March 1791; Moscow 7 January 
1796 (revived r January 1807, 13 November 1821 
and once more as late as 6 December 1896). Vocal 
score published in 1895. Of the music, six num- 
bers were written by Martin and five by Pashkee- 
vichw 

borghi: La Morte di Semiramide 

g February. Milan, Sc. 
Text by A. S. Sografi. Three acts. 

Borghi's best opera. Bologna October 1791, 
etc 

In Italian also, Trieste 4 October 1795 ; Vienna 
14 May 1797; Lisbon Spring 1799. 

mehul: Cora 

13 February. Paris, O. 
Text by Valadier (founded on Marmonters novel, 
Les Incas). Four acts. 

Unsuccessful; given for five nights only. 

dittersdorf: Der Gutsherr oder 
Hannchen und Gtirge 

2 March. Vienna, W. 
Text by J. F. Junger. Two acts. 

Very successful on German stages; sometimes 
called Der Schiffspatron; Frankfort 6* June 1792; 
Munich 6 July 1792; Breslau 30 November 1792; 
Bremen 3 December 1792; Hanover 23 January 
1793 ; Graz 19 March 1793 ; Cologne 15 Decem- 
ber 1793 ; Aachen and Dusseldorf 1793 ; Hamburg 
28 April 1794; Carlsruhe 6 January 1798, etc. 

In German also, Warsaw and Lemberg 1793 ; 
Budapest 17 July 1796; Temesvar 18 February 
1802; Poznan 3 November 1803. 

The last revivals seem to have been at Darm- 
stadt 30 March 1807 and Vienna, Leop. 7 May 
1816. 



dalayrac: Camille oxxLe Souterrain 

ig March. Paris, C.I. 
Text by B. J. Marsollier (founded on Mme de 
Genus's Aclele et Theodore). Three acts. 

Successful in France. Last revived Paris, O.C. 
3 August 1 841. 

In French also, Brussels 25 April 1792; St. Pe- 
tersburg May 1792 (previously given by ama- 
teurs at Aleksandrovsk; see Souvenirs of Mme 
Vigie-Lebrun, English edition, 1879, Vol. n, p.20) ; 
Cologne 1796-97; Moscow 31 October 1808; 
Berne 5 June 1809; New York 8 September 1827. 

In Dutch (translated by A. C. Brinkman), 
Amsterdam 1796; in Flemish, Oudenarde 1 Octo- 
ber 1798. 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 29 May 1797 and (in another version 
by C.J. Lindegren) 6 May 1800. 

In Italian (translated by G. Carpani), Monza 
Autumn 1794; Lisbon 29 November 1799. 

In Danish (translated by N. T. Bruun), Co- 
penhagen 28 March 1805. 

In Russian (translated by D. I. Vyelyashev- 
Volyntsov), Moscow 30 January 1812; St. Peters- 
burg 13 December 1813. 

An English adaptation by P. Hoare, The Cap- 
tive of Spilburg, with new music by Kelly and 
Dussek, was produced in London, D.L. 14 No- 
vember 1798 and New York 25 March 1801. 

naumann: La Dama Soldato 

jo March. Dresden 
Text by C. Mazzola. Two acts. 

The most successful of Naumann *s comic 
operas. 

In Italian also Prague 1792. 

In German (translation by C. A. Vulpius pub- 
lished Leipzig 1793 as Was thut die Liebe nicht), 
Vienna, Leop. 14 August 1794 (as Der weibtiche 
Soldat); Schwerin 1795; Mannheim 16 August 
1795; Konigsberg 31 January 1796; Oels 30 July 
1796; Dresden 17 September 1802; Leipzig 1803 ; 
Hamburg 14 September 1804; Amsterdam 28 
October 1807; Berlin 26 May 1812. Last revived 
Weimar 2 February 1831. 



487 



488 



1791 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1791 



A one act version by Schmieder was announced 
in the Journal fur Theater und andere schone Kunste, 
i797»p.H4. 

gretry: Guillaume Tell 

g April Paris, C.I. 

Text by J.M. Sedaine. Three acts. 

Important revolution opera. 

In French also Ghent 1794; New Orleans c. 
1817. Revived Paris, O.C. 24 May 1828 (text 
revised by J. P. Pellissier, music re-scored by Ber- 
ton); Marseilles 16 October 1828; Le Havre 6 
December 1828, etc., but this new run of Gre- 
try 's work was cut short by Rossini's Tell (1829). 
Gretry 's opera was produced once more by a 
French company in New York 12 August 1831. 

candeille: Castor et Pollux 

14 June. Paris, O. 

PJ. J. Bernard's text (first set to music by Rameau, 
see 1737). Five acts. 

Candeille re-scored and retained some pieces 
of Rameau s original music. Successful in Paris; 
Louis xvi and Marie Antoinette attended a per- 
formance on 20 September 1791 (the last time 
they went to the Academie Royale de Musique). 
Revived in Paris 18 October 1796 and 28 Decem- 
ber 1 8 14. 

v aisiello: La Locanda 

1 6 June. London, Pantheon 

Text: a reduced version of G. Bertati's La Locanda 
(first set to music by Gazzaniga, see 1771) by G. 
Tonioli. Two acts. 

First given in Italy at Naples, Fior. January 
1792 (as // Fanatico in Berlina, with an additional 
third act, text by G. B. Lorenzi); Genoa, S.Ag. 
28 May 1792 (not 1791); given at Palermo Sum- 
mer 1792 as Le Avventure della Locanda; Milan, 
Sc. 14 August 1792; Turin, T. Carignano Au- 
tumn 1792, etc. 

In Italian also Barcelona 24 April 1792; Vienna 
iojuly 1792; Trieste 26 December 1792; Leipzig 



Summer 1793 ; Lisbon Spring 1795 (asLo Strambo 
in Berhna); Bastia, Corsica Spring 1797; Oporto 
1799; Amsterdam 1808; Paris 22 July 18 14. Re- 
vived in London, Hm. 28 February 1792 and 22 
May 1802. 

In German (as Die Abenteuer im Gasthof oder 
Die lacherlichen Reisenden y translated by K. L. 
Gieseke), Vienna, W. 9 April 1796; Graz 30 April 
1798; Temesvar 25 February 1802. 

In Polish, Wilna February 1811. 

n A s o L I n i : La Morte di Cleopatra 

22 June. Vicenza 
Text by A. S. Sografi. Two acts. 

Very successful in Italy, where it was given 
until 1 817. 

In Italian also Trieste 24 April 1792; Berlin 
March 1797 (at Countess Lichtenau's private 
theatre); Madrid 6 October 1798; Lisbon Sum- 
mer 1800; London 4 March 1806; Oporto 8 No- 
vember 1807; Paris 1 December 18 13 (Napoleon 
attended the first night). 

cheru bini : Lodoiska* 

18 July. Paris, Th. Feydeau 
Text by C. F. Fillette Loraux. Three acts. 

One of Cherubim's chief works. Rather more 
appreciated in Germany than in France. 

In German (translated by C. A. Herklots), 
Berlin 13 May 1797; Schleswig 1799; Dessau 
Spring 1 800 ; Hamburg c. September 1 800 ; 
Vienna, W. 23 March 1802 (Ka. 24 January 1814; 
Jos. 10 December 1828); Budapest 1803; Munich 
1813; Hermannstadt and Lemberg 1814; Riga 
Autumn 1842. Revived Leipzig 21 November 

1854. 

In Italian, Dresden May 1802. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw and Wilna 1804; Poznan June 1805. 

In Danish (translated by N. T. Bruun), Copen- 
hagen 31 October 181 5. 

In English, New York 4 December 1826 (music 
arranged by R. Honey). 



489 



490 



1791 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1791 



r. kreutzer: Lodoiska 



1 August Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. E. B. Dejaure. Three acts. 

As it was often the case in these years, the two 
rival houses of opera-comique produced operas 
on the same subject. In France, Kreutzer's setting 
was the more popular one. 

In French also given at Amsterdam February 
1793; Brussels 19 June 1793; Cologne 1796-97; 
Hamburg 1797; Brunswick 24 June 1809; Hano- 
ver 15 March 1804; St. Petersburg 1804; Berne 
24 June 1809; Moscow 5 November 1810. 

In Italian (translated by G. Carpani), Monza 
Autumn 1793; Lisbon 17 December 1796 (music 
arranged by Leal Moreira). 

In Swedish (translated by J. P. Stolpe), Stock- 
holm 2 November 1795 (with an epilogue by 
Lindegren, music by Haefmer). 

In Russian (translated by V. A. Levshin), St. 
Petersburg 22 June 1814 and Moscow 24 October 
1816. 

In Dutch (translated by B. RulofTs), Amster- 
dam 1796. 

In London, Lodoiska was performed as a pastic- 
cio, music selected from Cherubini, Kreutzer and 
Andreozzi, arranged by Storace and adapted to 
an English libretto by J. P. Kemble (D. L. 9 June 
1794 and New York 13 June 1808). (Kelly, Vol. 
11, p.66: "I was in Paris at the first representations 
of Lodoiska at both theatres; but, partiality apart 
the Drury Lane piece surpassed them both"). 
Also C.G. 15 October 1816; Dublin 1816. 

mozart: La Clemenza di Tito* 

6 September. Prague 
Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1734), reduced and altered by C. Mazzola. Two 
acts. 

Written and performed within 18 days to 
celebrate the coronation of the Emperor Leopold 
n as King of Bohemia. After the special occasion 
for which it was composed the opera became 
known to a greater public only some years after 
Mozart's death. First given at Vienna, Ka. 29 
December 1794 and B. 31 March 1795 (also W. 



8 September 1798 and 25 March 1799) and at 
Hamburg 7 February 1796 and Berlin 28 February 
1796 (in concert form, for the benefit of the com- 
poser's widow). 

In German (translated mosdy by F. Rochlitz) : 
Dresden 26 May 1796. 
cassel March 1797. 
Budapest 11 June 1798. 

ALTONA I798. 

brunn 4 October 1798. 

bautzen 3 December 1798. 

breslau 19 March 1799. 

GRAZ 1 8 July 1799. 

frankfort 22 August 1 799 (translated perhaps 

by J. J. Ihlee). 
weimar 21 December 1799 (translated by C. A. 

Vulpius). 
Leipzig, January 1801. 
Munich 10 February 1801. 
dessau 10 August 1801. 
Berlin 16 October 1801. 
Bremen December 1801. 
hanover 24 February 1802. 
mannheim 8 August 1802 (additions'from Cima- 

rosa, Weigl, Winter). 
stuttgart 7 November 1803. 
poznan 20 March 1806. 
salzburg 1 May 1807. 

KONIGSBERG 29 April 1808. 
PRAGUE 1808. 

cologne September 1808. 
Hamburg 30 September 1808. 
basle 18 January 1809. 
pressburg 20 November 1 809, etc. 

In a German version by J. von Seyfried pro- 
duced at Vienna, W. 22 September 1801; Ka. 
12 April 1804 (in Italian, with some additional 
music by Weigl) and 2 January 1 811 (in German). 

Given at Munich in Italian 21 July 1805 (with 
additional airs by Winter, Cannabich, Weigl and 
Mayr) and in German 14 February 1824 as Konig 
Garibald (the libretto gives the date as 16 Feb- 
ruary), adapted to a new libretto by C. M. Heigel, 
additional music by J. H. Stuntz (celebrating the 
25th jubilee of King Max Joseph of Bavaria). 



491 



492 



I79i 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1 791 



Revived at Prague 17 December 1848 (cele- 
brating the Emperor Francis Joseph's accession to 
the throne). 

Frequently revived in Germany, particularly in 
Mozart jubilee years such as 1856 and 1906. The 
most recent revivals were at Leipzig December 
1 916 and Mannheim November 19 19 (new Ger- 
man version by A. Rudolph). 

Outside Austria and Germany La Clcmaiza di 
Tito was produced in London, Hm. 27 March 
1 806 (in Italian, for Elizabeth Billington's benefit, 
text altered by S. Buonaiuti); first Mozart opera 
in London ; revived 3 March 1 8 1 2 ; 2 March 1 8 1 6 ; 
1 May 1 82 1. Given in German at the Prince's Th. 
16 July 1840. 

Lisbon Autumn 1806 (in Italian). 
Amsterdam 1809 (in Italian); 20 December 1823 

(in German) and 1840 (in Dutch). 
Naples, s.c. 13 May 1809 (in Italian). 
paris, th.i. 20 May 1 8 16 (in Italian). 
Milan, T. RE 26 December 18 16 (in Italian). 
milan, sc. 26 December 181 8 (in Italian). 
ST. PETERSBURG 24 April 1817 (in Russian, trans- 
lated by A. I. Sheller) and 20 August 181 8 (in 

Italian). 
Moscow 23 July 1818 (in Russian). 
Copenhagen 29 January 1823 (in Danish, trans- 
lated by N. T. Bruun); revived 8 September 

i860. 
Stockholm 23 June 1823 (in Swedish, translated 

by A. Lindeberg). 
Prague 19 November 1891 (for the first time 

there in Czech, translated by V. J. Novotny). 
falmouth 12 November 1930 (for the first time 

in English, translated by M. and E. Radford). 
London, west central hall 28 February 1931 

(in English, translated by M. and E. Radford). 

A Serbian translation by J. Grcic was published 
in 1 89 1 (for a concert performance at Novi Sad?). 
new york Radio performance 22 June 1940 of 

Acts 1 and 2, and 29 June of Act 3. 

I. Walter: Der Spiegelritter 

1 1 September, Frankfort 
Text by A. von Kotzebue. Three acts. 
Popular in Germany; given at Hanover 21 



February 1793; Mannheim 10 March I793 ; Bre- 
men 10 October 1793; Hamburg 26 October 
1795; Berlin 26 January 1796; Oels 10 December 
1796, etc. 

A Dutch translation by A. Fokkc Simonsz 
appeared in 1807. 

mozart: Die Zauberflote* 

30 September, Vienna, W. 
Text by E. Schikancdcr. Two acts. 

The actor and writer Karl Ludwig Gicseke 
(real name, Johann Gcorg Metzlcr) who played 
in the first performance the small part of the first 
slave (d. 1833 as professor of mineralogy in Dub- 
lin), seems to have had a rather important share 
in the libretto (cf. F. Grandaur in Neue Zcitschrift 
fur Musik, 1891; E. von Komorzynski in Alt- 
Wiener Kalendcrfur dasjahr IQ22 and E. J. Dent's 
Mozart's Opera The Magic Flute; its History and 
Interpretation, 191 1). 

Die Zauberflote was a great success right from 
the beginning. Schikaneder announced the 83rd 
night on 23 November 1792 as the 100th perform- 
ance, the 135th night on 22 October 1795 as the 
200th performance. On 1 January 1798 he an- 
nounced the 300th performance. Altogether, the 
opera was given at the Theater auf der Wieden 
223 times until 6 May 1801. (See on Goethe's 
project of a sequel to Die Zauberflote , the pam- 
phlet by Victor Jung, 1900. For an actual sequel, 
Winter's Das Labyrint, see 1798.) 

A belated continuation, Sarastro by K. E. 
Goepfart, text by G. Stommel, was given in 
concert form at Hengelo (Holland) on 9 Decem- 
ber 1 891. 

After Vienna, Die Zauberflote was first produced 
at Prague 25 October 1792; given there in Italian 
(translated by G. de Gamerra, as // Flauto magico, 
with recitatives by J. B. Kucharz) Carnival 1794; 
in Czech perhaps in the same year; translation by 
"R. B. A." (A. Nejedly, A. J. Puchmajer, and 
§. Hnewkowsky) published 1794 and re-issued 
193 1. Given at Prague in a Czech version by J. K. 
Chmelensky 11 January 1829; in a new version 
by J. Bohm 5 December 1874. 



493 



494 



1791 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1791 



Productions in German : 
zittau 1792 (in concert form). 
augsburg 21 January 1793. 
Leipzig 25 January 1793. 
passau 31 January 1793. 
Budapest 3 March 1793 (in German). 
GRAZ29 May 1793. 
BRUNNjune 1793. 

GODESBERG, NEAR BONN June 1 793- 

magdeburg 1 793 (fragments only) and 18 March 

1799 (complete). 
Munich 11 July 1793. 
Warsaw 27 July 1793 (in German). 
Dresden 7 August 1 793 (in German) and 2 April 

1794 (in Italian). 

FRANKFORT 1 6 AugUSt 1 793. 
LINZ 25 AugUSt I793. 

Hamburg 15 November 1793 (200th performance 
29 November 1836). 

weimar i6January 1794 (in 3 acts, libretto revised 
by C. A. Vulpius). 

konigsberg January 1794. 

Mannheim 29 March 1794 (Vulpius's version). 

Brunswick 17 April 1794 (in German) and 6 
Augusti8o4 (in French, translated byA. Bursay). 

freiburg 24 April 1794. 

stettin 24 April 1794. 

hanover 25 April 1794. 

olomouc 3 May 1794. 

Berlin 12 May 1794 (500th performance 3 Sep- 
tember 1905); in Italian, Kgst. 24 February 
1849. 

Amsterdam 3 1 May 1794 (in German). 

NUREMBERG 14 May I794. 

ELBiNGjune 1794. 

MAYENCE S794. 

cologne 1794 and 29 April 1796. 
altona 1794 and '28 August 1798. 
lauchstedt 3 July 1794. 

AACHEN 10 July 1794. 
DESSAU II AugUSt 1794. 

rudolstadt 26 August 1794. 

bautzen 26 August 1794. 

halberstadt 29 August 1794 (by amateurs). 

erfurt 27 September 1794. 

Bremen 3 October 1794. 



danzig 19 October 1794. 

dusseldorf 4 November 1794. 

lubeck 17 November 1794. 

schleswig 29 December 1794. 

kiel 1 4 January 1795. 

breslau 25 February 1795. 

rostock 19 May 1795. 

stralsund 22 June 1795. 

oels 1 August 1795. 

greifswald 20 October 1795. 

oedenburg 12 December 1795. 

stuttgart 18 December 1795. 

temesvar 1796 (in German). 

cassel 5 December 1796. 

berne 12 December 1796. 

neustrelitz 2 January 1797. 

pressburg 26 February 1797. 

osnabruck 13 March 1797. 

ballenstedt 22 December 1797. 

lemberg 1797 (in German). 

reval 1797 (in German). 

ST. Petersburg 1797 (hi German). 

krefeld Spring 1798. 

hermannstadt 29 June 1798. 

cracow 1799, etc. 

First given at the Vienna Hoftheater 24 Feb- 
ruary 1 801 (400th performance there 18 Novem- 
ber 1 893) ; at Vienna Leop. first 2 November 1 810. 
In other languages, Die Zauberfibte was given 

in Italian and in Czech at Prague and Dresden, 

see above; at: 

Amsterdam 3 April 1799 (in Dutch, translated by 
J. C. Meyer); in German earlier, see above; in 
French 18 October 1803 ; in Italian 30 Decem- 
ber 1809. 

Moscow 1 801 (in Russian, at Maddoks's Th. 
according to Chayanova; see also A. von 
Kotzebue's journal, Der Freimuthige, 1, p.199). 
Earlier dates as given by Findeizen (Moscow 
1794?) and by Stasov (St. Petersburg 1799) 
lack verification. (Anonymous Russian trans- 
lation published St. Petersburg 1799.) Given at 
St. Petersburg 1797 in German (see above; pro- 
duction recorded in Theaterjoumal, 1, p.196) 
and 5 June 1818 (in Russian, translated by A. I. 
Sheller). 



495 



496 



1791 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1 791 



paris, o. 20 August 1 801 (in French, as Les Mys- 
teres d'Isis, text by E. Morel dc Chcdcville; "Le 
Citoycn Lachnith a compose lc rccitatif, ct 
forme la partition" (he used parts from Mo- 
zart's La Clemcnza di Tito, Lc Nozze di Figaro, 
and Don Giovanni). This mutilated version had 
its 100th performance on 23 October 1S18 and 
was given 134 times until 2 May 1827. Also 
given at Nantes 2 March 181 5. Sec the analysis 
in G. Servicrcs's Episodes d'Histoire Musicalc, 
1914. 

paris, th. I. 21 May 1829 (in German, by a com- 
pany from Aachen). 

paris, th. l. 23 February 1865 (in French, trans- 
lated by C. Nuittcr and A. Beaumont). 

PARIS, o.c. 3 April 1878 (in French, translated by 
C. Nuitter and A. Beaumont). 

paris, o.c. 31 May 1909 (new translation by A. 
Bisson and P. Ferrier). 

paris, o. 22 December 1922 (new translation by 
J. G. Prod'homme and J. Kienlin, first given 
Brussels 1912, see below). 

Warsaw 29 January 1802 and Poznan July 1805 
(in Polish, translated by W. Boguslawski) ; in 
German earlier at Warsaw, Lemberg, Cracow, 
see above; revived Lemberg 21 June 1923 (new 
Polish version by A. Kiczman). 

London, hm. 6 June 1811 (in Italian, translated by 
G. de Gamerra). 

Norwich 1 June 1829 (in English, adapted by 
C.H.Mueller). 

London, c.G. 27 May 1833 (in German; a selec- 
tion already King's Th. 18 June 1829). 

London, d.l. io March 1838 (in English, adapted 
by J. R. Planche). 

Dublin 29 September 1868 (in Italian). 

Cambridge I December 191 1 (new English ver- 
sion by E. J. Dent). 

Stockholm 30 May 1812 (in Swedish, translated 
by H. A. Kullberg). 

Copenhagen 23 March 1816 (in Danish, trans- 
lated by N. T. Bruun, the second act only; both 
acts 30 January 1826 in Danish, 20 May 1826 
in German; concert performances of the first 
act already 24 February 1798 and 14 May 1801. 



milan, sc 15 April 1 816 (in Italian; revived there 

as late as 12 May 1923). 
Bucharest 1818 (in German). 
Brussels August 1829 (in German, by the Aachen 

company coming from Paris). 
Brussels 10 February 1880 (in French, the Paris 

1865 version). 
Brussels 20 December 1912 (new French version 

by J. G. Prod'homme and J. Kienlin). 
new york 17 April 1833 (in English, adapted by 
C. E. Horn); 23 January 1855 (in German); 
21 November 1859 (in Italian). 
H. C. Lahee (Annals of Musk in America) re- 
cords a performance of Die Zauberflote at Phila- 
delphia as early as 7 March 1832. This statement, 
given without reference, has been taken over by 
many writers including J. G. Prod'homme, and 
A. Einstein (in the third edition of Kochel's Ver- 
zeichnis). No such performance can be substanti- 
ated from the books dealing with the history of 
the Philadelphia stage, not even from the 
daily account book of the Philadelphia theatre as 
edited by R. D.James in 1932. 
Helsinki 15 April 1841 (in German) aad 12 Jan- 
uary 1877 (in Finnish, translated by A. Torne- 
roos). 
clausenburg 3 December 1843 ( m Hungarian, 
translated by E. Paly; parts only); the whole 
opera, Budapest 17 February 1877, translated 
by G. Bohm). An earlier Hungarian version 
by S. Laszlo had been published in 1804. Since 
1913, a modern translation by Z. Harsanyi has 
been used. 
Antwerp 14 March 1896 (in Flemish). 
zagreb 18 February 1899 (in Croatian, translated 

by A. Harambasic). 
monte carlo 26 March 1921 (in Italian). 
buenos aires i 6 May 1923 (in Italian). 
riga 28 November 1923 (in Lettish). 
Barcelona 1 5 January 1925 (in German); Cata- 
lan translation by J. Pena published on that 
occasion. 
Ljubljana 22 December 1927 (in Slovenian). 
Sofia 1 May 193 1 (in Bulgarian, translated by 
B. Danovsky). 



497 



498 



1791-92 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1792 



A performance in Egypt, at the Pyramids, took 
place in April 1912 (produced by K. Guttenber- 
ger-Peler). 

BEFFROY DE REIGNY: 

Les deux Nicodemes ou Les Frangais 
dans la Planete de Jupiter 

21 November, Paris, Th. Feydeau 
Text by the composer. Two acts. 

A sequel to his Nicodeme (see 1790) ; after a few- 
nights banned by the police for political reasons. 
Other sequels were Le vrai Nicodeme (1791); Les 
trois Nicodemes (1791) ; Nicodeme auxEnfers (1792). 
For details see C. Westercamp's monograph on 
BefFroy de Reigny (1930). 

dalayrac: Philippe et Georgette 

28 December. Paris, C.I. 
Text by J. M. Boutet de Monvel. One act. 

Given in Paris until 1 827. 

In French also, Ghent 1794; Brussels 8 June 
1795; Cologne 1796-97; St. Petersburg 30 April 
1800; Hanover 31 December 1803; Moscow 1 
October 1808; Vienna 3oJuly 1809. " 

In Dutch (translated by A. C. Brinkman), 
Amsterdam 1796. 

In German (translated by C. A. Hcrklots), 
Hamburg 2 October 1798; revived Berlin 14 
February 1805 (new German version by A. W. 
Schlegcl, who is mentioned as the translator in 
A.M.Z.; with additions by B. A. Weber). 

In Danish (translated by E. dc Falsen), Copen- 
hagen 9 April 1799. 

In Swedish (translated by J. D. Valerius), 
Stockholm 28 January r8oo. 



1792 

c i m A r o s a : // Matrimonii) segreto* 

7 February. Vienna, B. 
Text by G. Bcrtati (founded on The Clandestine 
Marriage, by G. Colman and D. Garrick, 1766). 
Two acts. 



Cimarosa's most successful work. Apart from 
Mozart, the only Italian opera buffa between 
Pergolesi and Rossini which is still in the reper- 
tory in Italy as well as in other countries. The first 
opera Cimarosa wrote for Vienna after his return 
from Russia. It is said to have been repeated the 
same night on the Emperor Leopold n*s special 
request. 

Given at Vienna 133 times until 1884. In Italian 
also Prague 1792; Leipzig 20 June 1792; Dresden 
3 October 1792; Monza December 1792 (for the 
first time in Italy); Milan, Sc. 17 February 1793 
and all over Italy ; given at Palermo 1793 and Siena 
Carnival 1795 as Lo Sposalizio segreto; given at 
Turin Autumn 1803 as It Matrimonio nottumo. 
Barcelona 22 May 1793; Madrid 21 September 

1793 (revived 1 May 1878); Lisbon Summer 

1794 (revived 17 November 1868). London 11 
January 1794 (revived 21 April 1798, 25 January 

1803, 10 May 1814, 30 May 1818, i6July 1829; 
H.M.'s 14 July 1842 and 14 June 1849; C.G. 21 
June 1849; H.M.'s 23 June i860, Ly. 14 February 
1871, etc.). Trieste 15 March 1794; Ljubljana 
Summer 1794; St. Petersburg 1794 or 20 Feb- 
ruary 1795 (revived Carnival 1850); Charlotten- 
burg 2 October 1796, Paris, Th.I. 10 May 1801 
(given there 332 times until 1872). Amsterdam 
1806 and Carnival 1808. Mexico December 
1831; New York 4 January 1834; Philadelphia 
17 April 1834; Berlin, Kgst. 26 June 1841 ; Bucha- 
rest 1847; Calcutta 1870 (libretto British Muse- 
um); Malta 1872. 

In German: Berlin 5 November 1792 (trans- 
lated by F. L.W. Meyer); Mannheim 18 August 
1793 (translated by H. Beck); Hanover 28 May 
1794; Passau 1794; Oels 21 May i796;Weimar 
3 December 1796 (translated by C. A. Vulpius); 
Cologne 1796-97; Budapest 30 August 1797; 
Munich 30 March 1798 (translated by K. L. 
Giescke); Brcslau 16 October 1798; Rostock 
7 May 1801; Bremen 1803-04; Hamburg 28 De- 
cember 1804; Vienna 10 June 1806 (for the first 
time there in German) ; Laibach 15 January 181 1 ; 
Graz 26 March 1825 (translated by J. C. Grun- 
baum); Dresden 10 June 1849 (first time there in 
German); Stuttgart May 1850; Vienna 15 Octo- 



499 



500 



1792 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1792 



ber 1850; Munich 6 April 1851, etc. (new Ger- 
man translation by A. Lewald, recitatives by Lind- 
paintner). Another German translation, by C. 
Lebrun, was published 1838. 

In French (translated by P. L. Moline), Ghent 
1793; Brussels 4 June 1798; Antwerp 27 Decem- 
ber 1804; (translated by F. H. J. Castil-Blaze) 
Nimes 1817; Strasbourg 6 October 1824; Hague 
October 1838; (translated by Moras and F. San- 
tallier) Le Havre February 1862. 

In Spanish (translated by L. F. Cornelia) , 
Madrid 7 September 1795. 

In Danish (translated by F. G. Sporon), Co- 
penhagen 26 September 1797; revived 30 May 
1854 (new translation by T. Overskou). 

In Swedish (translated by C. Envallsson), 
Stockholm 11 February 1800; revived 1 Decem- 
ber 1 85 1 (new translation by C. W. A. Strand- 
berg). 

In Polish (translated by J. Adamczewski), 
Warsaw 27 December 1805 ; revived 21 Novem- 
ber 1840 (new translation by K. K. Kurpiriski). 

In Dutch (translated from the French version 
by B. A. Fallee), Amsterdam 1808. 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 24 May 1822. 

In English (translated by H. F. Chorley), 
London, C.G. 1 November 1842 and Dublin 6 
May 1843; (translated by W. Grist) London, 
Crystal Palace 13 December 1877. 

In Czech (translated by B. Peska), Prague 17 
December 1872. 

Some revivals after 1880: 
Vienna 15 March 1884 (revised by J. N. Fuchs). 
London, Shaftesbury 12 November 1891 (in 

Italian), and St. George's Hall, 25 November 

1896 (in English). 
ST. Petersburg 29 September 1895 (in Russian, 

translated by N. Yurin). 
Hamburg 11 May 1909 (new German version by 

T. Rehbaum, music revised by W. Kleefeld). 
buenos aires 12 August 1911 (in Italian). 
Prague 22 April 1914 (in Czech). 
monte carlo 16 March 1916 (in Italian). 
Barcelona 9 November 1916 (in Italian). 
paris, tr.l. 12 March 1921 and O.C. 10 October 

193 1 (new French version by D. Muller). 



Birmingham 20 June 1921 (new English version 
by R. Gatty). 

London, court th. 26 June 1928 (English version 
by R. Gatty). 

basle 22 March 1927 (new German version by 
L. Jansen) 

Berlin 6 October 1928 (in German, Jansen's ver- 
sion). 

Washington 23 April 1933 (at the Juilliard School 
of Music ; in English, Gatty *s version, recita- 
tives by A. Stocssel). 

Bucharest in or before 1934-35 ( m Rumanian). 

new york, M.January 1937 (Gatty *s version). 

s c h A l l : Kinafarerne 
(Travellers to China) 
2 March. Copenhagen 
Text by P. A. Heiberg. Two acts. 

Successful at Copenhagen; given there until 
1830. 

gaveaux: L' Amour filial 

7 March. Paris, Th. Feydeau 
Text by C. A. Demoustier. One act. 

Gaveaux's first opera, originally called Les deux 
Sttisses, sub-title La Jambe de Bois. Successful in 
Paris. 

In French also, Brussels 29 June 1795; Rotter- 
dam July 1795; Cologne 1795-96; Wilna j8June 
1 802 ; Hanover 26 April 1 804 ; Berne 3 June 1 809 ; 
Moscow 7 August 1809. Revived Li^ge 20 Feb- 
ruary 1 814 (as Les deux Suisses). 

In German (translated by C. A. Herklots), Ber- 
lin 16 October 1796; Hamburg 1796, etc. 

In Danish (translated by R. Frankenau), Co- 
penhagen 31 October 1797. 

In Spanish, Madrid 25 December 1802 (prob- 
ably Gaveaux's opera). 

In Swedish, Stockholm 24 June 1807 (ad- 
vertised as by Dalayrac). 

In Polish (translated by Sekolowski), Warsaw 
1808. 

In Flemish, Oudenarde 1795. 

There are printed Dutch versions by G. Bren- 
der a Brandis and by J. C. van Son, both 1799. 
Revived in Dutch at The Hague as late as 1832. 



501 



502 



1792 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1792 



mehu x: Stratonice* 

3 May. Paris, CI. 

Text by F. B. Hoffman (come'die-he'roique). One 
act. 

Revived at the O. 20 March 1821 (recitatives 
by Mend's nephew, Louis Joseph Daussoigne). 
Given in Paris until 1827. 

In French also, Lyons 1792; Brussels 15 August 
1796 (the second version 16 August 1825); Co- 
logne 1796-97; St. Petersburg 1798; Berne 19 
July 1 810; Moscow 22 December 18 10. 

In German (translated by C. A. Herklots), Ber- 
lin 23 August 1815. 

In Russian (translated by F. F. Kokoshkin), 
St. Petersburg 1 May 1820. 

A parody by J. B. D. Despres and J. A. P. de 
Segur, called Nice, was produced at the Th. du 
Vaudeville, Paris 6 June 1792. 

paisiello:! Giuochi d'Agrigento 

16 May, Venice, F. 
Text by A. Pepoli. Three acts. 

Written for the opening of the new "Teatro 
la Fenice." Also given at London 5 February 1793 
and Lisbon 4 November 1799. Revived Venice, 
F. 7 February 1801. 

devienne: Les Visitandines* 

7 July. Paris, Th. Feydeau 

Text by L. B. Picard. Three (produced in two) 
acts. 

One of the most successful French operas of the 
revolution period. 

Frequently revived in Paris, viz. : 
o.c. 2 March 1825 (as Le Pensionnat de jeunes 

Demoiselles, text altered by J. B. C. Vial). 
odeon 30 June 1825 (as Les Francais au Sirail, text 

altered by H. Albertin). 
th. l. n February 1852; Folies Bergere 2 March 

1872; Galerie Vivienne 11 November 1895; 

O.C. 15 May 1900; Th. L. 17 January 1920. 

Outside France produced at: 



Ghent 1793 (revived 1879). 

Brussels 23 August 1 794; revived 27 September 

1 81 8 (as Belfort etEuphemie) and 25 April 1852. 
cologne 1796-97; Hamburg 1797; Brunswick 

1 801. 
berne 24 June 1809. 
Antwerp I February 1827 (as Le Pensionnat de 

jeunes Demoiselles). 
st. Petersburg Spring 1805 (as Belfort et Euphimie 

ou La Pension de Nevers). 
Dublin 1824 (as Le Pensionnat de Nevers; French- 
English libretto Allen A. Brown Collection, 

Boston). 

In German (as Die Heimsucherinnen), Schleswig 
10 March 1794 (translator unknown; libretto 
printed; see Bibliotheca Danica, Vol. rv, p.406); as 
Liebe wagt alles (translated by H. G. Schmieder), 
Hamburg 4 May 1798; (as Die Herrnhutherinnen), 
Vienna 26 November 1804; (as Die Liebe im 
Kloster, translated by C. A. Herklots), Berlin 3 
October 1808. 

In Swedish (translated by D. G. Bjorn), Stock- 
holm 22 February 1794; Malmo 13 April 1807; 
Lund 3 August 1807. 

In Dutch (translated by H. Ogelwight), Am- 
sterdam 1796 (revived there 1799 and Hague 
1814). 

In Danish (translated by E. de Falsen), Copen- 
hagen 5 May 1797 (given there until 1854). 

In Spanish (as La Quinta de Escorondon), Madrid 
24 June 1803. 

An anonymous parody, Les Putins cloitries, was 
published 1793 and 1796. 

stegmann: Heinrich derLowe 

i$July. Frankfort 

Text by H. G. Schmieder (Ein allegorisches Sing- 
spiel). Two acts. 

Written for the coronation of the Emperor 
Francis n. Also given at Vienna, W. 23 August 
1792; Hamburg 2 February and 2 March 1794 
(in concert form). 

Revived Konigsberg 1802 and November 1823 
(with new dialogue by Struve). 



503 



504 



1792 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1792-93 



zingarelli: II Mercato di 
Monfregoso 

22 September. Milan, Sc. 
Text: an altered and reduced version of Gol- 
doni's II Mercato di Malmantile (see 1757). Two 
acts. 

Zingarelli's best comic opera; last revived in 
Italy: Milan, Sc. September 1801 ; Naples, Fondo 
9 October 1803. 

In Italian also given at Prague 1793; Vienna 

13 June 1793; Leipzig Summer 1793; Barcelona 

14 May 1794; Lisbon Summer 1795; Madrid 
Spring 1796. 

In German (as Derjahrmarkt von Woltershausen, 
translated by J. F. Schlotterbeck), Stuttgart 
Summer 1804. 

N AS olini: Eugenia 

13 October, Venice, S. Ben. 
Text by G. M. Foppa (from Beaumarchais's 
drama). Three acts. 

Outside Italy given at Dresden Carnival 1794; 
Lisbon Autumn 1794; Barcelona 12 November 
1794; Madrid 9 December 1795. 

paer: II Tempo fa Giustizia a tutti 

Autumn. Parma 
Text by A. Brambilla. Two acts. 

The first of Paer's operas which had a greater 
success. 

Given at Piacenza Spring 1793, Padua 26 De- 
cember 1793 and Genoa, T. Falcone Carnival 
1797 as Le Astuzie amorose and all over North 
Italy. Also Corfu Carnival 1795. 

Revived (as La Locanda dei Vagabondi) Modena, 
T. Rangoni 20 July 1804; Barcelona 20 Novem- 
ber 1806; Bologna 26 December 1809; Dresden 
1 81 3; and once more Florence, T. degli Arris- 
chiati 30 April 1872. 

paisiello: L'Elfrida 

4 November. Naples, S.C. 
Text by R. de' Calzabigi. Two acts. 

Given in a new version, with a happy instead 



of a tragic end, at Bologna Carnival 1796 and (as 
(Adelvolto) Verona Carnival 1797. 

In Italian also given at Madrid 25 August 1794; 
Trieste October 1797; Corfu Carnival 1798; 
London 19 May 1798 (last revised 6 February 
1813); Lisbon 17 December 1804. 

In German (translated by J. O. H. Schaum), 
Berlin 16 October 1802. 

s T o r A c e : The Pirates* 

21 November. London, Little Hm. 
Text by J. Cobb. Three acts. 

Again, as in his No Song, no Supper (see 1790), 
Storace used parts of his Equivoci music, but also 
introduced a quintet from Guglielmfs La bella 
Pescatrice (according to Kelly) and airs by Anfossi 
and Bianchi (according to Parke); the additions 
are not indicated in the printed score. 

Revived with additional music by Braham, 
Cooke, Mercadante and Balducci, orchestration 
revised by Cooke, London, D.L. 29 November 
1827 as Isidore de Merida; or, The Devil's Creek; 
this version was also given in New York on 9 
June 1828 (music arranged by C. E. Horn). 

(Date of first performance verified from the 
newspapers; Genest has 11 November, Kelly 
20 November.) 



1793 

dalayrac: Ambroise ou Voila 
majournee 

12 January. Paris, CI. 

Text by J. M. Boutet de Monvel. One act. 

Successful in Paris; given at the O.C. until 
1827. 

In French also, St. Petersburg 26 October 1793 ; 
Brussels 15 February 1796 (revived 7 December 
1840) ; Hanover 16 August 1803 ; Moscow 15 Oc- 
tober 1808; Berne 17 July 1809; Vienna 26 Au- 
gust 1826. 

In German, Vienna, W. 6 March 1812. 

In Russian (translated by P. N. Kobyakov), 



505 



506 



1793 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1793 



St. Petersburg 19 December 1809 and Moscow 
10 November 18 14. 

In Swedish (translated by C. G. Nordforss), 
Stockholm 11 December 1812; Gothenburg 14 
June 1 816. 

In Dutch (translated by C. Vreedenberg), Am- 
sterdam 1816. 

lesueur: La Caverne 

1 6 February, Paris, Th. Feydeau 

Text by P. Dercy (founded on an episode in 
Lcsage's Gil Bias). Three acts. 

One of the earliest examples of "bandit'* opera, 
a species characteristic of that period. According 
to H. Kretzschmar, La Caverne is **. . . vielleicht 
dasjenige Kunstwerk, das uns den tiefsten Blick 
auf Geist und Herz der Schreckenszeit gestattet. 
Es gibt keine zweite Oper mit soldi dumpfangst- 
licher Stimmung, solcher fieberhaften Erregung 
und solcher wildcn Energie". 

In French also, Liege 2 September 1795; 
Brussels 18 December 1795; Rotterdam 9 No- 
vember 1796; Cologne 1796-97; Brunswick 
Spring 1804; St. Petersburg May 1805; Moscow 
28 October 1809; Cassel May 1812. 

Dutch translation by P. G. van Witsen Gcys- 
bcek published 1799. 

In German, Vienna, W. 14 June 1803 (as Die 
Hohle bey Cosiro, translated by J. von Seyfricd) 
and Ka. 24 June 1803 (as Die Raubcrhohle, trans- 
lated by K. F. Lippcrt); Berlin 29 June 1807; 
Stuttgart 1 817 (as Alfonso und Seraphine); Prague 
Summer 1819. Another translation by H. G. 
Schmieden Die Raubcrhiihle, published Hamburg 
1804. 

In Russian (translated by N. V. Vscvolozhsky), 
St. Petersburg 10 August 1818; Moscow 6 May 
1 819 (with additional music by Maurcr). 

schulz: Indtoget (Entry) 

26 February. Copenhagen 
Text by P. A. Hcibcrg. Two acts. 

Given at Copenhagen 49 times until 1827. 



mehul: Le jeune Sage et le vieux Fou 

28 March. Paris, O.C. 1 

Text by F. B. Hoffman. One act. 

In French also, Liege 30 September 1795; Co- 
logne 1796-97; Brussels 1 March 1799, etc. 

In Swedish (translated by C. G. Nordforss), 
Stockholm 9 October 1805. 

In Russian, St. Petersburg January 1812. 

Revived at the Arts Theatre Club, London 
8 May 1929 (as There's no Fool like a young Fool f 
English version by H. Graham). 

Portugal: La Confusione nata dalla 

Sotniglianza ossiano I due Gobbi 

Spring. Rome, Pallacorda 

Text by C. Mazzini (founded on a comedy by 

L. Del Buono)^ Two acts. 

The first great success of Portugal, the only 
Portuguese composer whose (Italian) operas were 
given all over Europe. Milan, Sc. 14 February 
1796, etc. 

In Italian also, Dresden 4 December 1793; 
Trieste 14 January 1794 (revived Spring 181 5); 
Barcelona 16 June 1794; Vienna 28 June 1794; 
Prague 1794; Corfu 26 December 1794; London 
15 March 1796; St. Petersburg 1798; Cagliari, 
Sardinia Autumn 1802; Amsterdam 1806. 

In German (translated by C. A. Hcrklots), Ber- 
lin 3 August 1795; Hamburg 6 May 1796, etc. 
Another German version (by K. L. Gieseke) was 
used at Budapest 25 March 1801 and Graz 24 
January 1 803 . Given on German stages until 18*9: 
Herklots's translation, Hanover 25 July ibio; 
Gicscke's translation, Nuremberg 29 November 
1 819. 

The opera docs not seem to have been given at 
Lisbon, the composer's native town. 

1 On 11 February 1793 the Paris "Com&tte-Italienne'* 
takes the new name of Theatre de I'OpcVa-Comique 
National*' under which it becomes now generally 
known. Between 1783 and 1801 it was also often called 
"Salle Favart" or "Theatre de la Rue Favart" as different 
from the rival house in Rue Feydeau (late "Theatre de 
Monsieur"). In 1801 the two companies were amalgam- 
ated. 



507 



508 



1793 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1793 



kunzen: Die Weinlese 



3 May, Frankfort 

Text by J. J. Ihlee. Three acts. 

The most successful work of the German- 
Danish composer. 

In German also given at Prague 1794; Hamburg 
28 August 1795; Breslau 11 November 1796; 
Hanover 31 July 1797; Bremen September 1797; 
Oels 2 December 1797; St. Petersburg 1803; 
Berne April 1804; Berlin 16 November 1807, 
etc. Revived (in a reduced 2-act version) Berlin, 
Kgst. 28 June 1825; Leipzig 2 August 1826. 

In Danish (as Vinhosten eller Hvemfercr Bruden 
hjetn, translated by R. Frankenau), Copenhagen 
22 December 1796 (given there until 1832). 

cimarosa: / Trad atnanti 

igjune. Naples, T.N. 

Text by G. Palomba. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy; given at Padua 6 October 
1795 as // Padre alia Moda; another alternative 
title was, according to Cambiasi, ho Sbarco di 
Mustanzir). In Italy given until 18 18. Outside 
Italy: Madrid 15 July 1794; Lisbon Carnival 1796 
(as Gli Turchi amanti)\ London 1 6 February 1796; 
Dresden 1796; Vienna 30 April 1800; Paris 31 No- 
vember 1809 (according to the libretto; Castil- 
Blaze gives 22 November 1809). 

(Date of first performance according to the 
autograph score at Naples). 

steibelt: Romeo et Juliette 

10 September. Paris, Th. Feydeau 

Text by J. A. P. de Segur. Three acts. 

Steibelt's most successful work (particularly 
popular in Russia, where Steibelt succeeded Boiel- 
dieu as conductor of the French opera company 
in 1811). Last revived in Paris, O.C. 19 January 
1822. 

In French also, Liege 29 November 1796; Co- 
logne 1796-97; Brussels 17 March 1799 (revived 
14 March 1815); St. Petersburg 1809; Moscow 
28 May 1810; New Orleans 6 August 1810. 



In Danish (translated by N. T. Bruun), Co- 
penhagen 18 April 1806 (previously given there 
in French, 1798, in concert form). 

In Russian (translated by A. G. Volkov), 
Moscow 2 January 1809; St. Petersburg 19 Sep- 
tember 1 8 17. 

In Swedish (translated by C. G. Nordforss), 
Stockholm 30 January 1815. 

In German, St. Petersburg 16 February 1818. 

(This opera was the first in which a Chinese 
gong was used in the orchestra.) 

Arnold: The Children in 
the Wood 

1 October, London, Little Hm. 
Text by T. Morton. Two acts. 

Successful on English stages and Dublin 10 Feb- 
ruary 1794; Philadelphia 24 November 1794 
(given there until 1833; additional music by B. 
Carr; New York 26 December 1794 (with addi- 
tional music by B. Carr), etc. 

w. muller: Das Neusonntagskind 

1 October, Vienna, Leop. 
Text by C. Perinet (founded on P. Hamer's 
comedy Der Furchtsame, 1774). Two acts. 

Very successful all over Austria and Germany: 
Graz 20 February 1794; Pressburg 3 April I794J 
Budapest 21 April 1794; Salzburg Autumn 1794, 
etc.; also Nuremberg 1794 and Mayence 1795 (as 
Der Geisterseher) ; adapted for the North German 
stage by E. Grossmann, Hamburg 3 February 
1795 ; Hanover 3 July 1795 ; Bremen 20 October 
1795; Weimar 29 March 1796 (text altered by 
C. A. Vulpius); Berlin 6 May 1796; Mannheim 
26 February 1797; Oels 18 March 1797; Breslau 
August 1797; Carlsruhe 16 March 1798; Aachen 
9 May 1798; Munich 14 January 1800, etc. 

The last (154th) Vienna performance was on 
26 July 1 829 ; given at Weimar as late as 1 1 March 
1 846 ; Wurzburg 20 February 1 849 ; Berlin, Fr. W. 

24 May 1852; Breslau 29 April 1862. 

In German also, Rotterdam Spring 1796; Te- 
mesvar 22 November 1801 ; Paris, Th. de la Cite 

25 November 1801; Berne Spring 1804; Poznan 



509 



510 



1793-94 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1794 



16 September 1805 (as Der Geisterseher); St. Pe- 
tersburg 1808; Moscow 9 September 1820. 

In Dutch (translated by G. C. de Greuve), Am- 
sterdam 1799; (translated by G. Vreedenberg) 
Amsterdam 1813 and Hague 1829. 

In Polish (translated by W. Boguslawski), 
Warsaw 1802. 

winter: IFratelli Rivali 

November. Venice, S. Ben. 
Text by M. Butturini. Two acts. 

In Italian also given at Prague 25 October 1794; 
Dresden October 1795 (revived September 1 816) ; 
Vienna 16 November 1795; Madrid 30 May 
1797; London 18 February 1800. 

In German (translated by M. Stegmayer), 
Frankfort 1798; Mannheim 15 September 1799; 
(translated by F. X. Girzik) Budapest 11 May 
1800, etc. Revived Munich 16 July 1819; Stutt- 
gart 1820. 

boieldieu: La Fille coupahle 
2 November. Rouen 

Text by J. F. A. Boieldieu, the father of the com- 
poser. Two acts. 
Boieldieu*s first opera. Score preserved. 

schulz: Peters Bryllup 
(Peter's Wedding) 
12 December. Copenhagen 
Text by T. Thaarup. Two acts. 
Given at Copenhagen until 1835. 



1794 

Portugal: Lo Spazzacamino 

Principe 

4 January. Venice, S. Moise 

Text by G. M. Foppa (founded on a French 

comedy by Maurin de Pompigny, 1785). One 

act. 



One of Portugal's most successful works. Given 
at Lisbon later in the same year (1794) in Por- 
tuguese (as O Basculho da Chamini) and 27 May 
1799 in Italian. 

In Italian also given at Dresden Spring 1794; 
Vienna 5 September 1795; Barcelona 6 May 
1796; Bastia, Corsica Spring 1797; St. Petersburg 
22 November 1797; Ljubljana Spring 1799; 
London 17 June 1800. Last revived Milan 14 
March 18 19. 

In Russian (translated by I. A. Dmitrevsky), 
Moscow 26 November 1798 (revived 3 Novem- 
ber 1808). 

In German (as Schornsteinfeger Peter, in a 2-act 
version by C. A. Zschiedrisch), Dresden 22 May 
1799; Hamburg 9 May 1800, etc.; Warsaw 1810. 

weigl: La Principessa d'Amalji 

10 January, Vienna, B. 
Text by G. Bertati. Two acts. 

WeigFs first greater success. Haydn wrote to 
the young composer on 11 January: ". . . da 
molto tempo non 6 ascoltato musica con piu 
attenzione che la sua Principessa di Arnalfi. di ieri: 
chiara di pensiero, alta, piena di sentimento; in 
poche parole, un capolavoro". 

In Italian also given at Prague 1794; Leipzig 
15 June 1794; Dresden 13 December 1794; Char- 
lottenburg 19 June 1796; Milan, Sc. April 1803; 
Pans 14 November 1805; Venice, F. Autumn 
1807, etc. 

In German (translated by F. X. Girzik), Buda- 
pest 28 April 1795; (translated by C. A. Vulpius) 
Weimar 6 January 1798; revived Graz 2 March 
1807. 

Portugal: Demofoonte 

8 February. Milan, Sc. 

Metastases text (first set to music by Caldara in 
1733). Three acts. 

In a reduced 2-act version given at Lisbon 15 
August 1808 (revived 25 April 1819) and Rio de 
Janeiro 17 December 1811 (as one of the first 
operas ever produced there). 



5ii 



512 



1794 



ANNALS 'OF OPERA 



1794 



stefan i : Cud, czyli Krakowiaki i 
Gorale 

1 March. Warsaw 
Text by W. Boguslawski. Two acts. 

(The title means: The Miracle; or, The Craco- 
vians and the Mountain-Folk.) 

For a contemporary account see J. G. Seume's 
Einige Nachrichtcn ubcr die Vorfallc in Polen imjahr 

1794, 1796, pp.15-17. 

Very successful in Poland; given at Warsaw 
144 times until 1859. Lemberg i7o6;Poznan7july 
1 801; Cracow 22 September 1809. A sequel, 
Zabobon (Superstition), mostly called Nowe Kra- 
kowiacy (3 acts, text by J. N. Kaminski, music by 
Kurpiriski) was first produced at Warsaw in 18 16; 
also Lemberg 22 November 1816 (in Polish) and 
11 March 1829 (in German, translated by F. 
Pohlcnburg); Wilna 2$ September 1827, etc. 
This sequel was, since 1826, often performed on 
the same bill with the original. Revived at 
Warsaw as late as 8 March 191 3 (second part) and 
24 July 1929 (first part). 

Also produced (in Polish) at the Exhibition Th., 
Vienna 11 September 1892. 

hewitt: Tammanny; or, The 
Indian Chief 

3 March. New York, John Street Th. 
Text by A. J. Hatton. Three acts. 

One of the earliest American operas. Given at 
New York 13 March 1795 in a reduced 2-act 
version as America rediscovered. Also Philadelphia 
18 October 1794; Boston 4 January 1796. Music 
lost. Of the text, the lyrics only are extant. 

w. muller: Die Schwestern 
von Prag* 

11 March. Vienna, Leop. 
Text by C. Pcrinct (founded on P. Hafner's 
comedy Die reisenden Comodianten, 1774). Two 
acts. 

Even more popular than his Ncusonntagskind 
(see 1793), given on every German stage ; Nurem- 
berg 1794-96; Salzburg Spring 1795; Cologne, 



Aachen, Diisseldorf and Crefeld 1797; Hamburg 
Carnival 1 799-1 800; Oels 6 July 1799; Berlin 
24 March 1800, etc. 

In German also Budapest 9 October 1794; 
Pressburg 15 January 1795; Schleswig 1798; Te- 
mesvar 29 November 1801 ; Agram 2 May 1802; 
Poznan 12 August 1804; St. Petersburg 1808; 
Prague Carnival 1809; Moscow 3 February 1821 ; 
Gothenburg 26 December 1827; Helsinki 28 
March 1838; New York 30 November 1859. 

In Hungarian (translated by P. J. Kotsi), Clau- 
senburg 16 February 1803 ; Budapest 17 February 
1808. 

InPolish (translated byJ.Drozdowski), Warsaw 
1803; Wilna 1808 

In Russian (translated by A. I. Sheller), St. Pe- 
tersburg 10 October 1814; Moscow 11 December 
1817. 

In Dutch, Hague 1830. 

Some of the latest revivals were at Hamburg 
12 April 1849; Berlin 16 March 1852; Vienna 
8 January 1859; Munich 31 December 1863; Ko- 
nigsberg 26 January 1 870. 

A Nachgestaltung by C. Czarniawski was pub- 
lished in 1935 (produced Baden, near Vienna 
June 1935). 

Beethoven used the air Ich bin der Schneider Ka- 
kadu from this opera for his Variations, op.i2ia 
(1824). 

GAVEAux:La Famille indigente 

24 March. Paris, Th. Feydeau 
Text by B. A. Planterre (Fait historique, mili de 
Chant, founded on an idyl by S. Gessner). One 
act. 

In French also, Brussels 8 February 1796; Rot- 
terdam 2 September 1796; Cologne 1796-97, etc. 

In Danish (translated by N. T. Bruun), Co- 
penhagen 17 September 1802. 

zingarelli: Gerusaletnme distrutta 

Lent Florence, P. 
Text by A. S. Sografi. Two acts. 

Revived Florence, T. de* Infocuati 27 Novem- 
ber 1 803 as La Distruzionc di Gerusalemme. Revived 



513 



514 



1794 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1794 



in 1807 for a private performance at Casa Lante, 
Rome, and revived Rome, T. Valle 14 March 
1 8 10; Naples, T. Fondo 1811 ; Milan, Sc. 22 Feb- 
ruary 1812, etc. 

In Italian also at Paris 4 May 1811 and Vienna, 
W. 22 May 1817. 

In German (translated by F. K. Hiemer), Stutt- 
gart 6 November 18 14; Darmstadt November 
1815. 

i s o u AR d : UAvviso ax Maritati 

Spring. Florence, P. 
Text by F. Gonella. Three acts. 

The first opera of the Maltese composer. Suc- 
cessful in Italy ; given also at Lisbon 1 794 ; Dresden 
Carnival 1795; Madrid 2 August 1795. 

cimarosa: Le Astuzie femminili* 

1 6 August. Naples, Fondo 
Text by G. Palomba (for unknown reasons Rie- 
mann, Clement-Larousse, Nicoll and others name 
Metastasio ( !) as the author of the libretto). Two 
acts. 

Successful in Italy; first given at Milan, Sc. 
12 March 1803. 

Outside Italy given at Barcelona 12 September 
1795 ; Lisbon 2 December 1797; Paris 21 October 
1802; London 21 February 1804. 

In German (translated by C. A. Herklots), Ber- 
lin 9 September 1799. 

Revived Naples, T. Filarmonico 10 February 
1 871 (text revised by E. Golisciani, recitatives by 
C. Rossi) and London, C.G. 15 July 1871; Bo- 
logna, T. Brunetti Summer 1871; Florence, T. 
Arrischiati Autumn 1871; Paris 5 February 1874; 
Rome, Capr. November 1878; Florence, T. Nic- 
colini 14 January 1893. 

Again revived (orchestrated by O. Respighi; 
produced by Diaghilev, as an opera-ballet, cho- 
reography by Massine) Paris, O. 27 May 1920; 
London, C.G. 22 June 1920; Naples 30 May 1921 ; 
Monte Carlo 24 December 1923; Florence, P. 
20 May 1939. 

(Date of first performance according to the 
autograph score at Naples.) 



ANDREOZzr.Ld Principessa Filosofa 
ossia II Contravveleno 

6 October. Venice, S. Ben. 
Text by A. S. Sografi (Commcdia rxdotta ad uso 
melodrammatico). Two acts. 

The most popular of Andreozzi's numerous 
operas (a list of which will be found in R.M.L, 
Vol. xvi, p.263). 

Outside Italy given at Madrid 5 October 1797; 
Lisbon Summer 1800; London 5 May 1801 (text 
altered by S. Buonaiuti). 

sussmayr: Der Spiegel von Arkadien 

14 November. Vienna, W. 
Text by E. Schikaneder. Two acts. 

The most successful work of Mozart's pupil 
and one of the best achievements of the German 
"Zauber-Oper". In Vienna given 113 times until 
1804; last revived there 26 August 1826. 

In German also given at Pressburg 12 Septem- 
ber 1795; Frankfort 20 September 1795; Passau 
1796; Hamburg Summer 1796; Berlin 3 August 
1796; Munich March 1797; Hanover 2june 1797; 
Bremen October 1797; Salzburg, Cologne, Dus- 
seldorf and Crefeld 1797; Aachen May 1798, etc. 
Also Lemberg 1797; Schleswig and Budapest 
1800; Paris, Th. de la Cite 29 November 1801; 
Temesvar 14 January 1802; Berne 1803; Warsaw 
3 November 1804; Poznan 18 November 1804; 
St. Petersburg 1804; given at Weimar 2 February 
1796 as Die neuen Arkadier (text altered by C. A. 
Vulpius). 

In Italian (!), Prague 7 September 1795 (in 
German there 9 March 1809). 

In Russian, St. Petersburg 5 May 1814; Moscow 
7 May 1818. 

There are also printed French (by F. G. Hauss- 
ner, 1801) and Polish (by W. Kratzer, n.d.) 
versions. 

cherubini: Elisa ouLe Voyage 
au Mont-Bernard* 

13 December. Paris, Th. Feydeau 
Text by J. A. de Reve*roni Saint-Cyr. Two acts. 



515 



516 



1794 



ANNALS OF OPERA 



1795 



Like Lodoiska (see 1791), more successful in 
Germany than in France. 

In German (translated by C. A. Herklots), 
Berlin 10 October 1799; Vienna, W. 18 Decem- 
ber 1802; Budapest 16 September 1805, etc. 

In Spanish, Madrid 10 February 1803. 

In Russian, Moscow 1803; St. Petersburg 10 
October 18 14. 

Revived in an abridged German version (by 
E. Pasque* and F. Langer) as a prologue to Les deux 
Journies (see 1800), Mannheim 25 March 1903. 

leal moreira: A Vinganga da Cigana 
(The Gipsy's Vengeance) 
December. Lisbon, S.C. 
Text by "Lereno Secinuntino, Arcade Romano" 
(pseudonym of the Brazilian poet Domingos Cal- 
das Barbosa). One act. 

This drama jocoserio was the first opera which 
was sung in Portuguese at the new Theatro San 
Carlos, Lisbon (opened 30june 1793). Score pre- 
served. 

storace: The Cherokee 

20 December. London, D.L. 
Text by J. Cobb. Three acts. 

Given at Boston 24 June 1799. Revived Lon- 
don, D.L. 30 April 1802 as Algonah, with additio- 
nal music by M. Kelly (see his Reminiscences , Vol. 
n, p.79, where he erroneously gives 20 Novem- 
ber as the date of the first performance ; and Vol. 
11, p.188, where he simply says "The drama by 
Cobb, the music by myself", without even men- 
tioning the fact that Algonah was only a new ver- 
sion of his friend Storacc's The Cherokee. 

The opera was lately revived at Leeds 27 Octo- 
ber 1926 (score arranged by A. Tyrcr). 

cimarosa: Penelope 

26 December. Naples, Fondo 
Text by G. M. Diodati. Two acts. 

Successful in Italy; also given at Lisbon 30 Sep- 
tember 1804; Paris 8 May 1815 (according to the 
libretto; Castil-Blazc gives 31 December 1815); 



London 11 January 1817 (Giuditta Pasta's London 
debut); St. Petersburg 21 November 181 8. 

1795 

martin y soler: La Scolade 
Maritati 

27 January. London, Hm. 
Text by L. da Ponte. Two acts. 

Date of the first performance verified from the 
newspapers; Sonneck gives 17 May 1794 (the 
date of the London production of // Bttrbero di 
buon Cuore). According to most authorities since 
Fetis, this opera had been originally produced at 
St. Petersburg about 1788 under the title of Gli 
Sposi in Contrasto. In fact, there is no record of its 
ever having been given in Russia (see also R. A. 
Mooser in R.M.I., Vol. XL, 1936, p.441), and no 
reason to doubt Da Ponte's statement that he 
wrote the libretto in and for London within three 
weeks. 

Subsequently given, under the original title or 
as La Capricciosa corretta, at Venice, S. Moisc 5 
October 1795 ; Crema 26 December 1795 ; Genoa 
and Bologna Spring 1796; Florence, P. 7 May 
1796 (revived Spring 181 1); Milan, Sc. 7 June 
1796; Turin and Udine 1796; Palermo 1797; 
Padua Autumn 1797; Naples, T. Fondo 1798; 
Ancona 1798; Rome February 1800; Brescia 
Summer 1806, etc. 

In Italian also : 
Dresden 1796 (as La Capricciosa corretta). 
Vienna 1 1 October 1796 (as Gli Sposi in Contrasto). 
Madrid 16 April 1797 (as La Capricciosa corretta). 
Lisbon Summer 1797 (as La Capricciosa corretta). 
Prague 20 January 1802 (as La Capricciosa corretta). 
paris 2 June 1806 (as La Moglie corretta); revived 

25 March 1815. 
Amsterdam 1807 (as La Moglie corretta). 

Revived in London 26 January 1798 and 14 
July 1 801. 

In German (first?), Bautzen 28 Jan